ENG125: Introduction to Literature List of Literary Techniques Technique Description Allusion A reference to a recognized literary work, person, historic event, artistic achievement, etc. that enhances the meaning of a detail in a literar y work. Climax The crisis or high point of tension that becomes the story’s turning point — the point at which the outcome of the conflict is determined. Conflict The struggle that shapes the plot in a story. Dramatic irony When the reader or audienc e knows more about the action than the character involved. Epiphany A profound and sudden personal discovery. Exposition Setting and essential background information presented at the beginning of a story or play. Falling action A reduction in inte nsity following the climax in a story or play, allowing the various complications to be worked out. Fate An outside source that determines human events. Figurative language Language used in a non -literal way to convey images and ideas. Figures of speec h The main tools of figurative language; include similes and metaphors.. First -person point of view Occurs when the narrator is a character in the story and tells the story from his or her perspective. Flashback The description of an event that occur red prior to the action in the story. Foreshadowing A technique a writer uses to hint or suggest what the outcome of an important conflict or situation in a narrative ENG125: Introduction to Literature will be. Imagery A distinct representation of something that can be experienced and understood through the senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste), or the representation of an idea. Irony A contradiction in words or actions. There are three types of irony: verbal, situational, and dramatic. Limited omniscient point of view Occurs when a narrator has access to the thoughts and feelings of only one character in a story. Metaphor A figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between one object and another that is different from it. Objective point of view A d etached point of view, evident when an external narrator does not enter into the mind of any character in a story but takes an objective stance, often to create a dramatic effect. Omniscient point of view An all -knowing point of view, evident when an ex ternal narrator has access to the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in a story. Persona Literally, in Latin, “a mask.” Plot A connecting element in fiction; a sequence of interrelated, conflicting actions and events that typically build to a climax and bring about a resolution Point of view The perspective of the narrator who will present the action to the reader. Resolution The outcome of the action in a story or play. Rising action Conflicts and circumstances that build to a high point of tension in a story or play. ENG125: Introduction to Literature Situational irony When the outcome in a situation is the opposite of what is expected. Simile A figure of speech that compares two objects or ideas that are not ordinarily considered to be similar, linked by using like or as . Song A lyrical musical expression, a source of emotional outlet common in ancient communities and still influential in contemporary culture. Symbol An object, person, or action that conveys two meanings: its literal meaning and something it stands f or. Third -person point of view Occurs when the narrator tells the story using third -person pronouns (he, she, they) to refer to the characters. Tone In a literary work, the speaker’s attitude toward the reader or the subject. Verbal irony When word s are used to convey a meaning that is opposite of their literal meaning.