probability and magnitude
The concept of risk is generally understood to refer to the combination of the probability and magnitude of some future harm. According to this understanding, risks are considered “high” or “low” depending on whether they are more (or less) likely to occur, and whether the harm is more (or less) serious.
In research involving human subjects, risk is a central organizing principle, a filter through which protocols must pass; research evaluated by IRBs that presents greater risks to potential research subjects will be expected to include greater or more comprehensive protections designed to reduce the possibility of harm occurring.
According to the Common Rule, a study presents minimal risk if “the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater in and of themselves than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests” (Belmont Report, para 6) Although the concept of minimal risk remains controversial in academic and scholarly discussion, it is widely used to determine which set of protections are to be required for particular research protocols.
All research contains risks. What are some types of risks you think could happen from your research? (INTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN THE CLASSROOMS) Do you think your participant will have any stress when completing any of your data collection techniques? (support your answer with the readings from this Unit as well as applied knowledge from your own experience).
Readings from this unit.
1. California State University, Long Beach. (n.d.). Data collection strategies II: Qualitative research. http://web.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm
2. Trochim, W. (2006). Descriptive statistics. Research methods knowledge base. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
The resource above is a review of descriptive statistics is provided. Along with examples of how to complete descriptive statistics in your own research study.