research paper on urban planning and decision making in dubai

Need an research paper on urban planning and decision making in dubai. Needs to be 16 pages. Please no plagiarism. Cosmopolis is, for Sandercock, “a common civic culture which has embraced the social project of tolerance, alterity, and inclusion” (Blanco 1998). Sandercock states that there are three forces that create the major cultural politics of difference: migration and multiculturalism, postcolonialism, and the age of women and minorities. She believes that the history of planning has supported segregation and discrimination. These are major forces at work in Dubai’s planning.

A perceived threat of marginalization (Aarts 1999) by less developed countries has often led to their full interaction with the world economy, before they may be ready. Aart feels that regionalization is reflected in the diversity of each integration project. In general, the Middle East or Arab world is seen as regional, or an “international subsystem”, but no political or economic arrangements between the segments of the Arab world has occurred (1999). It is out-of-step. A lack of democratic tradition combined with ‘realist’ thinking has not created any unity to date. Dubai, however, has its own agendas and is not as out-of-step with the world market.

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Dubai is a sheikhdom of nearly 200 years and part of the federation of seven United Arab Emirates in southeast Arabia on the Persian Gulf. It was once the “dependency” (Columbia 2004) of Abu Dhabi until 1833. It became a British protectorate in the 1800s and the commercial capital of the sheikhdoms. British steamers used Dubai as their port of call on the way to India. There was a war with Abu Dhabi (1945-8) but it is now an ally with Abu Dhabi which is only 2 hours drive from Dubai. Oil was discovered in Dubai in the 1960s and Dubai was included in the UAE at its founding in 1971. The 1970s saw the building of a deepwater port and a supertanker dock.

Sandercock writes “From Barcelona to Bilbao, Baltimore and Boston, Vancouver and Toronto, New York and London, city governments in the late 20th century began to see their waterfronts as . . . capable of luring investment and reversing patterns of decline, creating new urban zones where pleasure and profit come together.” The ports are considered working ports or ‘industrial sewers’ less so than then they were and are now “terrains of availability” (Sandercock 2002).

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