(Final) BHSC 244
Short answers question (Part 1)
1.Based on the repeated exposure effect, you would predict that the more times people see a foreign word, the more likely they are
2. Mary, who is very pretty marries Tom, who is very handsome. Their relationship is best understood as an example of
3. “What is beautiful is good” best expresses the meaning of which stereotype?
4. According to the _____ hypothesis, people are attracted to those whose needs are different in ways that complete each other.
5. Evolutionary explanations for gender differences have been criticized because they (2 possible answers)
6. Sincere inward conformity is to _________ as insincere outward conformity is to ________. (There are 2 answers)
7. In Asch’s experiments, people were found to conform more when they must respond publicly than when they are allowed to _____.
8. After hearing a respected medical authority lecture about the value of eating fresh fruits and vegetables, Joshua includes more of them in his diet. This change in Joshua’s eating patterns is an example of what type of social influence?
9. When Milgram conducted his first series of experiments with a sample of 20- to 50-year-old men, he found that over 60 percent of them
10. When Milgram assigned two confederates to act as fellow teachers with a third teacher, the real participant, and then had the 2 confederates defy the experimenter, the presence of defiant peers liberated the participant. When the class movie showed a replication of the experiment with only 1 defiant peer how did the results change?
11. A stranger has collapsed on a city sidewalk due to a heart attack. According to the 5 Steps to a bystander helping, what is the first thing that must happen before you will help in this emergency?
12. Even if people notice an event that they realize to be an emergency, with all those people present, _______ in the presence of other bystanders can inhibit helping.
13. In one study researchers had Princeton seminary students think about a talk they were about to have recorded in an adjacent building. Participants who had been _____ were most likely to stop and offer aid to a “victim” they encountered en route to the recording studio.
14. While on a boating trip, Clara jumps overboard to save her son Mike from drowning. This is an example of what kind of helping behavior _____?
15. During a recent house fire, a man ran into the burning building to rescue a small child that was trapped by the flames. After he emerged from the building, he handed the child over to another onlooker and disappeared into the crowd, not waiting to be thanked or recognized. This is an example of what kind of helping behavior _____.
16. Jessie’s car had a flat tire in the rain. After she managed to fix it, she arrived home late only to have a parking spot just in front of her apartment taken by a faster driver. Coming home, she kicks her dog who is waiting at the door. Jessie’s behavior is perhaps most easily explained in terms of what theory of aggression?
17. Frustration triggers the most aggression when we perceive the frustration as
18. In a famous experiment by Albert Bandura and colleagues, children watched an adult attack a Bobo doll with a mallet. They were then shown some attractive toys they were forbidden to play with. When they were taken to another room, they
19. Which neurotransmitter is known to have a biochemical influence on aggression?
20. Which behavioral action is known to reduce aggressive feelings and prevent escalating aggressive actions?
21. One thing that all groups have in common is that their members
22. Philip Zimbardo in the Stanford Prison experiment had guards all dress in the same uniforms, with sunglasses, and Billy clubs, erasing their personal identity. What aspect of deindividuation made the guards behave brutally towards the prisoners?
23. When college students are asked to work on a group project for which they will all receive the same grade, the effort from each person tends to be less than if they worked alone. What explains this effect?
24. Social facilitation predicts the presence of others is likely to lead to better performance in _____________ and to worse performance in ______________. (There are 2 answers)
25. After a Yankee’s game in which the home team loses the World Series, a crowd of fans exits and throws garbage in the streets and jumps on parked cars. This behavior is best understood in terms of
Short Essay Part 2 ,10 points each
1-Discuss the definitions of companionate and passionate love, and give examples you have witnessed of each. Discuss the changes in these types of live over time.
2- What is aggression? Give an example of a time when you witnessed an aggressive act. What theory from lecture best explains why this aggression occurred?
3- Define altruism. Based on the 5 steps discussed in the text, pick and define one step, using it to describe a way we could increase helping (altruistic) behavior in the United States.
4- Define normative and informational social influence and describe an instance when you experienced normative or informational social influence pressures to conform to a group’s norm.
5- Explain how self-awareness is the opposite of deindividuation. Give an example you have witnessed or know of deindividuation.