Multi-year Plan to Improve Reading

Multi-year Plan to Improve Reading

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Factors that Impacting student performance in the area

Student performance has been a source of concern for students from low-income households, the disabled, and African American students in general. According to school data, Caucasian and Hispanic students outperformed their African American counterparts. Despite this, female students outperformed male students. The rising crime rate in the community is one of the primary issues linked to low school achievement. According to Rohm and Mok (2014), a neighborhood where there has been a documented occurrence of assault, robbery, or rape has significant repercussions, such as preventing students from participating in after-school activities.

The student may as well avoid particular areas of the school or skip class entirely if these actions have an impact on the student’s academic progress. Furthermore, the growth in criminal activity has an impact on the educational environment, instilling anxiety in both teachers and children. According to Torrats-Espinosa (2020), neighbor violence negatively impacts students’ capacity to concentrate in class and negatively impacts the sleeping patterns of children who live nearby. Crime-related stress causes a fear response, which leads to illness, rage, absenteeism from school, and a drop in learner performance.

Learners who are exposed to stressful situations, such as gun violence experience tremendously painful situations that make them too stressed to cope with learning. Poverty has a negative impact on student achievement. According to Ferguson et al. (2007), school readiness reflects a child’s ability to flourish both intellectually and socially in the school setting. Physical well-being and adequate motor development, mental health and a positive reaction to new experiences, age-appropriate general knowledge, and cognitive skill are all part of school readiness. Poverty has been shown to reduce a child’s preparedness for school in health, home life, learning, and community.

Poverty causes more students to drop out of high school than wealthy. Poverty has an impact on students’ capacity to concentrate in school. Because of the child’s poverty, the parents may work numerous jobs, providing little assistance for the child’s schooling and leaving the youngster to care for other younger siblings (Pitso et al., 2014). Black and Hispanic students are more likely to be impacted by the high poverty rate. High poverty rates result in homelessness, hunger, and insecurity, contributing to low attainment due to hunger-related absenteeism. Poverty impacts children’s access to physical and material resources, as well as their literacy and language development.

The student poverty stricken families have difficulty creating a private and peaceful study environment. The student may not have access to a computer that would allow them to create class projects. Students that perform poorly have minimal syntactic complexity and few conversation-eliciting questions, making it difficult for them to learn new words and differentiate between them (Torrats-Espinosa, 2020). Because poverty is a type of constraint to the family, the student must migrate from one location to another to pursue a job, and the student experiences mobility issues that improve their academic performance. The frequent movement has an impact on student academic achievement as well as social impact.

Low-wage employment is another issue influencing student learning success at North Street Elementary School. Low-wage occupations have an impact on a family’s ability to provide for their children. As a result, low-income children may have deficiencies in physical and cognitive development and discrepancies in access to healthcare and other resources that contribute to the success (Ferguson et al., 2007). Children from low-income families are less likely to access high-quality, learning-rich environments, such as early childhood care settings. Children from low-income families may lack access to nutritional foods at important stages of brain development.

Children may live in an area where they are exposed to environmental pollutants such as lead and stress levels. A child’s cognitive development may be harmed if he or she is exposed to this stressor for an extended period of time. As a result, low-paying jobs, poverty, and a high crime rate may have a negative impact on cognitive development, culminating in poor reading ability. According to research, children from low-income homes may lack cognitive and early literacy readiness skills compared to children from high-income families (Ferguson et al., 2007). Some low-income children start school later than their peers and never catch up. As a result, the children may struggle to catch up with others in their schooling.

Strategies that can be implemented to improve student performance reading

Although the majority of students are not studying English for the first time, some are having difficulty with testing. Choral reading is one of the ways that can be utilized to increase reading assessment for students, particularly African Americans, who make up the majority of this institution. The teacher’s method of allowing students to read aloud together enables the teacher to identify difficult readers while yet encouraging their participation (Marr et al., 2007). Choral reading appears to be beneficial at improving students’ reading fluency, expanding their vocabularies, and increasing their confidence.

Partner reading is another research-based method in which the reader takes on the role of the listener while reading the material aloud. In this situation, listeners can pose questions to the reader to ascertain their comprehension of the text they are reading (Marr et al., 2007). The teacher can alternate students by enabling fluent readers to read the text first, followed by struggling readers. The struggling reader must first comprehend the tough words before reading them aloud. This peer monitoring method is critical for boosting reading fluency (Marr et al., 2007).

According to Milani et al. (2010), another successful technique for promoting reading is to make ear reading available in class. Reading aloud and listening to an audiobook is a more effective method, particularly for struggling readers and students with dyslexia. There are 131 students with disabilities. According to Milani et al. (2010), students with dyslexia who listened to audiobooks reported significant improvements in reading accuracy, behavior, and academic performance. Additionally, the reading approach increased student motivation and school commitment. According to Turner (2010), students can read the same material numerous times during the week using the fluency-oriented reading instruction (FORI) reading method.

This method is beneficial because it helps varied groups of second graders improve their word pronunciation and reading comprehension. The school has a black student population of 652, a Hispanic student population of 51, and a white student population of 146. The cross-disciplinary reading technique used at New York’s concourse village elementary school has resulted in the school outperforming the city-wide average by 40 points on the English state exam. Students hones reading skill by echoing and chorally reading the same text daily for one week (Polirstok, 2017). An experienced teacher can utilize these approaches to enhance the learning of students who are disabled, underprivileged, or members of minority groups.


Ferguson, H., Bovaird, S., & Mueller, M. (2007). The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children. Paediatrics & child health12(8), 701–706.

Marr, M. B., Dugan, K. K., & Algozzine, B. (2007). Using partners to build reading fluency. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth51(2), 52-55.

Milani, A., Lorusso, M. L., & Molteni, M. (2010). The effects of audiobooks on the psychosocial adjustment of pre‐adolescents and adolescents with dyslexia. Dyslexia16(1), 87-97. DOI: 10.1002/dys.397. PMID: 19725019.

Pitso, T., Njeje, T. P., Bonase, T. D., Mfula, T., Nobendle, B. S., & Nogaga, P. (2014). The impact of crime among learners in high school. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies3(1), 333-333.

Polirstok, S. (2017). Strategies to Improve Academic Achievement in Secondary School Students: Perspectives on Grit and Mindset. SAGE Open.

Rohm, C., & Mok, A. (2014). “The Effect of Crime on Achievement: The Differential Effect of Violent and Non-Violent Crimes on Achievement in High Schools.” The Developing Economist, 1(1). Retrieved from

Torrats-Espinosa, G. (2020). Crime and inequality in academic achievement across school districts in the United States. Demography57(1), 123-145.

Turner, F. D. (2010). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction with Increasing Black and Latino Reading Fluency, As Compared to Asian and White Second-Grade Students’ Reading Fluency. The Journal of Negro Education79(2), 112–124.

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