Research Paper: What is the role of a manager in succession planning in a healthcare organization

Leading Tomorrow’s Healthcare Organizations: Strategies and Tactics for Effective Succession Planning Author(syf $ Q Q 6 F R W W % O R X L Q . D W K U \ Q – 0 F ‘ R Q D J K $ O O \ V R Q 0 1 H L V W D G W D Q G % U D G O H y Helfand Source: The Journal of Nursing Administration, Vol. 36, No. 6, Special Issue Devoted to Strategic Succession Management (JUNE 2006yf S S 0 Published by: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26818787 Accessed: 09-11-2021 21:07 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at https://about.jstor.org/terms Lippincott Williams & Wilkins is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Journal of Nursing Administration This content downloaded from 150.210.226.99 on Tue, 09 Nov 2021 21:07:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms JONA Volume 36, Number 6, pp 325-330 ©2006, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. THE JOURNAL OF NURSING ADMINISTRATION Leading Tomorrow’s Healthcare Organizations Strategies and Tactics for Effective Succession Planning Ann Scott Blouin, PhD, RN Kathryn 0. McDonagh, PhD, RN, FAAN Allyson M. Neistadt, MPH Bradley Helfand, MA, MPH Hospitals and health systems today are challenged by the lack of consistent workforce planning which has resulted in a significant dearth of effective suc cession planning strategies and tactics for the ex ecutive suite as well as middle management. This article discusses how the healthcare industry lags behind other corporate organizations in creating a succession plan and in retaining top leadership talent. It also provides practical approaches for suc cession planning in healthcare and identifies the key elements of succession planning for the chief execu tive officer and other senior leaders. “My main job was developing talent. I was a gardener providing water and other nourishment to our top 750 people. Of course, I had to pull out some weeds, too.”1 – Jack Welch Jack Welch, the iconic former chief executive officer (CEOyf R I * H Q H U D O ( O H F W U L F & R U S R U D W L R Q Z D V F U H G L W H d with having a “green thumb” when it came to growing leaders in his proverbial garden of talent. However, he never attempted to apply his executive cultivation techniques to the healthcare delivery field, where a harsh climate of shrinking margins, noncompetitive compensation packages, missed mentoring and leadership development opportuni ties, and ill-defined career paths have created a Authors’ affiliations: Principal (Dr Blouinyf 0 D Q D J H U 0 s Neistadtyf D Q G 6 H Q L R U & R Q V X O W D Q W 0 U + H O I D Q G \f, Deloitte Con sulting, LLP, Strategy & Operations Practice, Chicago, 111; Chief Executive Officer (Dr McDonaghyf & + 5 , 6 7 8 6 6 S R K Q + H D O W h System, Corpus Christi, Tex. Corresponding author: Dr Ann Scott Blouin, Deloitte Consult ing, LLP, 111 South Wacker, Chicago, IL 60606 (annblouin@ deloitte.comyf . widely recognized draught of future leaders.2’3 The leadership crisis at the top is exacerbated by high turnover rates. According to the American Hospital Association, the median tenure for CEOs is only 4 years.4 A supporting longitudinal study (1995-2002yf of CEO turnover at worldwide publicly traded companies (N = 2,500yf I R X Q G W K D W K H D O W K F D U H \b annual turnoveryf D O R Q J Z L W K W H O H F R P P X Q L F D W L R Q V , energy, and information technology ranked as the “highest risk” industries for executive departure.5 The industry is increasingly challenged to find internal talent to fill these frequent vacancies. It has become more common to see a hospital board of directors coax a CEO out of retirement, such as Northern Arizona Healthcare did with Fred Brown, the former chief executive of BJC Healthcare or look to an industry outsider, as was the case with Detroit Medical Center when they appointed former Wayne County Prosecutor Michael Duggan as CEO. Although there is no “quick fix” solution, healthcare organizations must begin to follow the private sec tor’s lead in taking a disciplined approach toward succession planning that will yield sustained leader ship talent over time. The purposes of this article are to abstract leading practices from within the industry and the private sector and to summarize the most effective succession planning tactics in the context of a “real-world” case study at a health system in Texas. Succession Planning and Its Implications for Organizational Continuity Continuity is a vital aspect of effective organiza tions. This is an axiom that may have even greater JONA • Vol. 36, No. 6 • June 2006 325 Leading Tomorrow’s Healthcare Organizations Strategies and Tactics for Effective Succession Planning Ann Scott Blouin, PhD, RN Kathryn J. McDonagh, PhD, RN, FAAN ALLyson M. Neistadt, MPH Bradley Helfand, MA, MPH Hospitals and health systems today are challenged by the lack of consistent workforce planning which has resulted in a significant dearth of effective suc cession planning strategies and tactics for the ex ecutive suite as well as middle management. This article discusses how the healthcare industry lags behind other corporate organizations in creating a succession plan and in retaining top leadership talent. It also provides practical approaches for suc cession planning in healthcare and identifies the key elements of succession planning for the chief execu tive officer and other senior leaders. This content downloaded from 150.210.226.99 on Tue, 09 Nov 2021 21:07:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms relevance for hospitals, whose executive leadership and clinical services are tightly woven into the fabric of the surrounding community.6″8 Disrup tion in an organization’s continuity can have dire consequences, according to executive search firm Witt/Kiefer: “Health care faces numerous chal lenges when it does not plan succession: loss of confidence from the community and employees; unfinished business; negative impact on financing; and evisceration of image and history.”9 Unlike other challenges faced by hospitals in areas such as reimbursement, regulation, and technology adop tion, where trends develop gradually over time, threats to continuity often cannot be anticipated ahead of the immediate event. In the recent case of McDonald’s, the sudden and unexpected deaths of consecutive chief execu tives Jim Cantalupo and Charlie Bell created a high profile example of organizations needing to manage worst-case scenarios.10 Although McDonald’s rep resents the extreme end of the spectrum, both in the nature of chief executive departure and the quality of response to the succession challenge, it raises serious concerns about preparedness in an industry where only 21yb R I I U H H V W D Q G L Q J K R V S L W D O V S R V V H V V a CEO succession plan compared with 64yb R f private-sector companies.4’11 Those hospitals that choose not to invest in succession planning, accord ing to a survey done by Andrew Garman and Larry Tyler, outline reasons such as “not a high enough priority right now (46yb \f,” “current CEO is too new (31yb \f,” and “no internal candidate to prepare (25yb – 7 K H V H W \ S H V R I U H V S R Q V H V I U R P K R V S L W D l chief executives and boards may represent a mis understanding of the intrinsic value and criticality of succession planning to the organization’s strategic mission and operational goals. The Scope of Succession Planning Succession planning is often overly simplified as the process of selecting the next chief executive. In fact, it extends well beyond the executive search and appointment process into areas such as leadership development programs, mentoring networks, per formance assessment, governance theory, aligning organizational goals with human capital, and overall workforce planning. It is essentially the process of building the internal leadership “pipeline.” When that pipeline is broken or nonexistent, it forces organizations to shift their sole focus to external sources of candidates who have been shown to have lower success rates than those promoted internally. Several studies have documented that outsiders have a 50yb R U J U H D W H U I D L O X U H U D W H L Q W K H L U Q H Z F K L H f executive role, although insiders fail 40yb R U O H V V R f the time in the same position.13’14 Lessons on Succession Planning From Industry and General Business Literature The existing literature on succession planning can be subdivided into 2 broad groups: healthcare-focused and general business. Publications in the healthcare field are primarily being produced by affiliates of executive search firms. The management literature on succession planning tends to be specific and uses case studies and tools to shape recommendations. Rothwell’s article “Putting Success into Your Succes sion Planning” has an entire section dedicated to the question of “Should You Worry [About Succession Planning]?” and offers a scorecard tool to determine if the previously occupied position’s responsibilities should be reallocated within the organization or passed on to a successor.15 One might argue that the analogy between succession planning for a major Fortune 500 public company and a 250-bed suburban community hospital can be described as tenuous. Is it realistic that “X hospital” will be able to implement a sophisticated workforce planning human resources information system like the one used by Eli Lilly?16 Can a not-for-profit health system, with its account ability to community stakeholders, afford to take the same pure performance appraisal-driven ap proach of weeding out 10yb R U P R U H R I W R S O H Y H l managers as Jack Welch did during his tenure at General Electric? As an illustrative business example, in his article “Ending the CEO Succession Crisis,” Charan dis cusses the performance assessment model used by General Electric called “Session C,” their annual dialogue for how leadership resources compare to business strategy.11 In his description of Session C, otherwise known as “tandem assessment,” Charan gives pointed details about the process. The who consists of approximately 20 to 25 potential CEO candidates. The what is described as a 3- to 4-hour interview with human resources executives outside of the candidate’s own business unit. The where includes an organization-wide fact-finding mission to collect 360-degree reviews, massive reference checks, interviews with superiors, subordinates, and peers, psychological examinations, etc. The when occurs annually. The why, in essence, gives the candidate 2 new mentors to expand their network because the process gives the candidate a mirror into their leadership evolution and by 326 JONA • Vol. 36, No. 6 • June 2006 d of the spectrum, both in the ive departure and the quality uccession challenge, it raises t preparedness in an industry eestanding hospitals possess a n compared with 64yb R f lies.4’11 Those hospitals that l succession planning, accord iy Andrew Garman and Larry such as “not a high enough yb \f,” “current CEO is too new ternal candidate to prepare yf H V R I U H V S R Q V H V I U R P K R V S L W D l boards may represent a mis itrinsic value and criticality of o the organization’s strategic Lai goals. ssion Planning often overly simplified as the should be passed on t One n succession company ; hospital ca that “X h sophisticatf informa tioi Can a not-i ability to c the same proach of managers £ General El« As an i “Ending th cusses the General El dialogue fc business sti otherwise 1 This content downloaded from 150.210.226.99 on Tue, 09 Nov 2021 21:07:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms assigning 2 human resource executives outside of the candidate’s business unit to conduct the inter view. Finally, the how is the final product of a 15- to 20-page report charting the candidate’s work and development that goes to the candidate, their busi ness leader, their human resource leader, and to corporate headquarters where it is read by General Electric’s chairman, 3 vice chairman, and Senior Vice President for human resources. Perspectives offered in the healthcare literature may be potentially narrow or biased at times, but recognize the unique challenges of the industry. Perspectives offered in the general business literature tend to be very specific in their recommendations and case studies, yet may lack direct applicability to the organizational characteristics of hospitals. We propose that combining the 2 approaches yields a more comprehensive view of succession planning. The Importance of Leadership Development Programs to Succession Planning Collins notes in Good to Great that companies that excelled long term focused on who first and then what.17 Even before sorting out an effective strategy for the organization, they first got the right people “on the bus” and the wrong people “off the bus.” Thus, an effective leadership development program is absolutely vital to become and remain a thriving and successful organization. One of the best examples of a rigorous leader ship development plan was the one initiated by Jack Welch at General Electric.18 This plan was referred to as the “vitality curve;” it differentiated leaders through a ranking process and rewarded top per formers through promotions, salary increases, stock options, and other recognition. CHRISTUS Spohn Health System: A Case Study in Leadership Development Using Jack Welch’s type of approach for leadership development, CHRISTUS Spohn Health System located in Corpus Christi, Tex, initiated a robust leadership development program. Due to the lack of certain skills and talent necessary to fulfill the organization’s goals, the CEO set out to address succession planning needs. The executive team made a unified commitment to remove marginal leaders, import new high-performing leaders from the out side, and focus on the development of the leaders in place (designated as the leadership portfolio pro cessyf 6 S H F L I L F D O O \ H D F K O H D G H U L Q W K H R U J D Q L ] D W L R n developed an individual leadership portfolio in collaboration with their executive. The portfolio included educational background, credentials, and experience in leadership and a plan for development. In addition to the portfolio, the executive team ranked each leader either an “A,” “B,” or “C.” Criteria were developed for each category so the ranking process had internal consistency across the organization. Those designated as “A” players were high-performing leaders who were provided rewards, specialized mentoring, and educational courses, as well as given challenging assignments. Most impor tantly, “A” players also receive the personal time investment of executives committed to their career goals, including the CEO. A career plan is devel oped with opportunities for new experiences built into that person’s agenda. Although “B” leaders are solid players, they have certain leadership developmental needs. An action plan to address those needs is developed with the assistance of their assigned executive and staff in the organizational development department. Because most leaders are in this category, all leadership courses are focused on the needs of this group and the requirements of the organization. In addition, “A” leaders and senior executives act as mentors to “B” players to assist them in their growth and development. “C” players are ineffective leaders and are given a 90-day workplan to either improve significantly or be removed from their leadership position. The leadership portfolio process has raised the expecta tions of leaders dramatically in the organization. This new approach helps avoid the tendency to focus on short-term crises. It highlights how weak leader ship and lack of planning affect the organization in the long run. Thus, a commitment to leadership excellence becomes a part of the culture and creates a magnet effect for future leaders and staff who value the support of strong leadership. Translating Theory Into Practice: Tactical Strategies for Succession Planning As organizations wrestle with leadership transitions and effective stewardship of scarce resources, boards must assume a primary role and considerable inter est in identifying and retaining potential successors for today’s senior leadership positions. The dearth of experienced, educated healthcare administrators, especially where a clinical background is deemed a requisite or helpful context, exacerbates the diffi culty in succession planning around today’s retiring middle and senior managers. Specific strategies and JONA • Vol. 36, No. 6 • June 2006 327 specific in their recommendations inv( yet may lack direct applicability goa ional characteristics of hospitals. ope combining the 2 approaches yields intc insive view of succession planning. hav acti e of Leadership Development accession Planning mo< Irood to Great that companies that cou m focused on who first and then the are sorting out an effective strategy “A” ion, they first got the right people “B” 1 the wrong people “off the bus.” dev ; leadership development program I to become and remain a thriving a 91 ganization. or 1 •est examples of a rigorous leader- leac : plan was the one initiated by Jack tion Electric.18 This plan was referred Thi: y curve;” it differentiated leaders on : ig process and rewarded top per- ship nrr*mnfir*nc colonr inrrpicpc ctr>rl/ flip This content downloaded from 150.210.226.99 on Tue, 09 Nov 2021 21:07:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms tactics can be applied from other industries and businesses to pragmatically prepare for the inevitable leadership transitions that occur with retirement, promotion, geographic relocation, and life events. Strategies and tactics that promote effective suc cession planning for healthcare management posi tions are shown in Figure 1. As individual leaders join a healthcare organization, an assessment of their potential for future success based on their at tributes, abilities, and career objectives should be initiated and routinely “refreshed.” For example, Colgate-Palmolive starts formal leadership evalua tion in the first year of employment.13 Skills essen tial for tomorrow’s leaders in healthcare include effecting strategic growth and improved revenues; managing quality, cost and service expectations; implementing effective communications and nego tiations; balancing human and capital investment financial requirements; managing physician and community relationships; and developing leaders for the future.16 Demand forecasting is critical for where, when and what type of leaders are essential to prepare and protect the organization for the future. Pynes de fines “demand forecasting” as the anticipation of the leadership workforce that will be needed to ac complish future functional requirements and carry out the mission of the organization.19 Understanding the length of leaders’ tenure expectations, future skills requirements, internal candidate pool avail ability, and investments needed to adequately meet tomorrow’s leadership roles must be a deliberate, planned process (like at CHRISTUS Spohnyf Q R W D n accident of circumstances. Deliberate and objective evaluations of high-performing individuals should be flexible and fluid, with leaders being added and removed from the candidate list, as is done at Eli Lilly.16 For instance, high-performing leaders would be very visible in the organization, taking on challenge assignments and expanding their respon sibilities as they mature as leaders. They have a competitive edge when promotions become avail able. Many current CEOs refer to the factors that led to their success which include these formalized opportunities for growth. Interestingly, as noted, internally developed and promoted candidates have often been more successful in the long range than external candi dates for senior positions coming from other busi ness industries.13 This is most likely due to a more highly refined understanding of cultural norms and values, diminished organizational “learning curve,” and long-standing interpersonal loyalty and sup port from within the organization. Gaps between the competencies of the currently identified high performing individuals and future role/position requirements need to be specifically addressed in performance planning and development plans. For example, Dow uses a benchmark of 70yb W R \b of internal candidates’ promotion as a marker of organizational success.16 Intentional formal and informal mentoring by committed leaders who are a “step ahead” is a critical component of effective succession planning. Giving talented future leaders the time, energy, advice, and experiences to gain new competencies and learn how to begin to prepare for future roles and responsibilities becomes the “gift” a current leader can bestow upon a future leader. Mentorship comes in many forms, from the casual coaching “in the moment” to the formal appointment that places high performers in the “spotlight” to demonstrate their abilities. Feedback to high performers, both positively noting accomplishments and construc tively discussing areas for improvement, should be timely, not “saved” for midyear or annual perfor mance review processes. This exposure to “career broadening” opportu nities should be deliberate, planned, and discussed as part of an ongoing commitment to developing tomorrow’s cadre of leadership candidates. Exam ples of “career broadening” opportunities can be seen in Figure 2. Although some have obvious short term potential visibility, other opportunities build an increasing leadership portfolio of long-range skills and abilities. • Early and frequent identification of successor candidates; ■ Demand forecasting and gap analysis for future role and key position needs; ■ Intentional formal and informal mentoring and coaching; ■ Exposure to “career broadening” future role development competency opportunities; ■ Resource dedication for leadership development, including formal education for new competency development; and ■ Serious evaluation when desirable successor candidates who are high performers leave the organization. Figure 1. Strategies for effective succession planning. 328 JONA • Vol. 36, No. 6 • June 2006 Figure 1. Strategies for effective succession planning. This content downloaded from 150.210.226.99 on Tue, 09 Nov 2021 21:07:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms Assuming over-arching problem-solving for key strategic problems such as Eli Lilly does with its “action learning” plans; Key task force and committee appointments; Board presentations on key initiatives; Assuming an important project or strategic assignment with larger profit and loss (P&Lyf U H V S R Q V L E L O L W L H V ; Formal administrative internships or fellowships; Selection for an elite business club or local civic or community organization; Leadership position in an industry membership such as the American College of Healthcare Executives, Healthcare Financing Management Association or American Hospital Association; or Formal sponsorship to an advanced continuing education program at such locations as Harvard Business School or Northwestern’s Kellogg Graduate School of Management. Figure 2. Career broadening experiences. These career advancement investments in high performing individuals require funding; an esti mate from other industries targets as much as 3yb of salaries and benefits to be budgeted for train ing to effectively address competency development. Underinvesting in career paths for current high performing individuals can result in those indi viduals’ lack of readiness to assume leadership positions when they become available or actually leaving the organization to locate better advance ment opportunities elsewhere.7’8 Finally, astute organizations evaluate risks of “flight talent” and try to prevent actual resignations of high-performing individuals. For example, at Colgate-Palmolive, their global growth program mandates that all senior managers retain 90yb R f their high-potential individuals or risk losing per sonal compensation.’1 Those managers who have consistently performed at a superior level and who are capable and desire additional responsibilities need to be continually assessed relative to their “flight risk.” Employing the “golden handcuffs” philosophy by simply paying at the top of the market is generally deemed insufficient to retain top talent who is seeking meaningful promotions and additional learning.6 Challenges purposely directed toward keeping these individuals learning and achieving superior performance, coupled with effective and meaningful rewards and recognition (both economic and non-economicyf D U H H V V H Q W L D O W o retain leaders in today’s competitive and increas ingly more complex healthcare environment. Past, Present and Future: The Process of Succession Planning A critical role of executive leaders is to look out over the horizon and anticipate what factors will impact their organization and then develop plans to adapt and thrive in the changing marketplace. One could argue that nothing is more strategic than who will lead an organization into the future. The best plans still need the leadership talent to navigate the com pany through challenging times. Succession planning specific to the CEO role has its own unique challenges. There are limited numbers of top positions, and because of the dif ficulties and challenges of leading a complex or ganization, there are typically a finite number of candidates able to assume such positions. There is also significant resistance to succession planning by boards and by the incumbent CEOs themselves. Although it may be awkward and uncomfortable to face the inevitable change in leadership, the long-term stability and success of the organization depends on proactive planning. Chief executive officers may be reluctant to lead the process due to their egos or a lack of comfort in the security of their current role.20 Flowever, as Freeman con tends, the true legacy of CEOs is what happens after they leave office. Thus, it is critical that boards of directors, CEOs, and others in organiza tions develop current plans for future leadership succession that include development of a talent pool, a comprehensive leadership development plan and a process of executive recruitment that is driven internally and not by outside search consultants.” No doubt the succession planning process is critical for the CEO position but it is also crucial for the other top executives in the organization. Chief operating officers, chief nursing officers, and chief financial officers who surround the CEO are the linchpin positions that create successful teams to lead the organization into the future. Never has develop ment of top executive leadership been more im portant, as the demographic data demonstrate that JONA • Vol. 36, No. 6 • June 2006 329 Figure 2. Career broadening experiences. This content downloaded from 150.210.226.99 on Tue, 09 Nov 2021 21:07:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms thousands of healthcare workers will be retiring in the next several years. This will create a talent gap that will result in intense competition for future talented leaders.15 Thus, it is not sufficient for boards to consider succession planning from a traditional CEO perspective only. It is imperative to plan for the entire leadership team and create a process that cultivates leadership throughout the organization and to greater depths, so that potential young leaders can move from entry level positions throughout the organization. This search for talent potential should have a public persona in the organization and no longer be shrouded in secrecy as it was in the past.21 In summary, as the need for talent gets more and more competitive, hospitals and health systems will want to be known for energetic and committed leadership development. Young leaders will recog nize those organizations that invest in their leader ship potential and want to be a part of growing and leading a successful and enlightened healthcare environment. Our future success for innovative solutions to today’s healthcare problems depends on leaders planning effectively for tomorrow. References 1. Garten JE. Economic Viewpoint. Bus Week Online. September 10, 2001. Available at: www.businessweek.com. Accessed December 1, 2005. 2. Doody MF, Phillips AW. Preparing Future Leaders in Health Care: A Confidential Survey of Healthcare Chief Executive Officers. Oakbrook, 111: Witt/Kiefer; 2002. 3. Larson L. Your CEO: Are you short-staffed or short-sighted? Trustee. July/Aug 2001:15-18. 4. Dolan TC. Increasing succession planning. Healthc Exec. May/June 2005:6. 5. PRN Newswire, May 12, 2003. Available at: http://www. prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=102155. Accessed December 1, 2005. 6. Witt/Kiefer in conjunction with California State Uni versity Los Angeles. Follow the Leaders: How Healthcare Leaders Mentor and Develop New Executives for Leader ship Succession. Los Angeles, Calif: Witt/Kiefer; Dec 2004: 1-8. 7. Witt/Kiefer. Succession planning tops healthcare leadership strategies. Perspectives. Winter 2004:1-2. 8. Witt/Kiefer in conjunction with California State Univer sity, Los Angeles. In: Putting Succession Planning into Play: Identifying and Developing the Healthcare Organi zation’s Successors. Los Angeles, Calif: Witt/Kiefer; 2004: 1-8. 9. Witt/Kiefer in conjunction with California State University, Los Angeles. In: View From the Top: CEO Perspectives on Leadership Talent, Executive Development, and Succession Planning in Healthcare Organizations. Los Angeles, Calif: Witt/Kiefer; May 2004:1-8. 10. Hymowitz C, Lublin JS. Lesson From McDonald’s Tragedy: Always Have A Succession Plan. Wall Street Journal Online. April 27, 2004. 11. Roszak DJ. Most freestanding hospitals do not conduct leadership succession planning. Hosp Health Netw. 2005; 79(1yf . 12. Garman AN, Tyler JL. What kind of CEO will your hospital need next? A model for succession planning. Trustee. October 2004:38-40. 13. Charan R. Ending the CEO succession crisis. Harv Bus Rev. February 2005;83(2yf . 14. Byham WD, Nelson GD. Succession planning Rx: developing the next generation of leaders. Health Forum J. November December 1999;42(6yf . 15. Rothwell WJ. Putting success into your succession planning. J Bus Strategy. May/June 2002;23(3yf . 16. Conger JA, Fullmer RM. Developing your leadership pipe line. Harv Bus Rev. December 2003;81(12yf . 17. Collins J. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don’t. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers; 2001. 18. Welch J. The Vitality Curve: Dare to Differentiate People. Leadership Excellence; 2005. Available at: www.Leader Excel.com. Accessed December 1, 2005. 19. Pynes JE. The implementation of workforce and succession planning in the public sector. Public Pers Manage. 2004;33(4yf : 389-404. 20. Freeman KW. The CEO’s real legacy. Harv Bus Rev. November 2004;82(llyf . 21. Beeson J. Succession planning. Leading edge practices: What best companies are doing. Across Board-, February 2000; 37(2yf $ % , , 1 ) 2 5 0 * O R E D O . 330 JONA • Vol. 36, No. 6 • June 2006 References 1. Garten JE. Economic Viewpoint. Bus Week Online. September 10, 2001. Available at: www.businessweek.com. Accessed December 1, 2005. 2. Doody MF, Phillips AW. Preparing Future Leaders in Health Care: A Confidential Survey of Healthcare Chief Executive Officers. Oakbrook, 111: Witt/Kiefer; 2002. 3. Larson L. Your CEO: Are you short-staffed or short-sighted? Trustee. July/Aug 2001:15-18. 4. Dolan TC. Increasing succession planning. Healthc Exec. May/June 2005:6. 5. PRN Newswire, May 12, 2003. Available at: http://www. prnewswire.co.uk/cgi/news/release?id=102155. Accessed December 1, 2005. 6. Witt/Kiefer in conjunction with California State Uni versity Los Angeles. Follow the Leaders: How Healthcare Leaders Mentor and Develop New Executives for Leader ship Succession. Los Angeles, Calif: Witt/Kiefer; Dec 2004: 1-8. 7. Witt/Kiefer. Succession planning tops healthcare leadership strategies. Perspectives. Winter 2004:1-2. 8. Witt/Kiefer in conjunction with California State Univer sity, Los Angeles. In: Putting Succession Planning into Play: Identifying and Developing the Healthcare Organi zation’s Successors. Los Angeles, Calif: Witt/Kiefer; 2004: 1-8. 9. Witt/Kiefer in conjunction with California State University, Los Angeles. In: View From the Top: CEO Perspectives on Leadership Talent, Executive Development, and Succession Planning in Healthcare Organizations. Los Angeles, Calif: Witt/Kiefer; May 2004:1-8. 10. Hymowitz C, Lublin JS. Lesson From McDonald’s Tragedy: Always Have A Succession Plan. Wall Street Journal Online. April 27, 2004. 11. Roszak DJ. Most freestanding hospitals do not conduct leadership succession planning. Hosp Health Netw. 2005; 79(1yf . 12. Garman AN, Tyler JL. “What kind of CEO will your hospital need next? A model for succession planning. Trustee. October 2004:38-40. 13. Charan R. Ending the CEO succession crisis. Harv Bus Rev. February 2005;83(2yf . 14. Byham WD, Nelson GD. Succession planning Rx: developing the next generation of leaders. Health Forum J. November December 1999;42(6yf . 15. Rothwell WJ. Putting success into your succession planning. J Bus Strategy. May/June 2002;23(3yf . 16. Conger JA, Fullmer RM. Developing your leadership pipe line. Harv Bus Rev. December 2003;81(12yf . -t —I 11* T 1 . S~l , TV7I c . . 1 f . 1 . 1. _ 17. Collins J. Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don’t. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers; 2001. 18. Welch J. The Vitality Curve: Dare to Differentiate People. Leadership Excellence; 2005. Available at: www.Leader Excel.com. Accessed December 1, 2005. 19. Pynes JE. The implementation of workforce and succession planning in the public sector. Public Pers Manage. 2004;33(4yf : 389-404. 20. Freeman KW. The CEO’s real legacy. Harv Bus Rev. November 2004;82(llyf . 21. Beeson J. Succession planning. Leading edge practices: What best companies are doing. Across Board-, February 2000; 37(2yf $ % , , 1 ) 2 5 0 * O R E D O . This content downloaded from 150.210.226.99 on Tue, 09 Nov 2021 21:07:12 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms

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