Week 8 Research Proposal

Running Head: POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION 1

POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

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Ryan Ogden

AMU SSGS300: Research Design and Methods

12/5/2020

Abstract

Before the child is born, both the expectant mother and father are usually anxious about their unborn child. They are often full of hope as they are bringing a new born in the world. However, the problem comes whereby the mother develops a postpartum depression. (Loke & colleges, 2020). This might not only affect her but also the health of the unborn child and general happiness of the family. This research aims towards determining how simple care actions can help the mother to overcome the problem so that to take good care of her child. It will focus on both medical and home care that can be done by the medical officers and those closest to the mother. (CDC)

Introduction

There are different mothers depending on one’s personality, health care and all other underlying factors which might make one develop different forms of attitude after giving birth. Those around them might develop a perception that the mother has changed and may not be willing to take care of the baby without trying to find out if they are suffering from any condition. If she is not attended to, the baby might be affected permanently as they will not be given proper attention including being breastfed. The child might be faced with other health conditions such as diseases as they were not given the right nutrition by their mother while at a young state. The major problem is that there is no specific treatment method for the condition.

This research aims at addressing three main factors: exploring some of the problems that both parents undergo during this period, exploring impacts that results from the condition and possible ways through which the mother can be assisted so that to overcome the problem.

Hypothesis: Giving mothers affected by postpartum depression proper medical care and home care will reduce the impact of the condition.

Literature Review

Postpartum depression is a form of depression which affects a mother who is assuming new roles and responsibilities in life and is supposed to keep up to all the demands of the new born. In most cases, the problem affects the mother within the first six weeks after giving birth to the child. Little is known about the most effective treatment method as different mother presents different symptoms which require different treatment methods.

Some of the symptoms of this type of a condition include sadness, irritability, mood swings, anxiety, crying, feeling overwhelmed, reduced concentration, reduced appetite and seeping problems. Vaever & colleges, 2016).

Problems facing mothers with postpartum depression

The mother feels hopeless due to the fact that it is their first time being a parent. They feel that their life has taken a new turn as they are expected to be responsible of the child. This leads to anxiety as they are concerned on what is expected from them during this period. They are appear to have reduced interest in activities that they used to have joy doing. (Kumar, 2020). This includes being with friends and all other everyday actions. Sudden change in a way of life not only affects her mood but also affects her health which is a problem to the child’s health.

The mother’s relationship with other might also be affected by her frequent mood swings occurrence whereby at some point she is happy and other times she doesn’t feel like having friends close to her. Loss of friends leads to several other problems to the mother as she will not have close friends who should attend to her needs as a new mother.

Impacts of the depression to the mother and the child

The child is the one who will receive the greatest impact from the depression. When one is born, they are fully dependant on their parent for attention and all needs. This includes being fed, washed and being given the right medical attention. A mother who is undergoing through depression might not be at a position to given the child all the necessary attention.

The mother might also be affected by permanent negative health conditions during this period of depression. Her body requires enough nutrients so that she can breast feed the child. Lack of proper nutrition might result to permanent body weakness due to the breast feeding.

How to assist the mother suffering from the depression

The first process is seeking medical assistance so that to reduce the symptoms of the depression. This includes visiting the doctor before and after the child is born. By visiting early enough when the mother is expectant, the doctor can detect some of the symptoms which might suggest a possibility of the depression. This way, antidepressants can be recommended so that to assist with the problem. (Chanu, 2020).

The depression might also lead to development of suicidal thoughts. Due to this, close family friends including the child’s father should help in taking care of the mother so that to help her reduce the symptoms of the depression. The more she understands that she is being supported, the more the ability of recovering from the condition.

Research methods

Sample size

A total of thirteen experts were used when conducting the research. Four nurses who were experienced in taking home care of the affected mothers were involved, four health physicians were also contacted during the data collection process and also five medical experts. All the participants shared relevant information which contributed to the research in various ways.

Data collection methods

To get all the required data for carrying this research, various research methods where used. They include: questionnaires, interviews and content analysis.

Questionnaires: This method was used to acquire the necessary data from physicians and other medical experts in cases where meeting them physically was not applicable. The questionnaires were sent to them via the email and then their feedback was analysed.

Interviews: This was conducted physically and through mobile phone conversations which helped in sharing the necessary details.

Content analysis: Various reading materials were used so that to get further information regarding the depression. The materials also helped in determining the direction of the research.

Recommendations

  1. The responsibility of taking care of both the mother and the child should be collective to all those close to the family.
  2. Both parents should frequently visit medical facilities before and after the pregnancy so that to help detect the possibility of a depression early enough.
  3. Assistance nurses should be allocated to homes with patients suffering from the depression.
  4. Both parents should seek for guidance in case the depression is detected.

Problems encountered during the research

  1. Some of the participants took a long period of time to give their feedback.
  2. Two of the participants did not respond to the questionnaires.
  3. Due to the pandemic recommendations, physical interviews were limited so that to maintain social distance.

Conclusion

The hypothesis that taking care of the mother through both medical and home care helps in reducing the impact of the depression is true hence should be adopted in helping the new mother to handle the problem once it affects them.

References:

Xiao, X., Ngai, F. W., Zhu, S. N., & Loke, A. Y. (2020). The experiences of early postpartum Shenzhen mothers and their need for home visit services: a qualitative exploratory study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 20(1), 5. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2686-8

Depression Among Women | Depression | Reproductive Health | CDC. Cdc.gov. (2020). Retrieved 19 November 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/depression/index.htm#Postpartum.

Smith‐Nielsen, J., Tharner, A., Krogh, M. T., & Vaever, M. S. (2016). Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well‐resourced sample: Early concurrent and long‐term effects on infant cognitive, language, and motor development. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 57(6), 571-583. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12321

Mutua, J., Kigamwa, P., Tele, A., & Kumar, M. (2020). Comorbid Postpartum Anxiety and Depression and Associated Factors in Mothers with Pre-Term Births: A Descriptive Comparative Study doi: 0000-0002-9773-8014

Selvam, G., Balasubramanian, J., & Chanu, S. (2020). Frequency of postpartum depression among primi mothers undergoing delivery in JIPMER using Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. The New Indian Journal Of OBGYN, 6(2), 106-112. doi: 10.21276/obgyn.2020.6.2.9

Appendices

Questionnaire form questions

  1. What is your experience when dealing with mothers affected by postpartum?
  2. What methods of medical care would you suggest so that to help the mother recover from the depression?
  3. What home care methods should be applied by the mother’s family and friends so that to help her through the condition?
  4. How frequently would you suggest that the mother should visit a doctor?
  5. What is the best diet for such a mother especially when she is most affected by the depression?

Annotated Bibliography

Xiao, X., Ngai, F. W., Zhu, S. N., & Loke, A. Y. (2020). The experiences of early postpartum Shenzhen mothers and their need for home visit services: a qualitative exploratory study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 20(1), 5. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2686-8

In the article, the authors illuminate the diverse challenges new mothers face during the childbearing period. Xiao, Fei-wan, She-ning Zhu, and Alice ascertain that postpartum depression affects women varyingly; hence individuals may illuminate various signs. Assuming new responsibilities and roles is one hectic process that may psychologically affect guardians. However, new mothers tend to experience postpartum depression at an early age compared to their male counterparts (Xiao et al., 2020). Thus, husbands need to offer the relevant support to their partners to enhance a proper transition to motherhood. Besides, medics should strive to provide ideal postnatal services to new mothers as they are most affected.

Depression Among Women | Depression | Reproductive Health | CDC. Cdc.gov. (2020). Retrieved 19 November 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/depression/index.htm#Postpartum.

Experts from the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention emphasize the need to seek early treatment, thus preventing individuals from succumbing to other illnesses related to postpartum depression. Similarly, stakeholders within the health industry stress the importance of differentiating between postpartum depression and baby blues. Through this editorial, individuals will realize that while baby blues symptoms may resolve within few days, postpartum signs may last longer (“Depression Among Women | Depression | Reproductive Health | CDC,” 2020). Similarly, the article sheds light on the various risk factors associated with postpartum depression among women. Birth complications, prior depression history, stressful live happenings, and teenage pregnancies are the major risk factors aligned with postpartum depression.

Smith‐Nielsen, J., Tharner, A., Krogh, M. T., & Vaever, M. S. (2016). Effects of maternal postpartum depression in a well‐resourced sample: Early concurrent and long‐term effects on infant cognitive, language, and motor development. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 57(6), 571-583. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12321

Smith-Nielsen, Anne, Marianne, and Mette’s article provides precise data on the detection and prevention of postpartum depression. Individuals suffering from depression tend to face challenges during the development and growth of their children. The authors illuminate that women, more so new mothers, are prone to such ailments at a relatively young age. The condition tends to worsen, considering that it may remain undiagnosed in the early phases. In several countries, experts capitalize on screening to detect any likelihood of the ailment in new mothers (Smith‐Nielsen et al., 2016). However, with the current economic conditions, such practices have been impeded since not all victims can afford the services.

Mutua, J., Kigamwa, P., Tele, A., & Kumar, M. (2020). Comorbid Postpartum Anxiety and Depression and Associated Factors in Mothers with Pre-Term Births: A Descriptive Comparative Study doi: 0000-0002-9773-8014

Joyce, Kumar, Pauline, Albert, and Pius’s editorial draws a sharp focus on the rate at which postpartum depression affects women across the domain. Their survey illustrates the probable effects children are likely to experience as a result of the illness. Premature birth has been denoted as the primary cause of postpartum depression. Pre-term birth creates destabilization among young mothers as they were not fully prepared to face reality (Mutua et al., 2020). In most instances, most new mothers are ever worried about the infants’ survival; thus, continuous thoughts lead to the development of depression.

Selvam, G., Balasubramanian, J., & Chanu, S. (2020). Frequency of postpartum depression among primi mothers undergoing delivery in JIPMER using Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. The New Indian Journal Of OBGYN, 6(2), 106-112. doi: 10.21276/obgyn.2020.6.2.9

Selvam, Balasubramanian, and Chanu’s articles provide a reliable analysis of critical issues cutting across the postpartum depression. Statistical data reveals that mothers’ high expectations after giving birth are the major cause of postpartum depression. Failure to meet these expectations triggers feelings of incompetency towards child development (Selvam, Balasubramanian & Chanu, 2020). However, health experts detect the illness early, hence preventing the spread of the ailment into severe stages. Therefore, stakeholders advocate for proper education amidst new mothers to ensure that their support systems detect early signs of postpartum depression.

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