There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc. Please answer them all correctly.

EDUC101 A Brief History of L earning Lecture 2.1 Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research Recap from Lecture 1.2  Learning, education, training, and schools  Five key elements of the learning process?

1. Is active 2. Builds on prior knowledge 3. Requires motivation and cognitive engagement 4. Is situated within an authentic context 5. Occurs in a complex, social environment  Education has cultural, social, and personal functions, and may/may not relate to school and training On Today’s Agenda  Historical views of education • Consider: What are some of the common themes across historical examples? Confucius (551 – 479 BCE) • Holistic view of education • Emphasised a “love of learning” • People should learn the six arts • Rejected education as a knowledge economy • Emphasised the influences of family and community Seriously Old σχολή (496 – 322 BCE) • “School” derives from Greek σχολή (scholē ) – Originally meaning “leisure” – Later “a group in which lectures were given” Philosophical Views of Learning Oral Tradition in Learning Roman Catholic Church (500 – 1500 CE) Philosophical Views of Learning • Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) – Ideas exist within human beings prior to experience – Proposed environment + mind  behaviour – Massively influential in psychology for over 300 years • Behaviourism • Cognitivism Philosophical Views of Learning • Jean -Jacques Rousseau (1712 – 1778) – One of the first to suggest that education shapes the child – Children should be allowed to develop naturally – Published Emile Philosophical Views of Learning • Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) – Modernised Plato’s rationalism – Suggested we are born with some knowledge (innate) – Recognised that the mind was a part of the thinking process Psychological Views of Learning • 19 th century: – Brought about the scientific study of learning – Shout outs to Descartes, Kant, and Darwin • 20 th century: – Primary focus on behaviourism and cognition Psychological Views of Learning • Edward Thorndike (1874 – 1949) – Scientific approach to the study of learning – Association between sense impressions and impulses to act:

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stimulus -response – Measuring students as a “sorting hat” Progressive Learning Theories • John Dewey (1859 – 1952) – The teacher’s goal is to understand: • The demands of the discipline • The needs of the child • To provide learning experiences which enable the student to uncover the curriculum Progressive Learning Theories • Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952) – Students learn through carefully chosen activities – “The task of the teacher becomes that of preparing a series of cultural activities spread over a specially prepared environment and then refraining from obtrusive interference.” Common Themes across History • What are some of the common themes you see across the ideas we discussed today? – Confucius – Socrates, Plato, Aristotle – Thomas Aquinas (Roman Catholic Church) – Descartes – Rousseau – Kant – Skinner, Thorndike – Dewey – Montessori Takeaway Points from Lecture 2.1  Education has been contested for a long time  Purposes depend on the time period, social class, cultural customs, and individual differences  The learner is expected to perform tasks based on what an education is intended to do  Thus, how we acquire knowledge and skills depend on the environment around us See you Thursday!

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