Summative Assessment


Final Paper Outline and Annotated Bibliography

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SOC313: Social Implications of Medical Issues

Final Paper Outline and Annotated Bibliography

The medical professionals are able to provide treatment to various health challenges facing the patient’s thereby prolonging their life through complementary and alternative medical practices. The complementary care includes pain management and placing patient under life support machines which is a secondary form of treatment under some conditions as it does not treat the core causes of such condition. On the other hand, Palliative Care aims at managing the sick who may not get any better with an aim of allowing them to have a dignified death. In light of the above, the final paper will highlight on various issues pertaining palliative care and complementary medical treatment to the patient and other concerned parties. Ideally, end of life and palliative care is a better alternative to complementary medical treatment for the terminally ill patients.

The cost of complementary and alternative care that results from individuals suffering from chronic diseases is rising and contributes to financial burden facing individuals, family members and the state at large. The National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization (NHPCO’s) stated that over 68% of the total medical costs are related to people who have one or more chronic conditions with over 30% of such patients requiring to be placed under the vegetative medical state. The above facts provide evidence that people need to live to realities of using palliative care as opposed to the use complementary and Alternative medicines that tend to treat some conditions that may be obviously untreatable. The final paper will divulge into how such funds can be utilized for improving the general health conditions.

End of life provides patients with a dignified way to die. When the patient is under end life care state it will be possible for his loved ones to know about the patient wishes and preferences and take that into account when coming up with the total care plan for the patients. The process enables patients to make choices as to how the resources used in taking care of him/her can be utilized in supporting the family and those important to the patients. Ideally, there are people who is are placed under palliative care yet there are not able to make any life choices due to say irrevocable brain damage thereby not able to express any of their wishes.

The end of life approach to treatments faces a number of ethical issues to the family. Medical professionals, and the sick. There are ethical issues on the autonomy, decision making on whether to withheld or continue with the treatment among others that medical professions face. The final paper will explain why decisions that concern the sick should be made based on clinical Integrity, respect for the sick, justice and benefit to the person. For instance, individuals may take a decision to end his own life by asking the medical profession to withdraw the treatments. All the same, the decision has to be subjected to ethical considerations that take into account the concerns of those who surround him/her. At the same time, there are cultural and traditional issues that surround any type of care accorded to the patients. In summary, one has to consider the micro. Meso, and macro influences that affect the sick and diverse family members when making a decision on the type of care to accord a patient nearing death.

Annotated Bibliography

Wark, S. (2015). Aging, end-of-life care, and the National Disability Insurance Scheme: What can we learn from overseas? Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability40(1), 92-98.

The journal provides an analysis of the care that is accorded to the aged and those who require Palliative care irrespective of their age. The article will be vital through providing a collection and analysis of face to face interviews that was carried out on the sick and the medical professionals so as to get their views. The author comes with a model or criteria that can be used in making the decision on whether to place the sick under alternative or complementary care treatments.

Passerard, F. A., & Menaud, X. (2016). Accompanying the Demand for Social Change in End of Life Care: A Qualitative Study through the Lens of Physicians, Patients, and Relatives in France. AMA Marketing & Public Policy Academic Conference Proceedings26120-125.

(Passerard & Menaud, 2016) highlights on the decision-making process when it comes to palliative care. The journal will be important in showing the concepts of collective ethics and personal ethics. The journal focuses on Deontology and spirituality and why there is a need for one to act along his/her own line of conscience in making a decision on complementary and palliative care to patients. The research deals with individuals who have made such decisions such as insights from physicians who have assisted suicide or mercy killing for the terminally ill patients.

Lewis, J. M., DiGiacomo, M., Currow, D. C., & Davidson, P. M. (2011). Dying in the Margins: Understanding Palliative Care and Socioeconomic Deprivation in the Developed World. Journal of Pain & Symptom Management42(1), 105-118. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.10.265

The journal will be used to highlights how individuals make their health decision based on their social-economic conditions. Ideally, people from low socioeconomic groups have fewer resources to make their desired health decisions hence resulting in poor health outcomes. It is vital for the stakeholders to understand people’s economic status when it comes to providing appropriate end-of-life services for any particular group of people. There are times when the end of life is advocated for those with low economic status. Under such circumstances, the approach is placed on the pedestal of being an alternative to avoid costs as opposed to medical considerations for the sick. The journal provides a summary of existing dimensions on the current criteria used to make decisions on the type of care that is accorded to the patients. Factors considered include availability, affordability, dimensions of access to the health services, acceptability and geographical access of particular health care services that are offered to the patients.

Curcio, D. L. (2017). The Lived Experiences of Nurses Caring For Dying Pediatric Patients. Pediatric Nursing43(1), 8-14

Nurses take the greatest responsibility when it comes to caring of the patient’s an aspect that requires them to be emotionally strong. (Curcio, 2017) offers an analogy of the difficulties that nurses face in adjusting as well comprehending their experience when their life ends. The article provides an analysis of the various medical conditions that the sick face thereby justifying instances when it is better for one to die as opposed to being subjected to constant pain and at times staying under life support machines that do not help in solving the situation. The article goes further to show how such experiences have influences in making a decision with regard to patient care. The article will provide information on the essential themes of empathy, having feelings of ambivalence, inevitability, self –preservation, sorrow, and relationships that dictate the kind of decisions made on deciding the right care for patients.

Ho, R., & Chantagul, N. (2015). Support for Voluntary and Nonvoluntary Euthanasia: What Roles Do Conditions of Suffering and the Identity of the Terminally Ill Play?. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying70(3), 251-277.

The final paper will evaluate the circumstances under which complementary and palliative care need to be considered. Pain, debilitated nature of the patient, burden subjected to the family members are key factors considered in deciding whether the patients should be subjected to end of life treatment. The study provides findings on the level of voluntary as well as nonvoluntary euthanasia. The study is essential in showing how the above-mentioned conditions exert direct as well as indirect influences on the general support for either voluntary or nonvoluntary euthanasia as a medical treatments procedure.

Alspach, G. (2009, ). Handing Off Critically Ill Patients To Family Caregivers: What Are Your Best Practices?. Critical Care Nurse. pp. 12-22

(Alspach, 2009) the journal provides an analysis of the profiles of caregivers and family who have been handed terminally sick patients. The article sheds light on some of the inefficiencies of care offered by the family and close members that subject the patient to more pain as opposed to allowing those under palliative to have a dignified death. In addition, the journal explains on the number of a health condition that may require the use of family caregivers. Lastly, the journal explains on the emotional and physical impact experienced by those taking care of the terminally ill patients.

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