This is an Early Childhood Education assignment. 

A PPEN DI X 1 W HAT I S T H E A DV OCACY P R OC ES S? T h e e ffe ctiv e n ess a n d s u cc e ss o f a n y a d vo ca cy p ro ce ss d ep en ds, a m on gst o th er fa cto rs , o n h ow w ell t h e fo ll o w in g s te p s a re im ple m en te d : • I d en tif y in g a n d s ta tin g t h e is su e • C olle ctin g t h e r e le va n t in fo rm atio n • M ob il is in g in te re ste d p eo p le • Ra is in g a n d m an ag in g t h e n ece ssa ry r e so u rc e s • N etw ork in g • Fo rm in g a llia n ce s • Fo rm in g a n d s u sta in in g c o alit io n s • I n vo lv in g m ed ia • E sta b li s h in g c o n ta cts w it h g overn m en t I n s u m mary , A dvo ca cy b eg in s w it h a p ro b le m o r w it h a p erc e p tio n t h at t h ere is a b ett e r a lt e rn ativ e t o a c u rre n t c o n dit io n a n d s e ek s t o s o lv e t h at p ro b le m a n d/o r im ple m en t t h e s e le cte d a lt e rn ativ e. A dvoca cy is b oth a n a rt a n d a s cie n ce . T h ere a re n o s tr ic t r u le s fo r a d vo ca cy w ork . I ts a p p ro ach es m ust b e c u lt u ra lly , s o cia lly a n d p olit ic a lly s p ecif ic . W id esp re a d p artic ip atio n in a n a d vo ca cy c a m paig n is g en era ll y a p re co n dit io n f o r s u cce ss. P la n n in g a n a d vo ca cy c a m paig n is a d yn am ic p ro ce ss. I t in vo lv es id en tif y in g t h e is su e, d evelo p in g s o lu tio n s, b u il d in g s u pport, a n d b rin gin g is su es, s o lu tio n s, a n d p olit ic a l w ill t o g eth er t o e n su re t h at t h e d esir e d c h an ge t a ke s p la ce . Fi nally , it in vo lv e s m on it o rin g a n d e va lu atin g t h e e n tir e p ro ce ss. T h e s te p s in p la n nin g f o r a d vo ca cy w ork a re : • K now y o u r is su e • E sta b li s h y o u r o b je ctiv e (s ) • C on du ct a s ta keh old er a n aly sis • D ev elo p a s tr a te g y • P la n t h e a ctiv it ie s • I d en tif y a n d m ob ili s e t h e r e q uir e d r e so u rc e s • M on it o r a n d e va lu ate t h e c a m paig n ’s p ro g re ss I t m ay w ell b e n ece ssa ry t o r e vis it a n d r e vis e s e vera l o f t h ese s te p s t h ro u gh ou t t h e i m ple m en ta tio n o f y o u r a d vo ca cy c a m paig n. S ucce ssfu l a d voca cy d oes n ot p ro ce e d in a s tr a ig ht l in e a n d r a re ly u n fo ld s e xa ctly a cco rd in g t o p la n . B e p re p are d fo r u nfo re se en e ve n ts a n d c o n se q uen ce s. B e fle xib le . C ivi l s o cie ty o rg an is a tio n s d erive t h eir p ow er f r o m : • t h eir c o n stit u en cy • t h eir m em bers h ip • p re v io u s c re d ib le c a m paig n s • t h eir e xp erie n ce • t h eir a b il it y t o a n aly se is su es a n d e ve n ts • t h eir c o m m it m en t • t h eir c o n ta cts in g overn m en t • t h eir a b il it y t o m ob ilis e s u pporte rs W HO AR E T H E S TA KEH OL DE RS I N A DV OCACY W OR K A N D WHAT A RE T H EIR S OU RCES OF POW ER ? S om e k e y s ta ke h old ers a n d t h eir s o u rc e s o f p ow er a re : G ove rn m en t E le ctio n m an date , p olit ic a l a u th orit y , a cce ss t o s ta te r e so u rc e s, a cce ss t o c iv il s e rv ic e , a cce ss t o b usin ess, a cce ss t o d on ors , a cce ss t o o th er g ove rn m en ts , m em bers h ip o f in te rn atio n al o rg an is a tio n s, in flu en ce o ve r p ro vin cia l a n d lo ca l g ove rn m en t C ivi l s o cie ty o rg an is a tio n s C on stit u en cy / m em bers h ip b ase , in fo rm atio n d ra w n fr o m d evelo p m en t w ork , e xp ertis e , c re d ib il it y , a cce ss t o in te rn atio n al n etw ork s / s e cto r o rg an is a tio n s U nio n f e d era tio n M em bers h ip , m on ey , a cce ss t o u nio n m ed ia , m ob il is a tio n s k ill s B usin ess M on ey, c a p acit y t o b u y in te lle ctu al p ow er, a cce ss t o o ffic ia ls , a cce ss t o m ed ia , p ow er a s e m plo yers R elig io u s o rg an is a tio n s M em bers h ip , m ora l a u th orit y , o u tr e a ch M ed ia A cce ss t o t h e p ublic , v a rie ty o f s o u rc e s o f in fo rm atio n , c o m mun ic a tio n s k ill s , c a p tiv e a u die n ce s W HY I S I N FOR MATION A S OU RCE OF POW ER ? • I n fo rm atio n c a n b e a s o u rc e o f p ow er in a d vo ca cy fo r s e vera l r e aso n s: • I n fo rm atio n d ra w n fr o m a d vo ca cy g ro u ps’ o w n w ork c a n p ro vid e t h em w it h c re d ib il it y a n d w it h t h e b asis f o r a lt e rn ativ e a n aly sis t o c o u n te r p osit io n s. • I n fo rm atio n o r d ata , w hic h is o n ly a va ila b le t o g ove rn m en t in stit u tio n s c a n b e u se d b y g ove rn m en t t o in flu en ce a rg um en ts in f a vo u r o f t h eir o w n p osit io n s. • I n fo rm atio n p ro vid ed b y a d vo ca cy g ro u ps t o c o m mun it ie s r e g ard in g t h eir c o n stit u tio n al r ig h ts e m pow ers t h e p eo p le in t h ose c o m m unit ie s t o a sse rt t h eir r ig hts . • I n fo rm atio n c o lle cte d b y a d vo ca cy g ro u ps fr o m o th er a d vo ca cy g ro u ps in r e g io n al, n atio n al, o r i n te rn atio n al o rg an is a tio n s a b ou t e xp erie n ce s a n d p oli c ie s e ls e w here , a n d u se d in a n a d vo ca cy c a m paig n , c a n h elp t o in flu en ce lo ca l o r n atio n al p oli c y d ecis io n s. A DV OCACY T OOL S I n a d vo ca cy , e ach is su e d em an ds d if fe re n t a p pro ach es a n d s tr a te g ie s, p artn ers , t a ctic s, m eth od s, r e so u rc e s, m ate ria ls , a n d s o o n . I n e m bark in g u pon a n a d vo ca cy c a m paig n, it is im porta n t t o h ave t h e c a p acit y t o c o n sid er a ll a vail a b le o p tio n s a n d t o m ake s tr a te g ic c h oic e s a m on gst t h em . W e c a ll t h ese o p tio n s t h e ” to ols ” o f a d vo ca cy . S kill e d a n d in fo rm ed u se o f t h ese t o ols r e su lt s in g re ate r a d vo ca cy im pact. T h e m ost im porta n t o f t h ese t o ols in clu de: • I n fo rm atio n :

Ga th erin g, m an ag in g a n d d is se m in atin g in fo rm atio n la ys t h e b asis f o r d ete rm in in g t h e d ir e ctio n o f a n a d vo ca cy c a m paig n. Re se a rc h is o n e w ay o f g ath erin g i n fo rm atio n . • R ese a rc h : C on ductin g r e se a rc h a n d p olic y a n aly sis u se s t h e in fo rm atio n f r o m v ario u s s o u rc e s a n d d evelo p s it in to p oli c y o p tio n s w hic h b eco m e t h e k e y c o n te n t o f a n a d vo ca cy c a m paig n . • M ed ia : V ario u s m ed ia a re u se d t o c o m mun ic a te t h e c a m paig n ’s m essa g e(s ) t o t h e d if f e re n t s ta keh old ers . • S ocia l m ob ili s a tio n : M ob il is in g t h e b ro ad est p ossib le s u pport fr o m a r a n ge o f s ta ke h old ers , i n clu din g t h e p u bli c a t la rg e, is e sse n tia l t o b uil d in g t h e in flu en ce o f t h e c a m paig n . • L o b byin g: C on vin cin g t h e d ecis io n -m ake rs w ho h ave t h e p ow er t o m ake t h e d esir e d c h an ge i n volv es a s e t o f s p ecia l k n ow le d ge a n d s k il ls . • L it ig atio n : S om etim es, u sin g t h e c o u rt s y ste m t o c h alle n ge a p olic y o r la w c a n r e in fo rc e a n a d vo ca cy c a m paig n . • N etw ork s, a ll ia n ce s a n d c o alit io n s: S harin g o f in fo rm atio n a n d r e so u rc e s, a n d s tr e n gth in u nit y a n d c o m m on alit y o f p u rp ose a re k ey t o t h e s u cce ss o f a d vo ca cy w ork . T h e c h oic e o f t o ols w il l v a ry , e ven in t h e c o n te xt o f a s in gle c a m paig n. I t w ill d ep en d o n : • T h e is su e a t h an d; • T h e s tr a te g ic o b je ctiv es; • T h e m essa g e t o b e c o m mun ic a te d ; • T h e s ta ke h old ers t a rg ete d ; T h e r e le va n t s tr u ctu re s a n d p ro ce sse s in vo lv ed ; • T h e t im e fr a m e a va ila b le ; • T h e r e so u rc e s a va ila b le ; • T h e c a p acit ie s o f t h e a d vo ca cy o rg an is a tio n (s ) a n d t h eir a llie s; • T h e o ve ra ll c u lt u ra l, s o cia l, p oli t ic a l a n d e co n om ic c o n te x t. A dvoca cy is a c o m ple x t a sk . I ts o b je ctiv es w ill n ot b e a ch ie ved t h ro u gh t h e u se o f o n ly o n e t o ol o r m eth od , b ut r a th er w ill r e q u ir e a c a re fu lly d esig n ed m ix tu re o f a p pro ach es. Gr ou ps s h ou ld b e fle xib le t h ro u ghou t t h eir a d voca cy c a m paig n s o t h at if o n e t o ol d oes n ot h ave t h e e x p ecte d r e su lt s , a n oth er c a n b e t r ie d . T h e M ed ia T h e m ed ia c a n b e u se d in v a rio u s w ays t o c o n ve y a m ess a g e t o d if fe re n t t a rg et a u die n ce s a s p art o f a n a d voca cy c a m paig n . W hile s tr e ssin g t h e p ote n tia l im pact o f t h e m ed ia , w e n eed t o f ir s t u nders ta n d is su es s u ch a s w hat d o t h e m ed ia lo o k fo r, w hat a ctu all y m akes n ew s, h ow a d vo ca cy o rg an is a tio n s c a n in te ra ct w it h d if fe re n t m ed ia , a n d im porta n tly , t h e t y p e o f p re p ara tio n t h at is r e q u ir e d . I t is e sse n tia l, fo r t h e g re a te st im pact in e a ch c a se , t o b e s tr a te g ic in t h e c h oic e o f m ed ia a n d t h e fo rm ula tio n o f a p pro p ria te a n d c le a r m essa g es. I t is a ls o im porta n t fo r a d voca cy o rg an is a tio n s t o d evelo p o n goin g r e la tio n sh ip s w it h t h e r e le va n t m ed ia o rg an is a tio n s a n d i n d iv id u als s o a s t o b u ild m utu al r e sp ect a n d c o n fid en ce . S ocia l M ove men ts S ocia l m ove m en ts a re m ass-b ase d m ove m en ts o f t h e p eo p le w hic h u nit e t h e p eop le in a c a u se w hic h c u ts a cro ss t h eir t r a d it io n al b arrie rs . T h ey h ave p la yed a c ru cia l r o le in S ou th A fr ic a n h is to ry . M ass m ob il is a tio n r e m ain s a n im porta n t a d voca cy t o ol. T h e a d va n ta g es n ote d a b ove m ay s tr e n gth en a n a d voca cy c a m paig n a n d s p eed it s s u cce ss. H ow eve r, m ass m ob il is a tio n m ay a ls o c re ate s it u atio n s w hic h t h e a d vo ca cy le a d ers h ip is u nab le t o c o n tr o l a n d r e su lt in p ro b le m s w hic h d am ag e t h e c a m paig n. T h ere fo re , a s w it h a ll o th er a d voca cy t o ols , c a re fu l c o n sid era tio n m ust b e g iv e n t o t h e b en efit s a n d r is k s b efo re p ro ce ed in g w it h m ass m ob ili s a tio n . N etw ork s, a ll ia n ce s a n d c o alit io n s N etw ork s, a ll ia n ce s a n d c o ali t io n s c a n b e p ote n tia lly p ow erfu l t o ols in a d voca cy w ork . H ow eve r, a d vo ca cy g ro u ps w ho a re c o n te m pla tin g e it h er fo rm in g o r jo in in g a n y o n e o f t h em m ust g iv e c a re fu l t h ou gh t t o t h e c o sts a n d b en efit s fo r t h eir o rg an is a tio n a s w ell a s fo r t h e a d vo ca cy c a m paig n it s e lf . C o-o p era tio n a n d c o -o rd in atio n r e q uir e p la n nin g, t im e a n d o ft e n m on ey. D if f e re n t fo rm s o f c o -o p era tio n a n d c o -o rd in atio n w il l s u it d if fe re n t s it u atio n s, a n d a d vo ca cy g ro u ps s h ou ld n ot fe el lo ck e d in to a n y o n e m od el. H ow eve r, t h e k e y p rin cip le s u n derly in g s u ch r e la tio n sh ip s – – s h arin g in fo rm atio n , e xp erie n ce a n d r e so u rc e s; b uil d in g s tr e n gth t h ro u gh u nit y ; b ro a d en in g s u pport o n im porta n t is su es; a n d s o o n – – s h ou ld a lw ays b e a p art o f C SO a d vo ca cy w ork . L OB BYIN G W HAT I S L OB BYIN G? L o b byin g is a n o rg an is e d a tte m pt b y a n in div id ual, a n o rg an is a tio n o r g ro u ps o f in div id u als a n d/o r o rg an is a tio n s t o in flu en ce o n b eh alf o f a p artic u la r in te re st a ll t h e s ta ke h old ers in volv ed in p re p arin g a n d p ass in g le g is la tio n . S uch s ta ke h old ers in clu de m in is te ria l a d vis e rs a n d s ta ff, l e g is la tiv e d ra ft e rs , p oli c y m akers , m em bers o f P arlia m en t, p ortfo lio c o m mit t e e m em bers , s e le ct c o m m it t e e s, t h e s ta ff o f v a rio u s c o m mit te es, e xp erts a n d c o n su lt a n ts s e rv in g t h ose c o m mit te es, e tc . I t a ls o m ean s s e e kin g t h e s u pport o f a n in flu en tia l p ers o n o r p ers o n s a n d p ro vid in g a ccu ra te i n fo rm atio n w hic h le g is la to rs c a n u se in t h eir d ecis io n -m akin g. L o b byin g is a g iv e-a n d-ta ke p ro ce ss t h at a ls o in volv es g ath erin g n ew in fo rm atio n a n d a n aly sis , w hic h e n ab le s lo b b yis ts t o s tr e n gth en t h eir o w n s tr a te g ie s. W HAT I S T H E DI FFE REN CE B ETW EEN L OB BYIN G A N D ADV OCACY ? L o b byin g is o n ly o n e p art o f a d vo ca cy – o n e t o o l a m on gst m an y. T h e d if fe re n ce b etw een a d vo ca cy a n d lo b byin g c a n b e e x p la in ed a s fo llo w s: A DV OCACY L OB BYIN G Re la te d t o s p ecif ic c a u se / i s su e Gr ou p / c o lle ctiv e e ffo rt A im ed a t s e vera l s ta keh old ers , b oth in sid e a n d o u ts id e o f g ove rn m en t Re la te d t o s p ecif ic l e g is la tio n M ay b e in div id u al o r c o lle ctiv e A im ed s p ecif ic a lly a t l e g is la to rs a n d g ove rn m en t o ffic ia ls A im ed a t s p ecif ic in te re st G old en r u le s o f a d vo ca cy a n d l o b byin g • Ge t t o k n ow t h e k e y p la ye rs • Ge t t o k n ow t h e p olic y -m ake rs • Ge t t o k n ow t h e k e y c o m m it t e e s a n d h ow t h ey w ork • L e a rn t h e a rt o f g ood t im in g • C re ate a p olit ic a l is su e • O bse rv e t h e fiv e c o m man dm en ts o f lo b byin g: 1 . A lw ays t e ll t h e t r u th 2 . N eve r p ro m is e m ore t h an y ou c a n d eliv e r 3 . L is te n , s o t h at y o u c a n u nders ta n d w hat is g oin g o n 4 . C o-o p t, d on ‘t b yp ass s ta ff a n d a d vis e rs 5 . D o n ot s p rin g s u rp ris e s w hen c re a tin g a ll ia n ce s • P re p are p ro p erly • U se t h e m ed ia s tr a te g ic a lly • D ev elo p y o u r e xp ertis e • A ntic ip ate w hat t h e o p p osit io n w il l d o • C re ate s tr a te g ic a lli a n ce s ( A dap te d fr o m C hap te r 2 N etw ork , 1 99 5) Fo rm s o f A dvo ca cy 1 . P ee r A dvo ca te : A o n e-to -o n e r e la tio n sh ip b etw ee n a c a p ab le v o lu nte e r w it h a h ealt h o r s o cia l is su e a n d a n oth er p ers o n w it h t h e s a m e is su e. T h e p ee r a d vo ca te s u pports t h e in div id u al t o m ake d ecis io n s a n d a d vo ca te s fo r h is o r h er r ig h ts o r in te re sts . 2 . C it iz e n A dvo ca te : A o n e-to -o n e r e la tio n sh ip b etw ee n a c a p ab le v o lu nte e r a n d a p ers o n fa cin g a h ea lt h o r s o cia l is su e i n w hic h t h e v o lu nte e r a d vo ca te s f o r t h e r ig h ts a n d in te re sts o f t h e o th er, a n d p ro vid es p ra ctic a l o r e m otio n al s u pp ort. C on sid er t h e v olu nte e r w ho d riv e s t h e p ers o n w it h a c h ro n ic h ealt h p ro b le m t o a p h ysic ia n ‘s o ffic e a n d a tte n ds t h e in te rv ie w b etw een t h e d octo r a n d t h e p ers o n w it h t h e h ea lt h p ro b le m t o a d vo ca te o n h is o r h er b eh alf . 3 . Om bu dsm an : O ne w ho a cts a s a n a d vo ca te fo r a p ers o n w it h a h ealt h o r s o cia l is su e f o llo w in g t h e r e p ort o f a g rie va n ce , b y in vestig atin g, in te rc e d in g, o r in it ia tin g a ctio n o n h is o r h er b eh alf . 4 . L e g al A dvo ca te : O ne w ho r e p re se n ts a p ers o n in a c o u rt o f la w w hen h is o r h er r ig hts a re t h re a te n ed o r v io la te d . 5 . C ase M an ag er: O ne w ho a ssis ts t h e in div id u al in in fo rm atio n , r e fe rr a l, a n d fo ll o w u p s e rv ic e s. C on sid er t h e c o m m unit y h ealt h n urs e o r s o cia l w ork e r a ctin g o n b eh alf o f h is o r h er c lie n t. 6 . P ro te ctive S ervi ce s: A s e rv ic e m an date d b y le g is la tio n w hic h p ro vid es g uard ia n sh ip , t r u ste esh ip , a n d o th er a d vo ca cy s e rv ic e s. 7 . L e g is la tive A dvo ca cy : U sin g t h e le g is la tiv e p ro ce ss t o m an date c h an ge in t h e s o cia l s y ste m in o rd er t o s e cu re t h e r ig h ts o f p ers o n s w it h h ealt h o r s o cia l is su es. 8 . C om munit y Or gan iz a tio n A dvo ca cy : U sin g t h e c o m munit y o rg an iza tio n p ro ce ss t o d eve lo p b ett e r c o m m unic a tio n a m on g a g en cie s s e rv in g p ers o n s w it h h ealt h o r s o cia l is su es. 9 . P ro g ra m B ro kera g e: S erv ic e d eve lo p m en t a n d p ro g ra m e xp an sio n t h at e li m in ate b arrie rs w hic h o b str u ct p ro g ra m d eve lo p m en t. C on sid er f e d era ll y fu n ded h ealt h o r s o cia l d evelo p m en t p ro g ra m s. 1 0. C on su m er-A ctio n A dvo ca cy : Gr ou ps o f p are n ts o r a d u lt s w ho h ave a d is a b ili t y t h at a ct a s p re ssu re g ro u ps t o in flu en ce g ro u ps a n d a d vo ca te s t o w ard d esir e d c h an ge. 1 1. S elf -A dvo ca te : S om eo n e w ho h as le a rn ed t o s p eak fo r h im o r h er s e lf a n d t o m ake h is o r h er o w n d ecis io n s. ( a d ap te d fr o m N orth S ask a tc h ew an I n dep en den t L iv in g C en tr e , 1 999 ). ( S urry , 1 997 – D if fu sio n o f I n nova tio n M od el w it h C ate g orie s o f I n n ova tio n A dop te e s)

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