There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly.

EDUC101 Early Explanations of Learning Lecture 2.2 Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research On Today’s Agenda • Early Explanations of Learning – Contiguity – Classical conditioning • Critiquing classical c onditioning • Is classical conditioning “learning?” Early Explanations of Learning • Contiguity & Classical Conditioning – Aristotle (our empiricist from Lecture 2.1) • Wwe remember things: 1. When they are similar, 2. When they contrast, and 3. When they are contiguous • Principle of contiguity: – W henever two or more sensations occur together often enough, they will become associated Early Explanations of Learning • Classical conditioning argues that:

– “Learning” occurs through contiguity – This occurs by associating two stimuli to produce a new “learned” response – The response is an automatic emotional or physiological reaction (such as fear, muscle tension, salivation, or sweating) Early Explanations of Learning • Classical conditioning (Pavlov) – Russian physiologist in the 1920s – Originally focused on the digestive system of dogs, but he had some interesting setbacks in his experiments… Early Explanations of Learning Applying Classical Conditioning Critiquing Classical Conditioning Key Strengths Key Weaknesses We learn from our environment, but… We can “encourage” people to do things, but … Can be used to reduce certain additions and phobias, but… Can be used to create changes in our lives, but.. . Is Classical Conditioning “Learning?” Learning… Classical Conditioning… 1. Is active 2. Builds on prior knowledge 3. Requires motivation and cognitive engagement 4. Is situated within an authentic context 5. Occurs in a complex, social environment Takeaway Points from Lecture 2.2 • Association is a powerful process that can help contribute to learning • Classical conditioning has several strengths and weaknesses, all which should be understood See you Monday!

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