process for planning communication management
process for planning communication management, as referred to in Figure 3.1 and 3.3 of the textbook, and in the section beginning with Communication and the Project Plan (page 51 to 57)
This type of organizational charts are matrix-based charts with column headers representing the project team members and row headers representing the project activities or work packages those team members are responsible for. This matrix chart is also called a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM). The cells of the matrix represent the roles that individual team members will play for the work packages they are responsible for. A RAM chart is commonly known as a RACI chart (where R stands for responsible, A is stands for accountable, C stands for consulted, and I stands for informed).
Table 2.1 shows an example of a RACI Responsibility Assignment Matrix.
Other commonly used forms of a RAM chart are RASCI and CAIRO (where R stands for responsible, A stands for accountable, S stands for support, C stands for consulting, I stands for informed, and O stands for omitted or out of loop):
R = Who actually completes the task.
A = Ultimate ownership, with yes or no authority; makes the final decision.
C = Consulted prior to an action or final decision; involves two-way communication.
I = Who needs to be informed after a decision or action has been taken; involves one-way communication.
S = Who supports the task to completion.
O = Someone who is not part of the task (helps to enhance the clarity of roles and responsibilities).
Table 2.2 summarizes these common types of RAM charts.
Table 2.2: Common Types of RAM Charts
Note: Numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 depict the relative position of the letter representing responsibility in the sequence of acronym letters. For example, the “R” in RACI is at the first position in the sequence, A is at the second position, C is at the third position, and I is at the fourth position.Text-Oriented Format
Text-oriented formats are utilized to depict position description, duties, authority, qualifications, and competencies. Sometimes, such a document is also called a Duty Statement, and it is commonly used in the recruitment process.
Figure 2.4 depicts a typical text-oriented format-based document.
Figure 2.4 Typical Text-Oriented Format-Based DocumentDevelop the Human Resource Management Plan
Resources are needed to complete the project work, which include humans, materials, and equipment. The human resource management plan deals with management of the human resources and guides how project human resources should be identified, acquired, developed, managed, and released. Like other core project plans, this plan also is part of the overarching project management plan and includes, but is not limited to, project roles and responsibilities, project organization charts, and a staffing management plan.
• Project roles and responsibilities: Project roles and responsibilities listing including role, authority, responsibility, and competency of project human resources.
• Role: It is the function of a resource in the project such as project manager, business analyst, data architect, and so on.
• Authority: The authority of a human resource reflects her right to authorize the use of project resources, to make decisions, to sign approvals, and to accept deliverables.
• Responsibility: Responsibility of a person on a project refers to the project work duties assigned to that person.
• Competency: Competency of a project team member translates to his skill and capacity required to perform the assigned duties within the project framework, methodology, and constraints.
• Project organization charts: A project organization chart is a hierarchical graphic depiction of the project team members and their reporting relationships. Refer to Figure 2.3 for an example of a typical project organization chart.
• Staffing management plan: The staffing management plan is a part of the human resource management plan. It describes how and when project team members are to be acquired and when they are to be released. A typical staffing management plan includes, but is not limited to, staff acquisition, resource calendars, staff release plan, staff training needs, staff recognition and rewards, compliance, and safety.
• Staff acquisition strategies: The staffing management plan includes the staff acquisition strategies. It answers the following questions:
1. What type of project team members are needed on the project?
a. Which project team members will be the full-time permanent staff?
b. Which project team members will be contracted on a temporary basis?
2. Where can you acquire the sources for the project team?
a. Which project team members can be acquired from within the organization?
b. Which project team members needs be acquired from external sources?
3. What work locations will the project team members work at?
4. What are the costs associated with each level of expertise?
5. What assistance can the human resource department and functional managers provide to the project management team in the acquisition of the project staff?
• Resource calendars: Resource calendars identify the working timeframes for each project resource. The staffing management plan includes the resource calendars as well as the information on the timing when the acquisition of the project staff should start. A resource histogram is the tool that is commonly used by the project managers to create a graphical view of the resource allocations across various months of the project calendar.
Figure 2.5 illustrates a typical resource histogram.
Figure 2.5 Typical Resource Histogram
• Staff release plan: Determines the method and timing of releasing the project team members.
• Staff training plan: Determines the staff training needs to fulfill the project team members’ skill gaps, if any.
• Staff recognition and rewards: Staff recognition and rewards are part of the develop project team process of the human resource management plan. These are particularly important to promote and reinforce desired behaviors and boost staff morale and productivity. The staffing management plan discusses the criteria for staff recognition and rewards on the project.
• Compliance: Strategies to ensure staff compliance with applicable government regulations, union contracts, and organizational human resource policies, standards, and guidelines.
• Safety: Safety policies, standards, and procedures.
Following are tips for effective human resource management:
• Start this process early and continue iteratively throughout the project life cycle.
• Track and manage the risks and issues pertaining to this process in a timely manner.
• Capture and archive lessons learned regularly.
• Remember: The goal of this process is to plan for effective human resource management.Summary
The mind map in Figure 2.6 summarizes the project human resource management planning process.