Test Evaluation Paper Assignment Instructions Overview The purpose of the Test Evaluation Paper Assignment is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a psychological assessment of your choice
16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire
Schuerger, J. M.
PSI Services LLC, 611 N. Brand Blvd., 10th Floor, Glendale, CA, 91203, firstname.lastname@example.org, psionline.com
B. S. Plake, J. C. Impara, & R. A. Spies (Eds.), The fifteenth mental measurements yearbook. 2003.
Reynolds, William M.; Whiston, Susan C.
Designed to ‘measure normal personality of adolescents, problem-solving abilities, and preferred work activities,’ and to identify problems in areas known to be problematic to adolescents.
21 normal personality scales: Primary Personality Factor Scales (Warmth, Reasoning, Emotional Stability, Dominance, Liveliness, Rule-Consciousness, Social Boldness, Sensitivity, Vigilance, Abstractedness, Privateness, Apprehension, Openness to Change, Self-Reliance, Perfectionism, Tension), Global Factor Scales (Extraversion, Anxiety, Tough-Mindedness, Independence, Self-Control); plus a ranking of Work Activity Preferences (Manual, Scientific, Artistic, Helping, Sales/Management, and Procedural), Personal Discomfort (Discouragement, Worry, Poor Body Image, Overall Discomfort), ‘Getting in Trouble’ (Anger or Aggression, Problems with Authority, Alcohol or Drugs, Overall Trouble), Context (Home or School), Coping/Managing Difficulty, Impression Management, Missing Responses, Central Responses, Predicted Grade Point Average
Group or individual.
(54–65) minutes (untimed).
Available from publisher.
Computerized scoring and interpretive reports available via test publisher’s online and software platforms (APQ Guidance Report and APQ Psychological Report); optional Life’s Difficulties section provides an opportunity for the youth to indicate particular problems in areas known to be problematic for adolescents, making the APQ appropriate for screening and for introducing sensitive topics in a counseling setting
For reviews by William M. Reynolds and by Susan C. Whiston and Jennifer C. Bouwkamp, see 15:230.
Published Test Description:
16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire. Purpose: Designed to “measure normal personality of adolescents, problem-solving abilities, and preferred work activities,” and to identify problems in areas known to be problematic to adolescents. Population: Ages 11-22. Publication Date: 2001. Acronym: APQ. Scores: 21 normal personality scales: Primary Personality Factor Scales (Warmth, Reasoning, Emotional Stability, Dominance, Liveliness, Rule-Consciousness, Social Boldness, Sensitivity, Vigilance, Abstractedness, Privateness, Apprehension, Openness to Change, Self-Reliance, Perfectionism, Tension), Global Factor Scales (Extraversion, Anxiety, Tough-Mindedness, Independence, Self-Control); plus a ranking of Work Activity Preferences (Manual, Scientific, Artistic, Helping, Sales/Management, and Procedural), Personal Discomfort (Discouragement, Worry, Poor Body Image, Overall Discomfort), “Getting in Trouble” (Anger or Aggression, Problems with Authority, Alcohol or Drugs, Overall Trouble), Context (Home or School), Coping/Managing Difficulty, Impression Management, Missing Responses, Central Responses, Predicted Grade Point Average; 10 life’s difficulties scales: Discouragement, Worry, Poor Body Image, Overall Discomfort, Anger or Aggression, Problems with Authority, Alcohol or Drugs, Overall Trouble, Problems at Home, Problems at School. Administration: Group or individual. Price Data: Available from publisher. Time: (65) minutes (untimed). Comments: Computerized scoring and interpretive reports available (APQ Guidance Report and APQ Psychological Report); optional Life’s Difficulties section provides an opportunity for the youth to indicate particular problems in areas known to be problematic for adolescents, making the APQ appropriate for screening and for introducing sensitive topics in a counseling setting. Author: J. M. Schuerger. Publisher: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. (IPAT).
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16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire
Review of the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire by WILLIAM M. REYNOLDS, Professor, Department of Psychology, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA:
DESCRIPTION. The 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (APQ) is described by its author as appropriate for adolescents ages 11 or 12 to 22 years. There are 147 items on the 16 normal personality (Primary Factor) scales, 15 items on the Work Activities scales, and 43 items on the Life’s Difficulties scales. The manual states that the APQ has a reading grade level of around 5.5, although a check indicates that some of the APQ items are written at an eighth and ninth grade reading level.
The APQ evaluates most of the same personality domains as the 14-factor High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ; Cattell, Cattell, & Johns, 1984) except for Withdrawal and Demandingness. To make the APQ consistent with the 16PF Questionnaire, which is designed for adults, the author included the four factors of: Vigilance, Abstractedness, Privateness, and Openness to Change that are found on the 16PF Questionnaire. These four along with factors (scales) of Warmth, Reasoning, Emotional Stability, Dominance, Liveliness, Rule-Consciousness, Social Boldness, Sensitivity, Apprehension, Self-Reliance, Perfectionism, and Tension constitute the 16 APQ Primary Factors. Weighted scores on these scales are combined to form five Global Factors of Extraversion, Anxiety, Tough-Mindedness, Independence, and Self-Control. The normal personality scales have between 8 and 12 items each, with 10 of the factors consisting of 8 items each. The normal personality scale of Reasoning is actually a brief measure of general cognitive ability rather than personality, although personality (concrete versus abstract) is inferred from this scale.
In addition to the scales of normal personality, further changes included the addition of the Work Activities component that is reported to measure aspects of Holland’s (1973) six career types in the form of: Manual, Scientific, Artistic, Helping, Sales/Management, and Procedural scales. The Life’s Difficulties section includes three Personal Discomfort scales (Discouragement, Worry, and Poor Body Image, as well as a total Overall Discomfort scale), three Getting Into Trouble scales (Anger or Aggression, Problems with Authority, and Alcohol or Drugs, as well as a total Overall Trouble score), two Context Scales (Home, School), and a seven-item Coping scale. There are also several validity indicators, including Impression Management, Central Responses (selection of the middle option), and Missing Responses.
Sten scores (standard ten) that are based on a scale of 1 to 10 with a mean of 5.5 and a standard deviation of 2 points are provided for the Global and Primary Factors, with endorsement counts for the Work Activities scales, and percentile ranks for the Life’s Difficulties scales.
The test manual suggests that, on average, 15-year-olds can complete the APQ in less than 90 minutes. The items are presented in a 21-page test booklet that can be a bit daunting for some adolescents. Item format varies, with most of the normal personality and Life’s Difficulties items using a true/?/false format, with a number of these items including additional descriptors to clarify the meaning of items. The 12 Reasoning items use a three-alternative, multiple-choice format, and include verbal analogies, opposites, and other problems typically found on verbal aptitude scales. The Work Activities scale consists of six statements arranged across 15 items using a forced-choice format, with each of the six statements representing one of Holland’s career orientation dimensions. Scores on these scales are the number of times the dimension was endorsed.
The manual describes the various personality factors measured by the APQ and the characteristics of individuals with high and low scores on each factor. Many of the descriptions read more like adults than characteristics of adolescent personality. The Life’s Difficulties scales are briefly described, with examples of items provided to illustrate content. Following these descriptions, the manual provides a substantial section on interpretation of APQ scales.
The APQ is scored by computer, either by sending the answer sheet into the publisher for scoring and generating an interpretive report, or scoring only using a scoring program diskette. This latter program generates a list of scores for each of the scales. There are two score reports available from the publisher: the APQ Guidance Report, which consists of scores for the 16 Personality Factors and the Work Activities scales, and the APQ Psychological Report, which also includes the Life’s Difficulties scales. The computer scoring provides two forms of the report, one for the adolescent and another for the clinician. The adolescent form, which provides scores on the Global Factors and Work Activities, is written at comprehension level beyond that of many adolescents. The clinician report provides a summary of the Testing Indices, Global and Primary Factors (sten scores and graphic illustration of scores with low and high score descriptions for each scale), scores on the Work Activities scales, and percentile ranks for scores on the Life’s Difficulties scales and the Coping scale. An interpretive summary across the APQ domains is also provided.
DEVELOPMENT. The development of the APQ involved several iterations of item development, rewriting, and field testing. The author provides a brief description of the number of items on these forms and approximate sample sizes. The manual indicates that some of this data may be obtained from the author. Approximately 16% of the items on the normal personality scales were from the HSPQ, 28% from the adult 16PF Fifth Edition, 19% from the author of the APQ, and the remainder written by students and IPAT staff.
The final standardization version of the APQ included 199 items. Scale selection was based on a factor analysis (analysis type not specified) with a Promax rotation of item parcels (two or three related items combined) that resulted in a viable 16-factor solution in which two of the anticipated factors, Emotional Stability and Apprehension, loaded on the same factor. The author notes that a subsequent analysis using a 15-factor solution “was very satisfactory” and it was decided to split the Emotional Stability and Apprehension factor into two factors to make it consistent with the 16PF Questionnaire.
Standardization. The standardization sample varied for different components of the APQ. For the 16 normal personality factors (Primary Factors) and Work Activities scales, the standardization sample consisted of 1,460 adolescents ages 11 to 22 years. A subsample of 410 adolescents also completed the Life’s Difficulties scales, although roughly half of these adolescents (n = 213) were from clinical settings (outpatients, educational referrals, and drug treatment). Norms for the APQ Primary Factors, Work Activities, and Life’s Difficulties scales were based on the nonclinical sample of adolescents. In this manner it can be estimated that approximately 1,247 adolescents were the basis for the Primary Factors and Work Activities norms, with the Life’s Difficulties scale norms based on approximately 197 adolescents. The majority of the 1,460 adolescents in the development sample (88%) were between the ages of 15 and 18 years, with 47% male and 53% female, with 81% Caucasian, 6% African American, 5% Hispanic, and small percentages of various other ethnicities. The majority of this sample (67%) was from the north central United States. Sample characteristics (age, gender, etc.) of the specific normative groups (1,247 and 197) are not provided.
Reliability. Reliability data are presented in the form of internal consistency reliability (coefficient alpha) for all scales, with a test-retest reliability study reported for the Work Activities scales with a sample of 14 “late adolescents and young adults.” The manual claims to present equivalent form reliability with a 3-week interval for the normal personality scales as shown by correlations between the APQ Primary Factors and corresponding scales on the 16PF and HSPQ in a sample of 107 “late adolescents.”
Internal consistency reliability of the 16 Primary Factors ranged from .64 to .83, with a median reliability of .72 and only one reliability coefficient above .76. The internal consistency reliability coefficients for the Work Activities scales range from .46 to .75 with a median reliability coefficient of .62. However, as the author correctly notes, these coefficients are problematic because the items on these scales are ipsative. The test-retest reliabilities (several weeks interval between administrations) of the Work Activities scales were similar, ranging from .53 to .74, with a median of .62, suggesting low reliability for these scales. Internal consistency reliabilities of the Life’s Difficulties scales are low for most scales, with coefficients ranging from .52 to .65 for the three Personal Discomfort scales, .66 to .77 for the Getting into Trouble scales, .60 and .42 for the Home and School scales, respectively and .74 for the Coping scale. Reliability is not reported for the eight-item Impression Management Scale.
Validity. Validity data are presented in a somewhat haphazard manner, with a mix of results from previous development versions of the APQ interspersed among validation data for the current version. Given that the primary use of the APQ is the assessment of normal personality, one would expect the majority of validity evidence for this new measure to focus on the 16 Primary Factor scales. Unfortunately, there are few studies/data to support validity. The first demonstration of validity of the 16 Primary Factors was a correlational study of these factors and those on the adult 16 PF in what appears to be a college sample (average age of 19 years, 70% women, n = 107). Because the APQ includes items from the 16PF Questionnaire, it is not surprising to find moderate correlations between .53 and .81. In a study of 30 adolescents of unknown age and other characteristics who also completed the HSPQ (also a source for APQ items), correlations of .17 to .74 were found between same factor scales, with half of these coefficients below .50.
Additional evidence for validity of the Primary Factors is suggested in the manual by correlations between these scales and adolescents’ grade point average (GPA) in four studies. Two of these studies were done with an early research version of the APQ that differed in items from the current version. Across the four studies, relatively low correlations were reported between Primary Factors and GPA, providing limited support for the validity of a measure of normal personality. The exception to this is the Reasoning scale, which consists of scholastic ability type items. In the two studies that used the final form of the APQ, the correlations between the Reasoning scale and self-reported GPA or counselors’ ratings of GPA were .41 and .31, respectively, which are relatively low. Because the items on the Reasoning scale are based on academic ability, unless corrected or normed by age (or grade) these correlations are difficult to interpret. The results of the GPA studies and the 16PF Questionnaire and HSPQ are the extent of the validity evidence for the normal personality scales.
Several studies are reported for the validity of the Work Activities Scales, some conducted prior to the addition of these scales to the APQ, using either the normative sample or a large sample of “pre-medical college students.” These studies included various other vocational measures. In most of these studies, low correlations between Work Activities scales and related measures were reported.
Validity data for the Life’s Difficulties are presented with a sample of 44 older adolescents and young adults (college students?) who were administered the MMPI and the Personality Assessment Screener (Morey, 1997). Unfortunately, this study was conducted with a development version of the Life’s Difficulties scales, which had items and scales that are different from the current version.
COMMENTARY. The 16PF APQ is one of few measures that purports to measure personality in adolescents as opposed to psychopathology. The APQ manual leaves out a great deal of information, particularly as it relates to the psychometric characteristics of this measure. The standardization sample, although adequate for adolescents ages 15 to 18, is limited for those below and above this age range. The normative sample is inadequate in size and description for the Life’s Difficulties Scales. Without a description of the age and gender composition of the approximately 197 who constitute the norm group, it is difficult to interpret the percentile ranks derived from these scales.
The manual is missing some useful information. There are no data pertaining to the means and standard deviations of the APQ scales for the standardization sample. This would be useful when interpreting the results of the Life’s Difficulties scales for which only percentile ranks are provided as scores. Noticeably missing from the reliability section is information on the standard error of measurement for the various scales. There are numerous references to other data in the author’s possession or outcomes with other samples that are supportive of reliability or validity, but are not described in the manual. The lack of complete data and tables is problematic, as is the suggestion of going to the author for more information.
The reliability of the APQ normal personality scales is low to moderate, but higher than previously reported for the HSPQ. Reliabilities for the other APQ scales are mostly low. The validity data for the APQ with adolescents below age 18 are limited. There is no systematic presentation of forms of validity (construct, criterion, convergent/discriminant, etc.) for the normal personality scales, and validity data for the other domains (e.g. Work, Life’s Difficulties) are also limited, with many of the reported correlations providing little support for validity.
SUMMARY. The 16PF APQ draws on a rich historical base, namely the High School Personality Questionnaire and the 16PF Questionnaire, with approximately 44% of its items from these two measures. In addition to the 16 normal personality factors, the APQ provides enhanced content and user value by including two brief additional measures, one of occupational preference and the other a brief screen of adolescent psychopathology. This is a commendable combination of assessment domains, particularly for adolescents. However, because of low reliability and limited evidence for validity of these latter two components, care should be taken in their use and interpretation. The relatively modest levels of reliability reported may not preclude the use of the APQ in some counseling settings where clinical decisions are typically not based upon such results.
The 16PF APQ is one of the few measures designed to assess “personality” of adolescents. A similar measure, the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (Millon, 1982), has its own set of problems (Reynolds & Sattler, 2001) and cannot be recommended over the 16PF APQ. In keeping consistent with the previous perspectives of personality that were operationalized by the HSPQ and 16PF Questionnaire, the APQ may have kept itself from a more natural evolution to a more contemporary perspective of personality, such as that reflected by the big five. It may be that further research will lend greater support for the use of this measure.
Cattell, R. B., Cattell, M. D., & Johns, E. (1984). Manual and norms for the High School Personality Questionnaire. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
Holland, J. L. (1973). Making vocational choices: A theory of careers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Morey, L. C. (1997). Personality Assessment Screener. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Reynolds, W. M., & Sattler, J. M. (2001). Assessment of behavioral, social and emotional competencies in children and adolescents. In J. M. Sattler (Ed.), Assessment of children: Behavioral and clinical applications, (4TH Ed., pp. 163-188) Costa Mesa, CA: Jerome Sattler, Pub.
Review of the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire by SUSAN C. WHISTON, Professor of Counseling and Educational Psychology, and JENNIFER C. BOUWKAMP, Doctoral Student Counseling Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN:
DESCRIPTION. The 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (APQ) is a 205-item instrument designed to measure aspects of normal personality in adolescents ages 12 to 22 years. This instrument was designed for use in situations where personality is relevant, such as educational adjustment, personal or social difficulty, and passage through developmental tasks. The APQ includes four sections: (a) Personal Style, (b) Problem Solving, (c) Work Activity Preferences, and (d) Life’s Difficulties (optional items concerning matters known to be difficult for adolescents). The first three sections provide valuable information to professionals who counsel adolescents related to personal and family issues and to those who assist adolescents in academic and career decision making. The APQ is also designed to indicate learning styles and provide information that can be used in developing Individualized Education Programs. When the Life’s Difficulties section is administered with the three other sections, the APQ is appropriate for screening and addressing sensitive topics in the counseling situation, although results are not intended for diagnosis.
The APQ is easy to administer with all four sections contained in one booklet, and administration time is around 65 minutes for all 205 items. Students indicate their responses on an answer sheet where each item has two or three choices depending on the section. The Life’s Difficulties section is set off from the other three by a blank page indicating that the student is not to go on unless directed to do so by the test administrator.
Both computerized scoring and hand scoring using a disk are available. The results using either method are organized into four areas: (a) Testing Indices, (b) Normal Personality and Ability, (c) Work Activities, and (d) Life’s Difficulties (if administered). Testing Indices includes Impression Management, Missing Responses, and Central Responses. Normal Personality and Abilities includes the Global Factors of Extraversion, Anxiety, Tough-Mindedness, Independence, and Self-Control, under which the Primary Factors of Warmth, Reasoning, Emotional Stability, Dominance, Liveliness, Rule-Consciousness, Social Boldness, Sensitivity, Vigilance, Abstractedness, Privateness, Apprehension, Openness to Change, Self-Reliance, Perfectionism, and Tension are discussed. The Work Activities provides information ranking the young person’s preferences for occupational types using John Holland’s (1973) typology of Manual, Scientific, Artistic, Helping, Sales/Management, and Procedural. Life’s Difficulties supplies information on Personal Discomfort (Discouragement, Worry, Poor Body Image, and Overall Discomfort), “Getting in Trouble” (Anger or Aggression, Problems with Authority, Alcohol or Drugs, and Overall Trouble), the Context in which difficulties are experienced (Home, and School), and Coping (Social Competence, Task Competence, Problem Solving, Utilizing One’s Social Network, Reason of Strong Values, and Attitude Change).
Two computerized reports, with separate sections of feedback for the adolescent and for the professional, are also available from The Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT): (a) the APQ Guidance Report and (b) the APQ Psychological Report. Both reports provide scores on the normal personality factors and their related Global Factors, as well as the Work Activities scales, and some administrative indices. The Guidance Report does not include information on the Life’s Difficulties section and is designed for school counselors or qualified teachers in developing academic or therapeutic strategies. On the other hand, the Psychological Report has the same three sections and the results of the Life’s Difficulties items. This report is more appropriate for clinical applications and is based on items addressing sexual matters, violent feelings and actions, serious worry and despondency, and other similar thoughts and behaviors.
DEVELOPMENT. The APQ is one measure in the family of tests originally authored by Raymond B. Cattell and colleagues beginning with the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) for adults. The APQ specifically evolved from the High School Personality Questionnaire (HSPQ; Cattell, Cattell, & Johns, 1984). Cattell used what is often called the domain sampling method, where one starts with a defined domain (e.g., personality) and seeks to identify the number and nature of a relatively few variables that capture the meaning of that domain. Cattell and colleagues would write items to represent the domain of interest and then use factor analysis to discern the number and nature of the variables that define the structure of the domain. Following this method throughout the research phases of the APQ, there were three sequential forms of the instrument: (a) a 240-item research version, (b) a 264-item research version, and (c) a 284-item standardization version.
Before creation of the final version of the APQ, items in the Personality and Ability section had been through several revisions and extensive testing. In the final factor analysis, items were merged into “parcels” of two or three items each, according to item correlations and the manifest content of the items. For the Work Activities section, the items were written to reflect Holland’s six-trait model, and factor analyses were performed with a mix of adolescent and adult clients from various settings. The problem content areas for the Life’s Difficulties section were based on a review of common content scales among existing pathology instruments, as well as a review of the then current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). Data for this section were collected with only 80 normal high school students from Florida and Cleveland, 37 adolescents referred to a mental health center in Illinois, and 29 adolescents referred to school psychologists for a variety of problems. The final review and revision of items on the Life’s Difficulties section was conducted by IPAT staff and practitioners familiar with adolescent psychology.
TECHNICAL. There were a total of 1,460 young persons involved in the final standardization sample. Of these, 1,050 completed only the Normal Personality and Ability, and Work Activities sections, and another 410 also completed the Life’s Difficulties section. Of these 410 young people, 213 were in clinical settings. In age, roughly 6% were between 11 and 14; 88% between 15 and 18; and another 6% between 19 and 21. There was close to an even split on gender, with 47% male and 53% female. Concerning geographic representation, the preponderance of the sample (67%) was from the north-central section of the United States. Of the other participants, 14% were from the south-central U.S., 7% from the northeast, and 6% from both the southeast and west. No data pertaining to race or ethnicity were mentioned in the description of the standardization sample.
Coefficient alphas for the Normal Personality and Ability section vary from a low of .64 (Openness to Change) to a high of .83 for (Social Boldness), a pattern that matches that of the 16PF Fifth Edition. The average over the 16 factors was .72, with the Global Factors having higher reliabilities than the Primary Factors. Test-retest reliabilities (interval of 1 week) ranged from a low of .44 for Reasoning to a high of .95 for Abstractedness. The Global Factors averaged .91. Stability coefficients for the Work Activities section over a period of 1 week averaged .79 over the six scales, whereas test-retest coefficients for the Life’s Difficulties section (interval of 1 week) averaged .77.
Scale validity of the APQ Normal Personality and Ability section was examined through correlations with school achievement. Four sets of data were available to address the issue of personality and school grades with the updated instrument. In particular, the relationship between the Reasoning factor and grades, which one would expect to be high, had a wide range of correlation coefficients across four studies: .27, .77, .41, and .31 (all significant at the .05 level).
Most validity data on the Work Activities section were from the research prior to its use as part of the APQ and were not discussed in the administration manual provided. The conclusion reached by the authors was that the Work Activities results are similar to those obtained from longer instruments and with similar external validity evidence. However, no compelling evidence was provided to support the use of the Work Activities section of the APQ over these other instruments.
Much of the validation evidence for the Life’s Difficulties section involved correlating it with the scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943). In our opinion, stronger evidence could have been provided by correlation of the APQ with the adolescent version of the MMPI (MMPI-A) or at least the more recent MMPI-2. Nevertheless, obtained coefficients were low with an average of .29. Additional evidence included correlations with three other external criteria resulting in coefficients of .41 with the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991), .27 with psychologists’ reports, and .23 with counselors’ reports. These comparatively low coefficients do not indicate a strong relationship between the problem behaviors assessed by the APQ and other measures of child and adolescent difficulties.
COMMENTARY AND SUMMARY. Overall, the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire appears to be a decent measure for obtaining a “snapshot” look at the typical American adolescent. Furthermore, the instrument may provide the professional with insights into how to work successfully with specific individuals. However, there are some questions remaining about its factor structure as no strong argument or compelling explanation is provided for the selection and inclusion of the three distinct scales of Normal Personality and Ability, Work Activities, and Life’s Difficulties. Some of the reliability coefficients for the Primary Factors are low and indicate that a clinician should be cautious in interpreting these results. With regard to adolescent career exploration, one may consider using instruments that incorporate the more current and widely used version of Holland’s (1985, 1997) typology. Although the six types in the 1973 version are similar to the more current version, a significant amount of career information and resources use the more current version rather than the terms Holland used almost 30 years ago. Similarly, although the Life’s Difficulties section is well-intentioned as an indicator of adolescent troubles, much of the validation evidence seems somewhat outdated and needs to be more substantial before we could recommend extensive use. A strength of the APQ is that it purports to measure the “Big Five” factors of personality for adolescents; however, its limitation indicates the instrument should be used cautiously and with other clinical measures.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Cattell, R. B., Cattell, M. D., & Johns, E. (1984). Manual and norms for the High School Personality Questionnaire. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.
Cattell, R. B., Eber, H. W., & Tatsuoka, M. M. (1970). Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.
Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1943). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Holland, J. L. (1973). Making vocational choices: A theory of careers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Holland, J. L. (1985). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.