Why Did the Caliphate Collapse during the Ninth and Tenth Centuries.
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The significance that caliph had been huge, which led to the separation of Sunni faith and the establishment of Turkey. Sunni has since sustained avowedly professing the faith of Muhammad and it was one big blow upon another Islamic sect in Persia, this action is similar to the one that took place in the Roman Empire. Despite the presence of discernment present in Muhammad, he lacked insight into the leader who will succeed him after his death. Despite Muhammad’s effort in making caliph grow, he did not prepare Ummah for its continuation after his death.
The community did not believe Muhammad had passed away and did not know the person to take over and fill the role of Muhammad, Ali who was Muhammad’s son-in-law was recommended by some people to succeed Muhammad.The first successor after the death of Muhammad was Abu Bakr whose roles were more secular as compared to playing a religious role. Abu Bakr encountered cries that were based on the people’s psychology, religion, political and from other nations. He managed to make Islam a world force although, during his time, the Islam participated in Apostasy war, which was because of a dispute between Makkan emigrants and Ali Bakr’s supporters.
During the war, many people died including those who were recognised for the compiling of the Quran. Compiling the Quran was the biggest achievement of Abu Bakr as compared to other encounters such as the apostasy war. There was systematic employment of slave soldiers, which was one major innovation that characterised many Muslim regimes. Caliphate Umar gave people determination, especially in participating in the Jihad. hence, he wanted to continue conquests that were set by Abu Bakr, targeting the Persian Empire and the Byzantine.
Caliphate Umar took part in the Damascus conquest including the conquering of Saida. He was responsible for fixing many Islamic traditions including the Muslim calendar. Uthman succeeded Umar and he had both practical, intelligent military and political leadership style. Moreover, Uthuman faced opposition from other Muslims .but he continued the wars of conquest despite the fact that there were many internal problems faced by his people. .