routine medical checkup

Ms. A, age 35, was given a Pap test during a routine medical checkup. The test showed marked dysplasia of cervical cells but no sign of infection.

  1. Discuss the purposes and uses of diagnostic testing and how it applies in this scenario. 
  • A diagnostic testing is done to determine whether an individual has a specific disease, in this scenario, a case of dysplasia, a pap- test was performed to determine if the woman has any cancerous syndrome.
  1. Discuss how the following terms might apply to this scenario:
  • Prognosis: is the probable outcome of the determined disease, by doing the pap- test, it would help the doctors understand the disease and determine the best possible treatment.
  • latent stage: in the latent stage there is exposure and display of symptoms but because the woman does not display symptoms yet, so she is not considered to be in the latent stage.
  • Remission: The symptoms and signs of the diseases are subsided.  Remission in this case may be done on time because of early diagnosis.
  • Exacerbations: means an increase in the signs and symptoms of a disease. In this case exacerbation does not apply because of early detection of the disease.
  • predisposing factors: the predisposing factor is the growth of the cancerous, which is determined by the pap test.
  1. Compare and contrast the various types of common cellular adaptations, focusing on dysplasia and the testing for this condition. 
  • Hyperplasia is the increase in number of cell tissues, metaplasia is the conversion of one type of cell to another by result of inability to adapt to changes in its environment while dysplasia is the presence of abnormal cells in a tissue, this abnormality results in loss of uniformity of cells which can be triggered by cell maturation or differentiation.

Mrs. A’s baby girl, Baby C, who is 3 months old, has had severe watery diarrhea accompanied by fever for 24 hours. She is apathetic and responds weakly to stimulation. The condition has been diagnosed as viral gastroenteritis.

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  1. List the major losses resulting from diarrhea and fever. 
  • Excessive amount of fluid, water and electrolytes such as sodium and potassium
  1. List other signs or data that would provide helpful information. 
  • The baby’s pulse rate, pulse rate is used to determine fluid loss
  • The baby’s dehydration rate, used to determine the duration and occurrence.
  • The baby’s physical appearances like, weight loss, sunken eyes and visible dizziness, restlessness or fever.
  • Blood pressure rate.
  1. Explain several reasons why infants become dehydrated very quickly. 
  • Major portion of a baby is made of fluid
  • The metabolic rate of a baby is greater than that of an adult.
  • The kidney of a baby does not preserve water the way an adult’s kidney would
  • Because a baby’s immune system is not fully developed put them at higher risk of illnesses.

Baby C was tested for PKU shortly after birth (as required by law), the results indicated toxic levels of phenylalanine breakdown products in the blood.

  1. Explain how dietary changes can affect the expression of PKU. 
  • Dietary change will reduce the level of metabolites of phenylalanine by avoiding protein rich diets and artificial sweetener, because the trigger toxicity of phenylketonuria.
  1. Discuss the cause of the disease and the probable percentages of inheritance of the disease in children the couple might have in the future. 
  • It is cause due to deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and a mutation in PAH gene.
  • If both parents are carriers the transfer percentage to child is 25 percent and the child’s chances of being a carrier is 50 percent.

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