Teaching Processes, TWS Standards, & Indicators
Mississippi Valley State University
Table of Contents
Contextual Factors ………………………………………………………….1
Learning Goals ………………………………………………………………2
Design for Instructions………………………………………………..….…4
Instructions for Decision- Making/Reflection and Self Evaluation…..…….5
There are several contextual factors that may contribute to the function of a classroom in many schools across the country. Some of these factors are more relevant depending upon the demographics of the school. Some of the factors that affect the teaching and learning in my classroom are the racial, socioeconomic, geographic location and community involvement in of the community. As of right now, I am teaching in small school located in Clarksdale, MS. I teach 7th and 8th grade keyboarding and I also teach 10th-12th graders Computer Technology. Majority of the students I teach are African- American. Out of the 46 students that teach, only two of these students are of Caucasian race. This is not surprising being that Clarksdale is a predominantly black community that is located in the Tri- Delta area. With that being said, there are nine schools who are a part of the district. Four of these schools are elementary school, two are middle schools and the rest are high schools. In regard to the classroom factors, my classroom is located on the first floor of the school at the end of the hall on the left. As a teacher and an educator, I arrive to the class twenty minutes before my students to make sure that the daily tasks are prepared and also to ensure that everything is in order to begin the day. I also arrive early to make sure that each student has arrived on time and to record who is present for the day. Instead of desks in my classroom, I have tables with four computers on each table (two computers on each side). I also have the keyboard covered so that each student can learn how to properly use the keyboard without look at it. I have an even number of 26 computers in the classroom. In the beginning of the classroom is where my desk sits and a smartboard. On my desk is a laptop and a desktop computer. I have a few posters on the wall that contains the meaning of keyboarding, the important aspects and also the meaning of computer technology. I teach a lesson each class and
test my students on their knowledge on Fridays. I teach the 8th and 9th graders for my first and second period. My third period is free and my 4th -7th period is 10th-12th graders. In regard to the characteristics of my students, they understand that they are consequences that comes with breaking the rules in the classroom. I do not have many issues with my students, some of them talk more than others. Majority of my students make sure their work and their homework are complete. One student never completes her homework or either turn it in late. With that being said, we discussed our issues as class and work one methods and solutions to our issues so that each student can complete their learning goals.
I also feel that many contextual factors affect learning and teaching within the classroom. When dealing with socioeconomics of the community many factors can make a large impact on the classroom effectiveness. When students come from lower-income areas within the community many other things are factors in simply coming to school. Things such as nutrition, lack of materials, responsibilities at home and lack of support at home play a large part in both the learning of the students and how the teacher will be able to teach the student. When it comes to how the community supports the school there is a very large contribution from the surrounding businesses and religious organizations. When thinking about the school the contextual factors that affect teaching and learning are great. Teachers must try to direct instruction based on the interest of the students within the school which will possibly drive the learning of the students. I believe that if teachers use materials that are interesting to the students to teach the students will participate more and have a better interest for learning.
Majority of my students make sure their work and their homework are complete. One student never completes her homework or either turn it in late. With that being said, we discussed our issues as class and work one methods and solutions to our issues so that each student can complete their learning goals.
In regard to the 7th and 8th grader, their learning goal consists of striking each key with the correct finger, keeping the correct posture while typing, looking at the screen and not their hands when typing and typing the given correct words a minute. Learning goals have set a goal for typing progress within a given timeframe (say by Thanksgiving), have them take periodic typing tests on a monthly (or more frequent if they’re typing more often) basis. Each month they can record their new WPM alongside their goal and track the progress they are making. I have also given the students 2-3 timed typing tests from beginning of the year. Have students average their WPM from these and use this number as their starting point to set goals of become faster in typing and averaging more words a minute. Students should grow between 3-5 words per minute over the course of a school year, so therefore students are practicing 20-30 minutes per week. If students will be spending more time typing, they’re likely to see more growth and meet their goals of typing at least 30wpm. Once students have reached the goals, I find a fun way to celebrate students as they meet their goals. For example, I post the name one a colored blank keyboard outside the door.
In regard to the learning goals for my high school 10th -12th graders, it is important that students are familiar with problem-solving skills, become familiar with programmer techniques, and understanding the perspective of computing and applying the skills to technological tools. These are the important learning goals that students must meet to successfully pass the courses. The goals of computer science will surely prepare students for the for jobs in industry, business or government, and to provide support courses for students in engineering, mathematics, technology and other fields requiring computing skills. Student must learn the concepts underlying many different solutions to problems. Only by knowing these concepts can a student extend the knowledge gained in school into new situations. The goal is to make sure students in Computer Science acquire an in-depth knowledge of a wide range of computer science topics. Attain knowledge of the overall scope of the computing field and its subfields, and the emerging technologies in computing.
In regard to assessment planning for keyboarding, students must be able to perform over 70% of the skills that are needed to successfully complete this course. This particular assessment begins with directions and instructions to type a professional letter. Keep in mind the students only have one hour to complete this particular assessment. The students must meet the first goals of typing (25 WPM). Students are also given assessment of vocabulary that goes with each unit. The students must be able to open and access Microsoft word, access editing tools while typing and also be able to properly read and understand each document. Students must complete this assessment all while keeping their wrist off the tables and making minimum mistakes. There are different ways students are assessed. Direct and indirect assessment methods are being used to demonstrate the attainment of each outcome or goal. Most tying assessment are given on Typin.com that include timed typing test. Other assessments are given on Kahoot or Quizizz for vocabulary.
The assessment plan for my Computer technology class consists of students becoming familiar with computer technology, students understanding how Microsoft software systems work and students also solving techniques that are related to algorithmic, codes and data systems. Since Computer Science is relatively new programs and the education department is designing and implementing an assessment plan from the ground up. The plan itself has also been under continuous revision and improvement. Those instruments are activities that are to be graded and are part of the work used in the course to determine the final grade of the students. For example, they could be: Quizzes, Specific exercises in exams, Home works, Projects, Laboratory work,
Written reports, and Oral presentations. We have design, implement, evaluate and test a software system that meets a given set of computing requirements. Student must also Apply computer science theory, knowledge of computer systems and software development fundamentals to produce computing-based solutions. Student artifacts can and will be a combination of embedded test questions and questions from homework assignments. Overall, the computer science assessment plan consists of a mission statement and a list of learning goals. The learning goals are measurable features of our computer science students that can be used to assess student learning in a meaningful way. Each learning goal has one or more assessment methods. The assessment methods are measurements we use to determine whether the learning goals are being met. Each assessment method has one or more success criteria. The success criteria specify what results from the assessment methods are considered satisfactory.
Design for Instructions
As an educator who teaches a vast number of students who derived from a different background it is important to understand instructional strategies and how to integrate them to meet the educational needs of my students. It is also vital to remember that students may have learning disabilities while other students are considered fast learners. When it comes to addressing the educational needs of the students, it is important to take into consideration the academic standards required for the grade, how to correlate assessments and how to assimilate relevant information.
Being that I teach computer science to 11th and 12th graders, my first instructional design will be indicating my students understand the concept of computing. My 7th and 8th grader will be working on ways to increase their keyboarding skills being that I also teach Keyboarding I. This is where I make sure my students understand the tools or skills that should be incorporated to complete this course. Keep in mind this is a computer class, so my students will be working with technology every day. Both of the lessons for each grade will focus on artificial intelligence, machine learning and black box. My goal consists of teaching the students in the 7th and 8th grade the material at a lower level.
On Monday, I will give the students a list of definitions. We will use technological methods such as applications used to help students become familiar with the given vocabulary words. My 7th and 8th graders will learn ten words while my 11th and 12th graders will learn twenty words; “ Mapped to CSTA standards, the course takes a wide lens on computer science by covering topics such as problem solving, programming, physical computing, user-centered design, and data, while inspiring students as they build their own websites, apps, games, and physical computing devices” (www.CODE.org, 2021).
On Tuesday I will discuss the lecture with my students. Instead of writing the notes, I allow my students to type and print the notes down at the end of the class. The main point of is this lesson is revolved around Artificial Intelligence. The lesson will contain objectives such as the main reasoning for AI, how is implemented in one’s everyday life and the types of AI. I will use the same lecture format for both classes. At the end of keyboarding, I will ask my students, What AI tool would he or she find helpful in the future. At the end of Computer Science, I will ask my students to write a paragraph explain what impact Artificial Intelligence will have in their life in the past, present and future for their homework assignment. I would like to make sure that my students are getting something out of the lesson.
On Wednesdays, I will implement the use of pre assessments by quizzing my students on their vocabulary words. Most of time over 85% of the class passes their quizzes. Once the students finish their quizzes (For my high school), I will assign an research assignment based on finding the different of artificial intelligence and explain how to incorporate the item in their future career; “Understanding academic achievement (AA) is one of the most global challenges, as there is evidence that it is deeply intertwined with economic development, employment, and countries’ wellbeing” (Cruz-Jesus, et al., 2020) For my Jr. High students, we will work on basic typing skills and the important keys.
On Thursdays I will allow my students to finish working on yesterday’s assignment. I will also allow my students to create a PowerPoint based on the material they have learned throughout the week. My high school PowerPoints will have at least 10 slides while my Jr. High students’ PowerPoints will have at least five points. Those who have completed their assignments will have a chance to view their notes and focus on the test that will be issued Friday.
On Friday I will give my students 15 minutes to work on their PowerPoint and the rest of the class. Students will present their PowerPoints in the beginning of next week. At the end of the week, I want my students to understand these objectives:
- Vocabulary and Technology associated with AI.
- Types of AI
- Purpose of Image Recognition
With that being said, there are several technological resources that were implemented throughout this lesson. Here is a weekly Visual Chart of the activities that took place this week.
Teacher: Tamela Fair SUBJECT: Computer Science/Keyboarding GRADE: 8th-12th Date:
|Objectives/Standards||Target Skills||Essential Question|
|Unit 6: Artificial Intelligence2. Describe how AI is used and its impactIdentify the type of AI being usedGain an understanding of how AI is changing different sectors (e.g., medicine, agriculture. etc.)||Check all that apply:(X) Knowledge Target (K,C, DOK 1)() Reasoning Target (AN, E, DOK 3)(X) Performance/Skill (AP, DOK 2)( ) Product Target (S, DOK 4)||What is Image Recognition?What is Speech Recognition?|
|Key Vocabulary Words:Computer Science- Artificial Intelligence, autonomous, machine learning, black box, neural network, deep learning, natural language processing, reinforcement learning, supervised learning, unsupervised learning, transfer learning, Turing Test, image recognition, speech recognition, translation, sectors|
|Lesson Introduction: Anticipatory Set/ Hook/ Focus||Teacher will introduce terms to class. Teacher will have students to write terms and review terms via Quizizz.Teacher will introduce lesson and objectives & standards.|
|Direct Instruction: (Teach & Model—“I DO”):||Teacher will reintroduce the lesson and objectives and standards for week.Teacher will teach students about AI.|
|Work Period: (Guided Instruction-“We Do”/Collaborative Groups)||Teacher will give students assignment of researching different version of AI and what areas of the career force they are being utilized.Keyboarding Keys Q ,Basic Writing|
|Independent Practice: (“You Do”)||Teacher will give students more time to complete the assignment. Once, they are done researching they will created a PowerPoint slide of the gather information.Keyboarding Keys Q ,Basic Writing|
|Extended Independent Practice||Asynchronous assignments based on this week’s lesson and ReadWorks.org|
|Lesson Closing||Give me one term you know and write a sentence using the term.||Put in your own words the definition of one vocabulary term.||What type of AI recognitions do you prefer?||What items do you have right now that involves image recognition?|
|Lesson Resources||MDE INSTRUCTUREquizizz.comCode.orgYoutube||MDE.INSTRUCTUREK12 ReaderCode.orgYoutube||Tying.com/EduTypingteacherspayteachers.comCode.orgK12 Reader||Tying.com/EduTypingCode.orgWix.comK12 Reader||Tying.com/EduTypingGoogle FormsCode.org|
|Remediation/Enrichment/Intervention||quizizz.com – for terms||quizizz. om – for terms||quizizz.com – for terms|
|Homework||Write Each Vocabulary Term in a complete sentence and give an example of the term.||None|
Instructional Decision Making
Lesson plan modifications are an essential part of effective instruction, and the obligation of each classroom teacher. Best-practice instruction, despite how well planned will not reach all students in a diverse classroom, nor will the best-planned assessments. In this case, teachers must be prepared to alter course during and after any ongoing activity. The following case study will identify the modification(s) made based on the ongoing assessment of two struggling students. However, the modifications will also affect the outcome of learning for the entire class.
The learning goals (LGs) identified in Design for Instruction were as follows:
• LG1- Students will be able to distinguish keyboarding terms.
• LG2- Students will be able to type 25 correct words in five minutes/
• LG3- Students will be able to describe what is AI.
Response to Assessment (Student 1)
During instruction of the unit on Earth history, students were given the opportunity to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways. With regard to LG1, students would be required to include a literacy component along with their computer scientific understanding, and assessments would identify the combination of two specific skills into one (referred to as scientific investigation), via an essay. This required performance would align directly with the state and district standards in computer science in that deciphering between an observation and inference (Pennsylvania Department of Education [PDE], 2010) involves either writing (or illustration for English language learners (ELLs)).
Although a rubric was distributed prior to the development of the essay, formative assessments including personal communication and outlining identified misunderstanding among students. One student in particular could not make the connection between observing a landform and inferring its type. Pre-assessments would not have identified this misunderstanding because all students were able to define the term observation and the term inference. The problem was identified during the lesson when students were required to demonstrate the relationship between the two concepts. Without this connection, assessment of learning via a writing sample would be ineffective. In order to ensure that assessments aligned with learning goals for this student, a modification would be necessary. Fortunately, this accommodation directed at one student would prove beneficial to the entire class.
Type of Modification (Student 1)
Writing skills are essential to identify hypothesis, results, and conclusion in scientific investigations, however, Student 1 seemed intimidated by the essay request. Although the student had demonstrated understanding of a particular landform, and unknowingly inferred how it was formed, he could not transport the information into an essay. For this reason, a writing template page including lead-in sentences was created. What began as a modification for one student proved to be an effective inclusion for each student and class. Fortunately, as a result of Student 1’s assessment results (personal communication and outline), the template was introduced following the first revision. This along with the task-specific rubric allowed the class as a whole to produce an essay which aligned with and approached the learning goal.
Assessments can be used as a tool for instructional guidance, and in the modification of learning goals; however, its prime importance is in improving student performance. Effective assessment provides useful information to report to all stakeholders about students’ strengths and weaknesses. When used effectively, the data derived from assessments can have a powerful effect felt throughout the nation, state, district, and school. Analysis of data has been responsible for improving the quality of education throughout the nation by creating additional and supportive opportunities for all students. Furthermore, when assessment data is properly communicated to all educational stakeholders, the results will have a major impact on student achievement.
II. Assessment Chart
The following table (1) includes pre, during, and post-assessments aligned with the relevant learning goal (LG). This includes formal and informal assessments and analytical data retrieved from performance-based, formative, summative, and communication-based assessments. The Appendix includes examples of many of the chosen assessments as well as rubrics, checklists, rating scales, test blueprints, answer keys and other self-assessment tools.
Assessment data can be used in an assortment of ways on a large scale. Ranking and comparing students (norm-referenced) serves its function when the goal is to measure achievement and to predict future academic success, however, both norm and criterion-referenced assessment instruments prove vital in data analysis. Although not dichotomous, the approaches are necessary and complimentary. Furthermore, both influence the student diagnostic adjustments, and instructional decisions (Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, & Chappuis, 2006). The student teacher candidate, however, is presently interested in the more intricate use of assessment data; the mapping of student progress towards the learning goals. For this, she will use best-practice formative and summative assessment tools. Furthermore, assessments must be designed to reflect a variety of learning targets, including basic knowledge skills, reasoning skills, and performance skills.
According to Pelletier (Pelletier, 2004), in order to recognize if students truly understand the content, they must be able to explain, interpret, apply, persuade, create, design, and summarize the information in their own words or notes. Furthermore, the data derived from such observation of students must be documented, and communicated to all educational stakeholders. This process is evident in both the chart and appendix of this report.
The assessments must be derived from federal, state and/or district standards, and subsequently, aligned with instruction. In addition, as required by the school district, students must be able to pinpoint what they are learning, so must be of the big ideas, and essential questions in each lesson plan. The district’s requirement is an added benefit to the teacher candidate. By knowing where they are, with respect to the learning goal, as well where they would like to be, students may gain understanding through self-assessment.
Name _________________ Date___________________
Keyboarding -Tri- Weekly Test
1.The A is key is strikes with your ______ finger?
2. ASDF JKL; are your?
- Homework Keys B. Home Row Keys C. Function Keys
3. A _________ is a long bar at the bottom of a keyboard used to create a blank space in text, moving to the right one space at a time
- Space Bar B. Space Bracket C. Speed Bar
4. A Keyboard is
- The best part of the computer
- The central processing unit or a keyboard
- an arrangement of keys on a board that is attached to a computer used input data.
5. Your fingers should be ________ over the keys.
A. Straight B. Curved C. Crossed
6. _______ Slouching A. Work
7. _______ Your Feet Should Be B. Bad Habit
8. _______ Your Eyes Should Be on Your C. Flat on the Floor
9. _______ The Index Finger on Your Left-Hand D. Should Rest On F
10. By learning to type properly, you will make less errors when you type. True or False _______
11. The space bar is pressed using your ______ finger?
12. With good practice, everyone has the ability to be in strong typing. True or False
13. The space bar is located at the top of a keyboard. True or False
14. Good posture is a good habit. True or False
15. Your back should be ______ in your chair?
16. How many home row keys are there?
17. You must wear your mask and shield all day.
True or False
18. You must obey classroom rules at ________.
a. All the time
19. What is QWERTY?
a. The name of the keyboard
b. The mouse
c. A computer game
20. You must practice social distances of _____ feet.
- 5 feet
- 6 feet
- 10 feet
Reflection and Self Evaluation
Student teaching is the culmination of research, discussion, and practical experience into the art of teaching. It is also the beginning, and entrance into the profession of teaching. Student teaching requires constant reflection and self-evaluation in order to make this transition successful. It has been the chance to practice and revise before becoming emerged into this way of life.
I. Reflection and Learning Goals
According to the Interstate New Teachers’ Assessment and Support Consortium [INTASC] (1992), a teaching candidate should reflect on and analyze her performance prior to entrance into the teaching profession. As required by the Renaissance Teacher Work Sample (TWS) (Southeast Missouri State University College of Education, 2006), the teaching candidate should explore the following areas during the reflection and self-evaluation process:
Interpretation of student learning
Reflection on instruction and student learning
Insights on effective instruction and assessment
Alignment among goals, instruction and assessment
Implications for professional development
Reflection on teaching performance
Accessing special services
Ethical practice (2006, p. 7)
Furthermore, the student teaching candidate should use this reflection and self-evaluation to improve her practice prior to entrance in the teaching profession. On a personal note, this requirement needs not be stressed because reflection and self-evaluation have become a way of life. Based upon the insights and experiences gained from student teaching, the following two learning goals have emerged:
Learning Goal-LG 1. The teacher will be able to address each student as an individual during instruction and assessment. This includes understanding their abilities, circumstances, and interests.
Learning Goal-LG 2. The teacher will be able to design instruction that not only provides students with knowledge and understanding of the content, however, provides them with experience, exploration, and inspiration.
LG 1: The primary role of the educator is to provide the most effective and complete education in the classroom. The role however should include the extension of student learning to outside of the classroom walls. This will be evident in the way that students behave, participate, and make their effect in and on society. In order to take ownership of this teaching role, the educator must have knowledge and understanding of the individual student as well as the classroom as an extension of the surrounding community. Although the student teacher prepares her practice in one district, with its unique contextual factors, chances are that her career may lead to another district and new contextual factors. For this reason, professional development will be ongoing to address any changes which are necessary to address the varying strengths and weaknesses of any classroom. The goal will be to use that information to improve every student’s life regardless of circumstances.
LG 2: The instructional planning and design in the science classroom should address more than concepts, theories, and processes. Although state and district standards identify content that students must understand, in this case science and technology, the standards are not developed to be the end all with regard to instruction. This becomes the job of the classroom teacher. From these standards, she must develop learning goals and their relevant assessments. It has been through this development that the candidate has identified the importance of authentic assessment to both student achievement and its effect on society.