There are 30 multi-choice questions about a range of topics, such as education, psychology etc.

EDUC 101 On Operant Conditioning Lecture 3.1 Please have the Dunlosky (2013) article I sent via the LEARN News message.

Valerie Sotardi, PhD Senior Lecturer of Educational Psychology & Quantitative Research Pause for “Self – Regulated” Learning • Regulate = control, monitor • SRL is like taking control over our actions so that we are able to reach our learning goals • Connection to note -taking Pause for “Self – Regulated” Learning Classical to Operant Conditioning • Operant Conditioning (Skinner, 1950s) – Argued that classical conditioning accounts only for a very small portion of learned behaviours – Contended that most learning comes from operants , not respondents Feeling nerdy? Search online for “Project Pigeon” Classical to Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning • Modifying behaviour by altering its consequences – Two Broad Types of Consequences:

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1. Rewards 2. Punishments • In classroom situations, how do teachers use rewards and punishments?

– What are some of the types of rewards you received at school? – What are some of the different types of punishments? Reinforcement & Punishment • Rewards – Technically referred to as “reinforcers” • Any consequence that strengthens the behaviour it follows • Thus, reinforced behaviours (rewards) increase the frequency or duration • Whenever you see a behaviour persisting or increasing over time, you can assume the consequences of that behaviour are reinforcers for the individual involved • A  B  Reinforcer (C)  Strengthened or Repeated B ehaviour (effect) Reinforcement & Punishment • Positive reinforcement : – Goal: • To increase behaviour – Achieved by: • Adding pleasant stimulus after “good” behaviour – Example? Reinforcement & Punishment • Negative reinforcement : – Goal: • To increase behaviour – Achieved by: • Removing an unpleasant stimulus after “good” behaviour – Example ? Reinforcement & Punishment • Punishment – Use of unpleasant stimulus to weaken or suppress behaviour – We actually have two types of punishments… Reinforcement & Punishment • Punishment presentation – Goal : • To decrease behaviour – Achieved by: • Adding an unpleasant stimulus after “bad” behaviour – Example ? Reinforcement & Punishment • Punishment removal (also called response cost) – Goal : • To decrease behaviour – Achieved by: • Removing an pleasant stimulus after “bad” behaviour – Example ? Reinforcement & Punishment Increase Behaviour (Do it Again!) Decrease Behaviour (Don’t do it Again!) Desirable Stimulus (We like it!) Undesirable Stimulus (We don’t like it!) Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Punishment Presentation Punishment Removal Reinforcement & Punishment • Reinforcement Schedules 1. Continuous reinforcement schedule • Reinforced for every correct response • Effective when learning a new behaviour Reinforcement & Punishment • Reinforcement Schedules 2. Intermittent reinforcement schedule • Reinforced by varying correct responses • Effective when trying to maintain skills • Interval schedule:

reinforcement based on the length of time between reinforcers (pop quiz) • Ratio schedule:

reinforcement based on the number of responses between reinforcers (ten maths problems for homework) Takeaway Points of Lecture 3.1 • Operant conditioning helps us to understand connections between behaviour and the world around us • But this theory does not assume anything about the person’s thoughts or feelings about the situation! Keep Being Awesome!

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