Assignment OverviewDevelop the vision and mission statements for an organization. Measure these statements against the criteria for meaningful vision and mission statements, providing comprehensive support and justification. The Case must be completed before the SLP.First, read the following article:Klag, M., Giroux, H., & Langley, A. (2012). Strategic planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools. International Journal of Case Studies in Management (Online), 10(2), 1-20. Retrieved from ProQuest.Case AssignmentUsing the article above and the readings provided on the Background page of Module 1, write a 6- to 7-page paper in which you do the following:Using the criteria for development of quality, meaningful vision and mission statements, create the vision and mission statements for the Saint Francis de Sales Schools, providing comprehensive support for the statements you have developed.Keys to the AssignmentThe key aspects of this assignment that are to be covered in your paper include the following:State the criteria that you believe are essential to meaningful, quality vision and mission statements. Provide a minimum of five criteria for each of the two statements (vision and mission). Briefly justify each criterion (1-2 sentences for each).Using the criteria you have selected above, develop the vision and mission statements for the Saint Francis de Sales Schools.Next, using the criteria you have selected, justify the mission and vision statements you have developed.Give clear and convincing rationale for why – in light of events and circumstances discussed in the article – you believe that John Handover should adopt your version of the school’s vision and mission statements.Be sure to use a minimum of three library sources in support of your answers! USE THE BACKGROUND MATERIALPart 1: The Nature of Strategic Leadership (as distinct from Strategic Management)There is a very clear distinction between Strategic Management and Strategic Leadership, both in terms of scope and in terms of who is responsible. The Strategic Management process is concerned not only with establishing the purpose of the organization and with strategic choice (as is true of Strategic Leadership), but also with the management of a strategy or strategies. The management of organizational strategy is accomplished through a variety of implementation control systems, including policies and procedures, rules, budgets, and organizational structure. Note that in the Strategic Management process, both leadership and management have roles to play at various stages of the overall process. In contrast, the Strategic Leadership process is concerned solely with the scope of authority, responsibilities, and activities of an organization’s top leadership as they relate to strategy. In this context, therefore, we will concern ourselves with those activities that are specifically within the purview, authority, and responsibility of the organization’s top leadership.This is by no means to suggest that top leadership is not concerned with implementation and control systems that must be put in place in order to ensure the success of a chosen strategic direction. Top leadership is inherently interested in (and is quite highly concerned with) the proper implementation and monitoring of strategy. The focus of this course will be on those activities that primarily concern top leadership, to include the following: Establishing the organization’s purpose by means of vision, mission, and values statements made explicit; establishing the system of values within which everyone in the organization must operate; formulating an organizational culture that best fits strategic choice; and selecting a grand strategy (or set of strategies) that fit the organization best – and that should consequently be pursued over the longer term.Required ResourcesBegin by viewing the following video. Note that choosing the right strategy (a top leadership activity) and implementing that strategy (which is very clearly a management function) are both critical to strategic success. The organization must get both of these activities right: Implementing a bad – or ill-fitting – strategy makes no sense; nor does it make sense to choose the perfect strategy, only to execute that strategy poorly and have it fail:Blumentritt, T. (2015, April 24). Introduction to strategic management. Youtube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DB90xGiWHIAThe following short video is also a worthwhile introduction to the strategic planning/strategic management process (these terms are often used interchangeably). As you watch this short video, consider which activities/steps are management-oriented (e.g., setting of short-term goals, implementation), and contrast those that are the central responsibilities of leadership (setting the organizational vision, for example):Olsen, E. (2012, September 5). Overview of the strategic planning process. Virtual Strategist. Podcast retrieved on April 29, 2014, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sU3FLxnDv_APart 2: The Nature of Strategic Leadership and Strategic ThinkingWhile it may seem obvious, it should also be made explicit: The hallmark characteristic of great strategic leaders is that they are skilled strategic thinkers. Begin this section by reading the following article, in which the role of top leadership in the determination of strategy is discussed, and the concept of “Strategic Leadership” is defined and contextualized:Bass, B. M. (2007). Executive and strategic leadership. International Journal of Business, 12(1), 33-52. Retrieved from ProQuest on October 26, 2013.Reed, G. E. (2009). Chapter 4: Systems thinking and senior leadership. In M. R. Grandstaff & G. Sorenson (Eds.), Strategic leadership: The general’s art. [Books24x7 version] Available from http://library.books24x7.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/toc.aspx?bookid=29979McKeown, M. (2012). Strategic thinking: The difference between a leader and a manager. [Books24x7 version] Available from http://library.books24x7.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/toc.aspx?bookid=49479Part 3: Establishing the Organization’s Direction: Vision and MissionHaving defined Strategic Leadership and Strategic Thinking, turn to the first step that top leadership must play in strategy: defining the purpose of the organization. Top leadership does this through the vision and mission. The vision is futuristic, communicating what the organization aspires to become. In contrast to the vision statement, the mission statement conveys the present state of the organization. It explains the reasons that the organization exists, and makes explicit what the organization does (e.g., describing what it sells, defining its customers).The following journal article is an excellent discussion of the vision and mission:Cady, S. H., Wheeler, J. V., DeWolf, J., & Brodke, M. (2011). Mission, vision, and values: What do they say? Organization Development Journal, 29(1), 63-78. Retrieved from ProQuest.The Free Management Library is an excellent introductory resource for most business-related topics. Read the basics of developing meaningful vision and mission statements:McNamara, C. (2000). Basics of developing mission, vision, and values statements. Free Management Library. Retrieved on April 29, 2014, from http://managementhelp.org/strategicplanning/mission-vision-values.htmFinally, Williams’ article offers an excellent and quite thorough overview of mission statements, their scope, and suggested content:Williams, L. S. (2008). The mission statement: A corporate reporting tool with a past, present, and future. Journal of Business Communications, 45(2), 94-119. Retrieved from EBSCO.Optional ResourcesThe following Strategy and Leadership article serves as the foundation for this course. While the journal article is dated, its theoretical contribution for today’s organizations remains clear:Wilson, I. (1996). The 5 compasses of strategic leadership. Strategy and Leadership, 24(4), 26-31. Retrieved from ProQuest.The Ivey Business Journal Online, authored by Rowe and Nejad, is an excellent source of content related to leadership and strategy. The article defines what is meant by “Strategic Leadership,” as well as the central characteristics and qualities of strategic leaders:Rowe, G., & Nejad, M. H. (2009). Strategic leadership: Short-term stability and long-term viability. Ivey Business Journal Online. Retrieved on April 29, 2014, from http://iveybusinessjournal.com/topics/leadership/strategic-leadership-short-term- stability-and-long-term-viabilityChange is a constant. In this short video, Strategic Leadership is framed within the notion of discontinuity:Strategic Leadership: Embracing Change (2012, March 23). Cal Miramar University. Podcast retrieved on April 29, 2014, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aPIqJbLjNbMFor a current (21st century) perspective on strategic leadership, download this superb article, written by Hitt et al:Hitt, M. A., Haynes, K.T., & Serpa, R. (2010). Strategic leadership for the 21st century. Business Horizons, 53, 437-444. Retrieved on April 29, 2014, from: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1995786Finally, the following articles provide excellent overviews of Strategic Leadership theory and research in general. Crossan et al. discuss the means by which strategic leaders work within today’s dynamic and ever-changing environments. Note the authors’ emphasis on the changes that have occurred within organizations (change is not solely external to the organization), in addition to the authors’ position as to how transcendental leadership relates to the notion of strategic leadership:Boal, K. B., & Hoojiberg, R. (2000). Strategic leadership research: Moving on. Leadership Quarterly, 11(4), 515-549. Retrieved from Science Direct.Crossan, M., Vera, D., & Nanjad, L. Transcendent leadership: Strategic leadership in dynamic environments. Leadership Quarterly, 19 (5), 569-581. Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Case prepared by Malvina KLAG,1 and Professors Hélène GIROUX2 and Ann LANGLEY3 It was the first week of October, 2009, early in the new academic school year. John Handover, President of the Board of Trustees of Saint Francis de Sales Schools, a private Catholic school system in the district of Bristol, England, had just completed the first year of his two-year mandate. He reviewed the agenda for an upcoming Board meeting with his Vice-President, Keith Regan. Strategic planning did not appear anywhere on the agenda. For two years, the Board of Trustees had attempted to initiate important strategic decisions about its future direction in order to pave the way for the long-term success it so deserved. Yet multiple planning projects just did not seem to gain traction and had failed to stem the declining enrolment and the financial distress that the school system continued to face. Nonetheless, John strongly believed that the school system could not move forward without a plan. John turned to Keith and said, “Keith, strategic planning has got to be back on the agenda for this meeting.” Saint Francis de Sales Schools: The Organization Saint Francis de Sales Schools had been in existence for over a century. It had graduated a high number of students with accolades and boasted many world-renowned scientists, lawyers, professors, business people and politicians in its roster of alumni. It operated at two physical sites, called the Centre Site and the Urban Site, with a primary and secondary school at each site. The organizational structure of the school system appears in Appendix 1. For many years running, it had received the district’s #1 performance rating in secondary school academic performance at the Centre Site. In fact, whenever John mentioned his position at the school to individuals who had either graduated from Saint Francis de Sales Schools themselves or had children who had graduated decades earlier, the comment was always the same: “That school is incredible, I don’t know what its secret is, but the people who graduate are great people who go on to do great things….” The school system was largely funded by student tuition, district government grants and funding from the Bristol Catholic Community Funding Agency. It also received some project funding from private donors who were most often alumni of the school system. 1 Malvina Klag is a Post-doctoral Research Fellow at HEC Montréal. 2 Hélène Giroux is a Professor in the Department of Logistics and Operations Management at HEC Montréal. 3 Ann Langley is a Professor in the Department of Management at HEC Montréal.© HEC Montréal 2012 All rights reserved for all countries. Any translation or alteration in any form whatsoever is prohibited. The International Journal of Case Studies in Management is published on-line (www.hec.ca/revuedecas/en), ISSN 1911-2599. This case is intended to be used as the framework for an educational discussion and does not imply any judgement on the administrative situation presented. Deposited under number 9 40 2012 009 with the HEC Montréal Case Centre, 3000, chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montréal (Québec) Canada H3T 2A7. Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools The Bristol Catholic Community Funding Agency (BCCFA) BCCFA was the umbrella funding agency for the Catholic community in the district of Bristol. It had been in existence since 1921 and was entirely funded by private donations from corporations, charitable foundations and individuals. The agency fundraised over £30 million annually. It played a central role in supporting Catholic educational institutions, informal religious educational programs in camps and churches, and local social services such as food banks, job training and meals for the underprivileged in the community. Catholic education was considered to be the most important priority for BCCFA, as the agency saw formal education as a critical vehicle through which to promote the continuity of Catholic values and practices for the future. As such, the agency provided financial assistance to Catholic schools in the community and even orchestrated professional development programs for teachers in the Catholic schools. The BCCFA provided £464,000 of the approximate £7,200,000 of Saint Francis de Sales School’s annual budget. Most of the funds from BCCFA were used to allow the school system to offer financial assistance to over 20% of families whose children would not otherwise have been able to afford a private education. This funding was extremely important for the school system, as it received a fixed subsidy from the district for each student enrolled in the school. This subsidy contributed to the fixed overhead costs of running the school. Without that 20% of its student body, the school system would not be able to fully cover its fixed costs. A changing environment Saint Francis de Sales Schools began as a small community school of 20 students in 1890. At its peak in the late 1980s, almost 100 years later, it housed more than 1,100 students. It was the first private Catholic school in its district. Saint Francis de Sales Schools had overcome multiple financial crises over the years necessitating relocations and/or site closings. However, it always managed to survive as the local community and BCCFA rallied to provide financial support. As of the 2003-2004 academic school year, the school system had begun to encounter significant challenges affecting the overall health of the school system. In addition to increasing unionized teacher salaries, the district government had imposed curriculum reforms for all schools, necessitating dramatic changes in the way teachers prepared and taught their curriculums. A high rate of turnover in teaching staff and two changeovers in the secondary school principal for the Centre Site further contributed to the growing difficulties. The situation was exacerbated by significant enrolment declines that seemed to be linked not only to the staff volatility, but also to larger social trends: evolving family needs and decision-making patterns that were drawing more parents to other private schools; increasing integration of technology into schools across the United Kingdom that Saint Francis de Sales Schools was slow to embrace; and demographic trends, as explained below. Evolving parent needs with respect to choice of schools Over the years, one other Catholic school system had emerged that, while including Catholic studies in its curriculum, focused less on religious studies than did Saint Francis de Sales Schools, and more on secular studies. St. Francis de Sales tended to attract the more observant © HEC Montréal 2 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools families who also wanted a high level of academic excellence. The other school tended to attract families who wanted their children in a Catholic environment, but with a lower level of religious study and more well-rounded curricular and extra-curricular programs. Over the years, the other Catholic school system had grown substantially and, as of 2009, housed more students than did St. Francis de Sales. Whereas St. Francis de Sales Schools had once been revered for the high calibre of its academic programming, one-on-one interviews in 2007 by parent volunteers of the school with Catholic families making decisions about secondary schools in particular showed an increasing number of families looking for schools that would produce well-rounded graduates. Parents were in search of schools that could provide a multitude of extra-curricular activities, modern facilities and state of-the art technology. These were all areas in which Saint Francis de Sales Schools could not effectively compete with multiple other, albeit more expensive, private schools in the community. Also, fewer parents relative to the past seemed to be interested in a high level of religious instruction. Furthermore, whereas Saint Francis de Sales Schools, as a relatively small school, had always attracted parents looking for a home-like nurturing environment, the families interviewed seemed instead to be more concerned with having a large enough pool of students from which their children could form friendships. Finally, particularly for families who could afford to send their children to private schools, parents indicated that their children were having a significant influence on the choice of school, and that their children were drawn to the attractive physical facilities made available by other private schools in the area and by the other Catholic school system in the area that had received a large endowment from a private donor years earlier to fund completely new facilities. Saint Francis de Sales Schools, due to funding constraints, had not been able to extensively renovate in over 25 years. Changing approaches to technology Around the developed world, schools were increasingly integrating technology into the curriculum. Some schools, at the extreme end of the technological revolution, used smart board technology in every classroom1 and provided laptop computers for every student at the secondary school level. Saint Francis de Sales Schools had begun to make small inroads technologically. However, barriers to full technological integration were significant. First, the costs to do so were substantial. Second, many teachers had been with the institution for 30 years and were technologically illiterate, with little inclination to integrate technology into their teaching. Teachers’ unions ensured that teachers could not be terminated after five years with the institution so that the perceived pressure to evolve to a new way of teaching was negligible. Demographic trends The school took great pride in providing financial assistance for many of its students. However, the changing face of the parent body in the area, including a significantly higher number of 1 Smart boards were replacing traditional blackboards. Smart boards are white boards onto which computer images and handwritten notes are projected via an automated projector. Smarts boards are purported to allow for more interactive and dynamic teaching in the classroom.© HEC Montréal 3 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools immigrants, resulted in an increasing number of parents unable to afford private schooling, even with partial tuition subsidies. Many of these families were turning to free public schools in the district. Furthermore, the number of young families in the geographic area of the Urban Site had been declining for the prior 10 years as younger families seemed to be moving to rural areas that offered more affordable housing. The 2007 Decision to Merge the Two Sites By October 2007, there were 687 students registered in the entire school system, compared to 802 in the prior academic school year (see Appendix 2 for enrolment trends). The two primary school sites were housing 218 students combined, operating at less than 50% of capacity. The Executive Committee engaged in several rounds of financial modeling to study various scenarios that would salvage the school, and finally voted to merge the two primary schools. At a meeting of the Board of Trustees in November, 2007, the President, Rolston Chamberland, presented a review of the expected financial statements for that academic school year should the school continue to operate at the status quo (Appendix 3). He stated: “Enrolment at Saint Francis de Sales Schools has been declining for some time. The key challenge is our primary schools, both of which are currently running well under capacity, and […] have had declining enrolment for quite some time.” Rolston, speaking on behalf of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees, then formally presented a proposal to merge the two primary school sites: In merging the two primary schools, we will realize improved cost savings on our administrative structure and services, such as salaries, programming, curriculum and technology enhancements as well as basics such as supplies, maintenance, cleaning and heating. The financial analyses and demographic studies we have been conducting for the past year and a half support this move for long term growth and viability. Rolston added that several other strategic initiatives would be undertaken simultaneously to strengthen and renew the school system. First, he noted that the school had hired an expert change consultant, “to help find solutions and to help prepare a strategic plan to keep the schools viable.” This change consultant had been jointly funded by Saint Francis de Sales Schools and the BCCFA, which had a vested interest in ensuring the long-term success of the school. Second, a new task force would be set up to review the possibility of opening an additional site in an area where the demographics could justify the presence of a Catholic school for the long term. Third, the school would immediately begin developing a plan for new and improved academic and extra-curricular programming. Fourth and finally, he announced that an ad hoc New Building Committee had been appointed to design a new building on the grounds of the nearby Catholic Community Centre that would potentially be used for the secondary school near the merged Centre Site. This committee was to be chaired by Michael Murphy, an architect who was also a member of the Board of Trustees and had two children in the school system. Rolston added that a small group of donors who preferred to remain anonymous were considering donating substantial funds to the new building project and that the committee had already begun discussions with the Catholic Community Centre.© HEC Montréal 4 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Heated discussion ensued during the Board meeting after Rolston put forth this proposal, with one member, a parent who would be directly affected by the closing, stating, “You and the Executive Committee are ramming this down our throats! We have never even participated in any discussions about this and you are asking for an immediate vote??! What is going on?!” Rolston insisted that there was no choice if the school was to be salvaged. A motion was put forth and passed to move forward with the merger. Of the 34 members present, 20 voted for the merger, though some did so grudgingly, 10 voted against it and four members abstained. Four members of the Board of Trustees walked out of the meeting immediately after the vote. Rolston issued an email letter to the parent body that evening announcing the merger. Parents at the Urban Site Primary School were shocked. As one parent exclaimed, “The transparency in the process by which this decision was made was disastrous, absolutely disastrous. This is the first time we are even hearing about financial problems. We were never consulted, not even once!” Rolston received dozens of letters and a petition signed by 100 parents insisting that the decision be reversed. The Executive Committee met to discuss required actions based on the outcry and decided to hold an open Town Hall meeting the next evening. At that meeting, several parents came forward, some of whom had graduated from that very same school some 30 years before. They explained, with great anger and sadness, the significant impact that closing the school would have on their families. Members of the larger community, from local churches and other Catholic institutions remarked that closing the school would force them to close eventually as well and that this move would literally “kill the local Catholic community.” The day after the Town Hall meeting, several parents, also large donors to BCCFA, contacted BCCFA and threatened to discontinue their donations if BCCFA did not intervene to help keep the school open. In addition, a small group of parents of that campus quickly mobilized to collect £100,000 that would be given to Saint Francis de Sales Schools only if the Board of Trustees agreed to keep the primary school at the Urban Site open. They even set up their own student recruitment committee to directly assist in increasing enrolment. The members of the Board of Trustees were shocked, not having realized how quickly and effectively the parent body could mobilize to block their decision. The Reversal of the Merger Decision After the Town Hall meeting and the immediate fundraising and recruiting efforts of the parent body, the members of the school system’s Executive Committee felt compelled to meet with BCCFA to see if additional funding support could be secured to keep the site open. However, many Executive Committee members, including Rolston, still felt that the merger was a necessary step on the road to financial health. After multiple meetings between the Board of Trustees and concerned parents, several meetings of the smaller Executive Committee, and approval and financial support from BCCFA, the closure decision was officially revoked by Rolston in March 2008, via a letter to the Board of Trustees: On behalf of the entire Executive, we would like to, once again, thank everyone who has been working tirelessly to ensure the health of our school system. The energy and efforts of our parent body over the past five months has been extraordinary. Thanks to your fundraising and recruitment © HEC Montréal 5 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools efforts, we are pleased to announce that the recommendation for both schools to remain open has been approved! A joint task force comprised of members of Saint Francis de Sales Schools’ Board of Trustees and members of BCCFA was formed in order to monitor the school’s ongoing financial health and to ensure that steps were being taken by the school to improve its financial position. In return for increased financial support to the school, BCCFA mandated the school to commit to specific annual enrolment and fundraising targets. BCCFA also insisted on having two of its representatives attend all of the school system’s Board of Trustee meetings from that point on. In the meantime, some of the strategic initiatives presented at the November 2007 meeting were launched, including the hiring of the external change consultant. A steering committee for this project was formed by BCCFA that same month, with representation from two members of Saint Francis de Sales Schools’ Board of Trustees, its Headmistress Mrs. Deirdre Frye, and two staff members from BCCFA. Report from the External Change Consultant In March 2008, a preliminary report was submitted by the external change consultant, first to the project steering committee for review and approval, and then to the Board of Trustees of Saint Francis de Sales Schools and BCCFA, with the final report submitted in the summer of 2008. The report called for a dramatic organizational overhaul with respect to overall governance, professional leadership and organizational structure. The report also called for the hiring of a Director of Recruitment to increase enrolment and a Fundraising Director, as well as “bold and visionary leadership at the top in order to generate real energy and excitement about the future of Saint Francis de Sales Schools.” Finally, the report called for a strategic planning process, as noted in the following excerpt: The Board should undertake a strategic planning process with an outside facilitator. Identifying specific goals and priorities as well as developing benchmarks for the school’s progress in achieving those goals over the next five years is an important process for the Board. Soon after the preliminary report was presented, Deirdre, with the blessing of the Executive Committee, took steps to address some of the actions called for in the report, including the hiring of a Recruitment Officer, Mr. Patrick Shannon, and a Fundraising Director, Mr. Alex Worther. John Takes Over as President It was around the time that the external consultant submitted his final report in the summer of 2008 that Rolston’s presidential term expired and John, already a member of the Board of Trustees and the Executive Committee for five years prior to this point, was nominated for, and accepted to become, President of the Board of Trustees. The nominating process had been tumultuous. For the first time ever in the history of the school, the slate of directors proposed to the parent body by the nominating committee was immediately rebuked. A group of concerned parents, having lost trust in Rolston and several members of the Executive Committee after the merger debacle, came forth with an alternative slate. John was nominated as President on both © HEC Montréal 6 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools slates. However, the Executive and Board of Trustee members were different on the two slates. The nominating committee called the parents who had organized this alternative slate and suggested negotiating a compromise slate. Finally, at the annual meeting, at which a record number of parents were present, a vote was taken and the compromise slate was approved. John had a difficult decision to make. He knew that he would be coming into a situation in which there would be divisiveness. He knew that those board members directly affected by the merger incident were still angry and lacked trust in some of the Board and Executive Committee members. He knew that the school system had reached a crossroad at which major decisions would have to be taken. Yet, having attended the school himself, having four children at the school, being committed to its future, and knowing that no other individual was willing to step into the position, he felt a moral obligation to accept a two-year term. John’s First Two Months: Operational Upheaval The challenges faced by the school seemed so daunting and complex. The staff was overwhelmed with urgent day-to-day issues and periodic short-term planning for the academic year. Overall staff morale was low due to multiple pressures: financial constraints affecting their ability to purchase teaching materials and to participate in professional development programs, ongoing enrolment issues that they knew put the school system at risk and the additional workload accompanying the government-imposed curriculum reform that they had to absorb given the lack of funding for additional staff. The collective agreement for the teachers’ union was up for renewal and there was uncertainty with respect to pending union demands for wages and working conditions. In addition to having to grapple with an uncertain future, the members of the Board of Trustees were divided with respect to their own priorities and required roles at that point. Some members insisted that the Board of Trustees should focus on fundraising and on donating their own funds in order to help turn around the financial situation. Others felt that the Board of Trustees absolutely had to focus on developing a strategic direction for the future. All members agreed that change was required in some form. Meanwhile, as President of the Board of Trustees, John quickly became frustrated at having to be deeply involved in the school system’s day-to-day operations. After all, he had a full-time job and this position was a volunteer position! Furthermore, he had no training as an educator. He simply wanted to help the school that he had come to love, having graduated from the school himself and having put all his children through the same school. John’s Growing Conviction of the Need for a Comprehensive Planning Effort Historically, it seemed as if the board had always played a hands-on role in day-to-day operations and overall decision making. The day-to-day emergencies required attention in order to allow the school to “live another day.” However, what seemed to be a perpetual cycle of financial crisis could not, in John’s view, be broken without a proper plan and vision for the future. Moreover, making decisions related to the everyday urgent issues was becoming increasingly difficult without knowing the overall direction of the school for the medium and long term. As only one example, the other private Catholic school in the community had recently decided to slash its © HEC Montréal 7 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools tuition for kindergarten, using kindergarten entry as a “loss leader.” This would potentially affect enrolment at Saint Francis de Sales Schools at a time when enrolment was already a significant issue and the financial situation was tenuous. On the other hand, entering into a price war could have serious ramifications. How much could the school afford? How far should the school go to ensure enrolment is sustained? How could the school make a decision around this issue without some serious deliberations about its optimal “target market,” number of students and overall fee structure? Without strategic grounding, the same issues seemed to get “rehashed” over and over again by the Board and staff, often with much disagreement about the direction to take and, ultimately, without definitive decisions being taken. Moreover, the accreditation body of the U.K. Education Ministry included a strategic plan as part of the necessary elements for the accreditation that was now being mandated by BCCFA. Finally, Alex had approached John repeatedly asking for a strategic plan on which he could base a fundraising plan for the school. John decided that one of his key priorities would necessarily be to ensure that the school system underwent a strategic planning process. The notion of strategic planning had been raised many times in different meetings with respect to the new building project, the potential closure of the school, the need to improve the financial situation, the need for a fundraising plan which Alex felt had to be based on an overall strategic plan and the external consultant’s report as noted. During one Executive Committee meeting on July 2, 2008, there were multiple references to strategic issues. John had asked, as per the meeting minutes, “How can we enter into a new building project without being clear on strategy?” Michael, as chair of the New Building Committee, insisted on the need for a strategic planning work group, “We cannot move forward on designing a new building without knowing what the overall vision, goals and strategies of the school system are. The building must be designed to meet certain strategic parameters that have not been identified!” Another member noted, “We really need a strategic plan and funding commitments in order to go out publicly with our new building plans.” Yet another member added, “What is needed is the buzz and excitement that comes from committing to a vision and direction.” One of the professional senior management team members attending the meeting, the Head of the Secondary School, asked whether or not “strategically the school wishes to grow in numbers.” After that July 2 meeting, John reflected on the numerous questions and comments about strategy, as well as the remarks in the report from the change consultant calling for a strategic plan. The school system, as far back as he could remember, had never undergone the proper strategic planning process it deserved. The need for this was now unquestionable. The process would necessarily have to be consultative in order to avoid the disaster of the merger decision that was ultimately revoked earlier in the year. John asked a member of the Executive Committee, Ferdinand Smythe, to co-chair an ad hoc Strategic Planning Committee. Ferdinand accepted the mandate and, together, John and Ferdinand asked Emily Burns to be the second co-chair, in response to the change consultant’s recommendation for an outside facilitator. Emily, while not directly involved with the school at the time, had a significant interest in, and many years of experience volunteering for, the local Catholic community.© HEC Montréal 8 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Developing a Strategic Orientation Grid The two co-chairs, Ferdinand and Emily, met to develop a framework for the strategic planning process. They decided that the end product of the process was to be a grid that would identify all the key areas to be addressed, along with preliminary information on how, when and by whom each area would be addressed. This grid, according to Ferdinand, had been successfully used at another local school as a tool to guide strategic planning process participants toward a concrete end product. The process from that point through to the projected end point, a completed grid, ran smoothly. The co-chairs officially began the process on August 14, 2008, by chairing a structured workshop attended by Deirdre, her direct reports, all Executive Committee members and two BCCFA members. The purpose of the workshop was to identify the key strategic areas to be addressed by the school system over the following three to five years. The participants were divided into small groups of four people each. Each person at the workshop was first asked to individually note the three most important short- and medium-term issues they felt had to be addressed. Then, each group of four came to a consensus on these issues. The group next convened as a whole to develop a full list of strategic areas identified by all groups. The four categories of priorities identified by the group were, as per the minutes of that meeting: 1) Mission statement; 2) Funding development / Stability building; 3) Human resources – staff and volunteers – empower them, show appreciation for them so that they will be school ambassadors; 4) Physical resources and facilities – allow the school to operate at acceptable standards. The group also began to discuss preliminary goals, actions, tasks and responsibilities and timelines, where possible, for each strategic area. This was accomplished with the use of flip charts. One Executive Committee member, Reginald Corsick, stated that it would be important to examine strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) before developing a plan. Reginald also sat on the New Building Committee and was the driving force behind the new building negotiations with the Catholic Community Centre. Reginald had been the lead person in the solicitations to, and ongoing communications with, the donor group for the potential new building. After discussing a preliminary set of goals, actions, tasks, responsibilities and timelines by area, Ferdinand and Emily summarized the next steps as follows, “We will synthesize our priorities, compile them, put them on the grid and show responsibilities, required actions, et cetera. This will then be brought back to this group at the next Executive meeting.” Emily thanked everyone for their diligent work and time – and especially for the mutual respect exhibited by all groups during the discussions. After the workshop, Ferdinand and Emily met, synthesized the information from the flip charts and formulated four overriding goals for the school system that they felt had emerged from the workshop. These were: 1. Achieve financial stability; 2. Develop a vision and mission statement for the school; 3. Become an attractive schooling option for families who value Catholic education;© HEC Montréal 9 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools 4. Deliver state-of-the-art academic excellence. They developed the first draft of the strategic orientation grid, and sent it, along with the four goals, to the workshop participants for review. After comments were received and incorporated, Ferdinand and Emily took the preliminary grid, still with many blank spaces with respect to specific budgets, timing and responsibilities, to a Board of Trustees meeting in October 2008. Emily presented the grid, and then opened the floor for discussion. There were few questions or comments. She asked the members to review the goals and the grid in detail after the meeting and to forward any feedback prior to the next meeting that would take place in December. At that October meeting, the Board decided to move forward on another ad hoc committee to revisit the school system’s mission statement, as the mission had been identified as a key strategic area in the preliminary grid. The development of a vision and a mission statement had also been identified as one of the four overriding goals. This committee would be chaired by the recently hired Fundraising Director, Alex Worther. Ferdinand volunteered to sit on that committee. Alex asked two senior staff members to join the committee, as well as an external member who was a generous donor and long-standing, staunch supporter of the school system. By November 2008, Ferdinand and Emily had received little feedback on the grid from the members of the Board of Trustees. One member suggested, during an informal conversation with both Ferdinand and Emily, that the Board of Trustees would have been more engaged in the process if it had had more of an active role in developing the strategic areas, as opposed to only reviewing what had already been developed at the workshop. John, Ferdinand and Emily decided to set up a special Board meeting on November 24, 2008, to engage the Board members in an open discussion on strategic areas. At that meeting, Ferdinand and Emily brought the overriding goals to the Board for their comments and solicited feedback from each member on the key strategic areas to be addressed, as well as the next steps moving forward for each one. At the end of the session, Ferdinand thanked the members for their input and remarked that the session had been productive. After that meeting, Ferdinand and Emily revised the grid based on feedback and re-issued it to the Board of Trustees for comments. Hope is Lost for a New Building with the Catholic Community Centre On November 28, 2008, during this period of development of the strategic orientation grid, the negotiations for a new building on the grounds of the Catholic Community Centre collapsed, as Saint Francis de Sales Schools and the Catholic Community Centre were unable to agree on the financial terms of the agreement. There were no other options for alternate sites for a new building. Though the Board of Trustees and Executive Committee were in agreement with the termination, this development was a blow to many of the members who had begun to really see a brighter future at a new site. The New Building Committee decided to forge ahead to find an alternative site.© HEC Montréal 10 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Progress on the Development of a Mission Statement and Strategic Orientation Grid At the next meeting of the Board of Trustees in December 2008, Alex returned to the Board of Trustees with a proposed mission statement. With slight suggested changes from two members, a motion to approve the new mission statement was passed with unanimous support. The mission statement was as follows: Our mission is to foster academic achievement by creating a nurturing environment and promoting excellence in all aspects of life. We embrace the diverse Catholic community of modern Bristol and encourage students to reach out to their fellow brothers and sisters, in the true Christian spirit. Ferdinand noted that “the new mission statement will guide us for the Strategic Plan.” He further noted that the task force had yet to develop a fully articulated vision for the school system. At that same meeting, Ferdinand and Emily asked that final comments on the revised strategic plan grid be submitted to them before the next Board meeting in January 2009, at which the final grid would be tabled for Board approval. At that meeting, John thanked both Ferdinand and Emily “for the outstanding work” on the strategic plan. One member of the Board of Trustees noted, as per the meeting minutes, “that a lot of what is in the Strategic Plan has been implemented and worked on. We are making progress.” At the January 2009 Board meeting, before voting on the final strategic plan grid, Ferdinand reminded everyone that “adopting the strategic plan means that we are all taking responsibility to make it happen.” A motion to approve the strategic plan grid was passed, with no objections and one abstention by Rolston, who proposed that there was a need to focus on fundraising as opposed to strategic planning. The completed grid appears in Appendix 4. Reduced Momentum: Taking Stock of Strategic Planning Accomplishments and Required Next Steps The two co-chairs, Ferdinand and Emily, had set out to develop a strategic planning grid and, by all accounts, had succeeded in that mission. Several members of the Board of Trustees referred to this grid as the strategic plan for the school system. Sub-committees were formed to address some of the specific strategic areas of the grid. Ferdinand and Emily saw this grid as the end of the strategic planning process for which they had been engaged by John. They further assumed that this grid would, from that point on, drive priorities for the school system. Ferdinand recommended that the grid be used as a benchmark with which to focus Executive Committee and Board of Trustee meetings and monitor progress on the areas defined.© HEC Montréal 11 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools However, it quickly became apparent to both Ferdinand and Emily that the strategic plan, as an area of focus, had become buried amidst ongoing operational crises and urgent needs for short term decisions to ensure that enrolment targets could be met for the following academic school year. In fact, the strategic plan did not appear on the agenda of any subsequent Executive or Board of Trustee meetings for the following eight months, though particular initiatives such as the new building deliberations continued to be discussed at these meetings. Ferdinand and Emily had assumed that once the overall strategic orientations were ratified by the Board of Trustees, Deirdre, in her role as Headmistress, would next undertake to operationalize a plan based on these orientations. In February 2009, Ferdinand and Emily met with John on this issue. Ferdinand remarked, “Wouldn’t it be logical for the senior management to now take the lead as the plan becomes operationalized? Emily and I, as well as the members of the Board of Trustees, are just volunteers! We are not sufficiently skilled to delve into the details of how to run an educational institution. It is also critically important that the staff begin to take ownership of this plan that they ultimately will have the responsibility to execute.” John agreed and asked Deirdre to take the lead on an operational plan during one of their weekly status report meetings. Deirdre seemed uncomfortable, “I have never had to do anything like this before and it really does not fall within my job description.” In fact, Deirdre, in her role as Headmistress of the school system over the prior eight years, had been tasked mainly with administrative duties related to physical plant, unions, school calendar, hiring and management of administrative and teaching staff, and curriculum, as well as with maintaining relationships with representatives of the District of Bristol. Furthermore, the Board of Trustees had always been highly involved in any important decisions that would affect the future of the school. Given Deirdre’s lack of experience in strategic planning, John offered her coaching from an outside strategic planning expert who had worked in a school environment, to which Deirdre agreed. This coaching took place in March 2009. Ferdinand, Emily and John then met with Deirdre and advised her to set up an ad hoc task force to develop the operational plan. They suggested that the membership be comprised of senior management and a few members of the Board of Trustees who had experience in strategic planning. Ferdinand offered to be a part of this task force as did John. Ferdinand provided Deirdre with a proposed plan format he had used for an operational plan of another non-profit organization for which he had served in the past. The format would specify, for each identified strategic area, the goals, strategies, beginning dates and completion dates. He also suggested that annual financial projections over a three-year period should accompany the plan. Strategic Questions Resurface By April 2009, Deirdre had not yet convened the Plan Operationalization Task Force to a meeting. At an Executive Committee meeting that month, strategic questions began to resurface once again related to the potential new building, as per the meeting minutes: Michael Murphy stated that the committee had met several times. They had looked for a venue to replace the Catholic Community Centre site. At this time, there is no such site. They had begun to look at renovating the existing building. This site offered a central location, proximity to the Catholic Community Centre, and close proximity to public transit. He added that several strategic questions had to be answered in the context of an overall plan in order to move forward:© HEC Montréal 12 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools – Who is this school for? – Who does it serve? – Would it serve both the primary and secondary school or would they consider two separate buildings for these? – What are the strategic goals of the school? – What are the required timelines and allotted budget? Once he would have answers to these questions, the committee would be able to assess the suitability of the current building or of alternative sites. He also noted that before any of these questions could be answered, an overall vision for the school was required. At that same meeting, as per the meeting minutes, John brought forward an urgent issue related to the ongoing cash flow: Over the last few weeks, the bank has become very tight with respect to our capacity to stay below the maximum allowable limit on our credit line. The bank is very nervous. Most recent cash flow shows that we have gone over our credit line and will continue to do so in the near future. This is a critical two weeks period before the next payroll goes through. The bank has told us that they are not happy with the situation and want to know what we are going to do about it. They want to reduce our credit line effective immediately. There is a meeting on Monday with the bank in which they expect us to present a plan. There is a group that is willing to help with cash flow problem in form of interest free loan with condition that it gets repaid within 12 months. One of the members of BCCFA who attended that meeting noted, as per the minutes: The short-term cash flow situation must be solved immediately. However, the longer-term strategic and financial plans must be attended to as well. During this period, although the decision to merge the two sites had been reversed, fewer parents were enrolling their children at the kindergarten level of the Urban primary school site as they had lost confidence in the longer term future of the school at that site. From Strategic Orientation Grid to Plan Operationalization – Gridlock On May 1, 2009, the newly constituted Plan Operationalization Task Force, chaired by Deirdre, met for the first time. The members of the task force included the Head of the Secondary School, the Urban Site Primary School Principal, Ferdinand, Michael and Reginald. Deirdre handed out an agenda for the meeting and began the meeting by asking, “Ferdinand, given your extensive experience bringing us to this point, may I please ask you to chair this meeting?” Ferdinand deferred to Deirdre, noting that it was critically important for the professional staff to lead the process at that particular point. Deirdre proceeded to present the latest enrolment statistics as well as some demographic projections for the Catholic community for the following five years. The discussion quickly reverted to the question of whether to merge the two sites. By the end of the meeting, two hours later, there had been much discussion about the sites with no closure on the issue. Reginald suggested, as he had in the preliminary workshop for the development of the strategic orientation grid, that an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats was needed (SWOT). The committee agreed that the Head of the © HEC Montréal 13 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Secondary School and the Urban Site Primary School Principal would prepare a draft SWOT chart for the next meeting as a discussion document. They did so and circulated the preliminary SWOT analysis to the committee members via email (Appendix 5). The process then evolved intermittently, with multiple meeting cancellations and without visible progress on an operational planning document. The committee never got to discuss the SWOT chart. At the next meeting on May 15, 2008, Deirdre and John were not present, as Deirdre had been asked by John to meet with him on an urgent financial issue instead. At this meeting, once again, the discussion often reverted to the sites, in terms of which one(s) should remain open and which students should be housed where. This issue remained unresolved. John was unable to attend many of the subsequent meetings, as his time was taken up by day-to-day issues. Between meetings, Ferdinand and Reginald expressed frustration at the lack of progress both to each other and to all committee members via email. Michael reiterated the need to have strategic questions answered in order to move the new building project forward. In the summer of 2009, Deirdre announced at a task force meeting that she did not have the time or resources to complete financial scenarios and analysis for the operationalization of the strategic plan and that the task force deliberations would have to be delayed in the face of the financial crisis faced by the school. Enrolment and fundraising targets that had been put in place by the BCCFA were not being met. That summer, Alex resigned as Fundraising Director, stating that he felt unable to fulfill his mandate. In September 2009, as per the minutes of the meeting of the Board of Trustees, Deirdre provided an update to the members on the plan operationalization process: As administrators we continue to be concerned with the numbers in our four schools. Our administrator’s team has been brainstorming possible scenarios to ensure the financial viability of our schools. Since we were very much involved with our school opening we put this issue on hold until we can give it our full attention. John reflected on all the important decisions to be made and all the significant events that had transpired over the prior two years. The timeline for some of the key events, strategic initiatives and strategic planning processes between 2007 and 2009 appears in Appendix 6. No Board members had responded to the above comments made by Deirdre a month earlier at the Board of Trustees meeting. There had been no formal approval to halt the planning process at that meeting. However, no one argued the point either. The members just continued onto another discussion on enrolment for the current year. The school was in crisis without any solid way out. There were enrolment and financial targets that BCCFA had set in order for it to continue providing financial support. The private interest-free loan provided to the school system had to be repaid within six months. It seemed to him that strategic planning had to be back on the agenda for the upcoming Board of Trustees meeting and that he should find a way to move it forward quickly. 2012-04-16© HEC Montréal 14 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Appendix 1 Saint Francis de Sales Schools Organizational Chart Note: Shaded boxes signify committees chaired by volunteers and non-shaded boxes signify paid professional staff. Board of Trustees (25 members) Executive Committee Home and School Committee Headmistress Evaluation and Hiring Committee Finance Headmistress: Deirdre Frye Hea Nominating Committee Fundraising Committee Head of Secondary School (both sites) Head of Primary School (both sites) Director of Finance Director of Fundraising Executive Assistant Marketing and Public Relations Coordinator Secondary School Principals (2) Notes: Academic department heads Administrative Support Team Primary School Principals (2) Academic department heads Administrative Support Team1. The Board of Trustees was constituted by parents from both campuses and two past presidents, both of whom were former parents at the school. 2. The above committees reporting to the Board of Trustees were standing committees. Each of these committees, though chaired by volunteers, included at least one professional staff member. Ad hoc or short-term committees and task forces such as the New Building Committee, the Strategic Planning Committee or the Mission/Vision Committee, all of which are discussed in the case, are not included in the above chart. 3. The Executive Committee was a small committee made up of the President, Vice-President, Immediate Past President, Secretary and Treasurer of the Board of Trustees. This committee was delegated by the Board of Trustees to make recommendations as necessary on strategic issues affecting the organization. The kinds of issues addressed by the committee included but were not limited to strategies around fundraising, governance, strategic planning and financial assistance for families in the school or entering the school. 4. The Home and School Committee served as a liaison between parents and administrators and organized events to raise funds for its own projects to support social activities for parents and school equipment. © HEC Montréal 15 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Appendix 2 Saint Francis de Sales Schools Enrolment Trends Between the 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 Academic School Years Campus 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-20081 2008-2009Centre Site Primary School 132 127 140 132 138 110 113Urban Site Primary School 212 191 191 164 141 108 108Centre Site Secondary School 286 290 292 254 296 258 244Urban Site Secondary School 230 236 220 225 227 211 204Total 860 844 843 775 802 687 669Notes: The primary school housed students from ages 5-11. The secondary school housed students from ages 11-16. Approximately 50% of primary school students for both sites combined continued on in the Saint Francis de Sales Secondary School. The other 50% left the school system after primary school, moving either to public schools (thinking that a Catholic education was less important at the secondary level) or to the other Catholic school in the area. 1 Note that in that school year, over 90 students who had been in the school system left mid-way. A survey of these parents showed that over 60% of these students, according to their parents, left for financial reasons. In addition, the entry-level class at the primary level (i.e., kindergarten) at the Urban Site saw a dramatically reduced number of registrants in that year, with only 10 children.© HEC Montréal 16 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Appendix 3 Saint Francis de Sales Schools Projected Financial Statements 2009-2010 Academic School Year Presented by Rolston to the Board of Trustees, September 2009 Urban site Center site Urban site Center site Total Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Income Net Tuition (after subsidies) £3 777 671 £463 041 £596 054 £1 381 121 £1 337 455 Additional school fees £204 973 £61 509 £22 533 £45 415 £75 516 Government grants £2 456 266 £328 761 £330 223 £841 741 £955 541 Donations from parents £182 699 £43 500 £44 370 £43 717 £51 112 Event Donations £73 949 £11 758 £11 832 £23 664 £26 695 Grants from LCCFA £464 406 £103 530 £30 450 £106 314 £224 112 TOTAL £7 159 964 £1 012 099 £1 035 462 £2 441 972 £2 670 431 Expenses Salaries £6 432 511 £1 107 417 £1 140 348 £1 866 046 £2 318 700 Office expenses £624 533 £100 137 £102 036 £198 912 £223 448 Physical plant maintenance £455 008 £65 787 £82 928 £131 926 £174 367 Security £43 500 £8 700 £8 700 £13 050 £13 050 Other £112 230 £20 880 £20 880 £31 320 £39 150 TOTAL £7 667 782 £1 302 921 £1 354 892 £2 241 254 £2 768 715 Projected Net income/deficit -£507 818 -£290 822 -£319 430 £200 718 -£98 284 Enrollment Assumption: 669 students in total© HEC Montréal 17 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Appendix 4 Saint Francis de Sales Schools Strategic Orientation GridStrategic Area Goals Action Plan Next Steps Resources Budget TimelineMission/ VisionDevelop mission and visionEstablish small task force to develop mission and vision statementsVet preliminary statement by task force with Board and other stakeholdersMission Statement Committee N/AComplete mission and vision statements by end of November 2008Financial resourcesAchieve financial stability for current operations and in the long termIncrease enrolment/retention• Prepare and implement plan for ongoing enrolment/ retention • Hire Director of RecruitmentHeadmistressSecure budget for Director of RecruitmentBegin to build sustainable annual revenue base from fundraisingEstablish a task force to develop fundraising tactics and plan fundraising eventsPhysical resourcesEnhance short-term facilities • Establish immediate priorities for each site • Solicit BCCFA for fundsBoardRaise £60,000 toward new computers and other technologiesEstablish a task force to plan fundraising eventsVet preliminary plan by task force with BoardEstablish a long-term plan for Saint Francis de Sales Schools’ physical infrastructure needsNew Building Committee to also assume this mandateBegin to identify and collect required information in order to generate a planComplete plan and negotiation by end of June 2009Human resourcesCreate a culture of engagement and excellenceTwo-year plan for a) professional development and staff retreats b) incentives for excellence and innovationDevelop, vet and implement plan Headmistress with school principals© HEC Montréal 18 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Appendix 5 Saint Francis de Sales Schools Preliminary SWOT Chart Prepared for the Plan Operationalization Task ForceStrengths Weaknesses Opportunities ThreatsPrimary SchoolNurturing environment Strong academic program Opportunity to learn French Exceptional science program Individualized programming for special needs Experiential religious programming Committed professional staff Easy and prompt accessibility to staff for parents Excellent customer service from support staffLimited funds Lack of a proper gym Inadequate playground Out-of-date safety and security measures Out-of-date plumbing and electrical Lack of technology and professional resourcesPossibility of other Catholic school closing as they are also having financial problems Possibility of attracting parents dissatisfied with other private and public schools from the urban areaInability to attract families due to many weaknesses Administrator and teacher discontentSecondary SchoolNurturing environment Strong academic program Opportunity to learn French World class integrated and experiential religious curriculum Streamed programming to meet individual competency levels Student-driven programming Easy and prompt accessibility to staff for parents Clear and ongoing communication with parentsLack of funds Lack of an adequate gym Out-of-date safety and security measures Lack of technology and professional resources Out-of-date plumbing and electrical Inadequate physical building layout: lack of proper reception area and administrative offices too far removed from studentsPossibility of other Catholic school closing as they are also having financial problemsInability to attract families due to many weaknesses Inability to attract high quality staff Administrator and teacher discontent© HEC Montréal 19 Strategic Planning at Saint Francis de Sales Schools Appendix 6 Saint Francis de Sales Schools Time Line1 Strategic Initiatives, Strategic Planning Processes and Key Events 2007 2008 2009Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4Discussions with the Catholic Community Centre for a new campus on their siteDecision to close Urban Site ●External change consultant study and reporting processDecision to leave Urban Site open contingent upon financial/enrolment targets ●John becomes President ●Launch of the strategic planning process by John ●Negotiations with the Catholic Community Centre for a new building are officially terminated ●Development of strategic orientation gridNew mission statement is approved by the Board ●Strategic orientation grid is approved by the Board ●Strategic plan operationalization task force is struck ●Strategic plan operationalization task force comes to a halt ● 1 “Q” refers to the quarter in the year. For example, “Q1” refers to the first quarter of a particular year.© HEC Montréal 20 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.