Pakistan and India Conflict

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CONF 340

Fall 2021

Conflict Concept Note

Pakistan and India Conflict

The conflict that I chose is the one that has occurred between two countries, Pakistan, and India since 1947. The conflict is also the called the Kashmir conflict because it started upon the territory of Kashmir. This conflict started after Pakistan and India were separated. Both of the countries claim that they own Kashmir, since then they are fighting for the region. I chose this conflict because I am from Pakistan and ever since I have grown up, I am hearing and seeing news about this conflict, but I don’t really know the details of the conflict. I decided to go for it because through this assignment I will have a chance to know the details of the conflict, and actually understand which side is wrong and which is right.

Does Kashmir belong to India or Pakistan? Or it should be a separate country with its own government and army? Kashmir is a region that is located in between the north side of Pakistan and India. For years Kashmir is facing violence because of Pakistan and India. Pakistan believes that all the Muslim territories belongs to them, and majority of Muslim population lives in Kashmir. Three major wars have happened between the two countries in between 1947-1965. These wars also involved to powerful countries Soviet Union and United States. Although both countries agreed for ceasefire in 2003, but that didn’t cause peace in Kashmir or both the countries. And the issue will take place until there is any final solution for this conflict.

I think writing discussion board will help me a lot with these assignments because most of them requires us to write about things related to conflict and I also learn new thing which is conflict mapping. That really helps with brief details about conflicts.

Kashmir conflicts is one of the longest conflict up to this day. Though it could be contended six eras of the conflict is uncertain in the historical perspectives, this battle is being depicted as protracted and lasting. Paul well-defined persistency as well as long term inability of the objectives between the two countries (Paul 4). It was highlighted by Wayman who argued that India’s Pakistan contention is among the enduring rivalries dyads instinctive feuding (Paul 81). The war started as the bilateral dispute over the territory entitlement which stems from India claim for controlling to entire state of Kashmir and Jammu, as well as Pakistan irredentist claiming to being India controlled of the Kashmir, this conflict evolved beyond the interstate levels. Growth in popularity discontent through 1980s introducing new actors and the wider range of the aims as well as interests. Through increase in complexity as well as multidimensional nature, this conflict became ideological on both sides.

Origin and causes of this conflict

As Pakistan as well as India were being established in the 1947 as the two separate states, Indian independence act which is enclosed in provision permitting the 562 generous states to be able to make decision whether they will join India or join Pakistan. For the states they ended up deciding to remain in respective domains nationally, for three states they opted to have independence, among this states were Jammu as well as Kashmir. The foundation for conflicts could be drawn to the regions exceptional ethnoreligious multiplicity. Having four districts, Kashmir that has majority of Muslims, Leah plus kargil, mostly the Muslims and the Buddhists as well as Jammu, which was predominantly Hindu, the area was prone to the conflicts (Ganguly 39).

Though majority of the population were Muslims, this area was being ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari’s Singh that favored the independence for Kashmir (Blank 39). Through the invasion of the tribal forces for Pakistan, Singh who hoped to forestall the uprising as well as Pakistan backed incursion did not have an option rather than joining India (Paul 78). Due to this happenings Pakistan could not allow it under leadership of Mohammed Ali that considered the absorption of Kashmir as important to Pakistan. According to him his arguments were that for Pakistan it would not be complete without Kashmir. For the India nationalists they did view integration of the Kashmir being the demonstration where India is the nation in which the faith can lives together in aegis of the profane states (Ganguly 8-10). Losing the Kashmir could undermine the secular identity for the Indians.

For both nations the decided to send the soldiers, disputes escalated to short war, where it came to an end with the cease fire agreements in the year 1948 where it left the territory for Kashmir shared in two thirds in the Indian rule as well as rest was under the Pakistan as well as China (Paul 8). 1949 establishment of the agreement for cease fire referred to as line of control did remain under UN for monitoring till 1972. The result for settlements, for the case of India it was able to gain the control for areas of an about 10million individuals in Kashmir’s Valley, Jammu as well as; Ladkah although for Pakistan it did seize the control of the Azad Kashmir as well as sparsely inhabited region in north, together almost 3 million individuals (Bose 2). Basing on the concept of evolutionary which was enclosed by Hensel, the first conflict ended in the stalemate as well as displeasure for mutually increase of hostility and distrust (Paul 30). In Kashmir’s conflict, it indicating neither of parties was ready to accept the line of control as the border. In addition, skirmishes as well as two additional wars in 1965 as well as 1999 over Kashmir followed by other three in year 1971-72,1990 and 2001 has altered the line of control (Ganguly 3).

Although Pakistan attempts annexing the territory being justified on ethnic as well as historical ground besides India sorting to preserving the status quo, all the nations have got a large overlook for Kashmiris. Despite the enjoyment of the constitution position under the article 370 for allowing the country have its constitution for voting to the state legislatures being held in provisions for India constitution, actual extent for autonomy has proved to be volatile (Rowen 240). The growth of Kashmiri independence in the 1980s which was shared with the grievance over the perceived unequal representation in the regional parliaments being efficiently applied through militant frontrunners in mobilizing disenchanted youths for the equipped struggles of increase in the political rights. Starting 1989 onwards, the grievance for violent separatist movement exploded in the regions. For Jammu as well as Kashmir front resulted to uprising instigated the irregular strike as well as demonstration, reaching the peak in December of 1989 thus kidnapping Indian minister for the home affair daughters (Ganguly 1).

Introducing new actors, as well as secessionists movements significantly changed military as well as political characters of conflicts, creating the multidimensional as well as being highly complex (Bose 4). This did move the conflict beyond the state levels as well as being Kashmiris having done most in fighting as well as suffering high losses. At this moment its believed that almost 10 different separatists operating in the Jammu as well as Kashmir, ranging from the terrorist’s groups being nonviolent organizations. Though a handful of this has got political credibility, highlighting plurality opinions existing among Kashmiris (Krepon 152).

Factors which have made the conflict protracted

There are internal and external factors which have greatly made the problem to persists over a long period of time. The hostility which exists between Pakistan and India is being thought for being major factor of the conflict. According to the conflict theory it argues that the conflict happened between parties mostly on basis of the goals which cannot be negotiated. Parties perceive with one another as the enemy in the terms of seeking the vital interests. When the behavior becomes violent as well as aggressive due to existing contradictions, the conflict continues to escalate as well as taking the form of the violence. For the conflict it has originated on incompatible goal, this is possession of Kashmir. For parties they do seek achieving the goals. There is no compromise for issue of Kashmir due to issues being absolutely matters for the nonnegotiable goals. For the people with basic identity are only unit for governance in Pakistan. For India the legitimate unit for governance in India to citizens with the basic identity in India.

Theories explaining root cause of conflict

Division along ethnic lines

According to some of the analysts of the conflicts including Ted Robert Gurr together with Michael Brown among others. For the states which are multiethnic are prone to conflicts than the homogenous societies. For the population of Kashmir and Jumma its divided along the ethnic, religion, as well as linguistic lines. For the major groups of Hindu as well as Muslims. It’s believed the division for population along the ethnic lines, religion as well as linguistic is the major factor for the Kashmir conflict.

Social identity

The needs of human for identity as well as dignity draw the attention for scholars in the case of analyzing the conflicts. According to most of the scholars the threat for identity is foundation for the conflicts and contribution to higher conflicts which are intensified, ethnic clashes as well as terrorism. The conflict in the region is no exception. Division of the Idea sub continent as well as emergence of the Pakistan is the outcome for pressure in different identities. For existence of the cultural, religion as well as ethnic linguistic are the other form for the Kashmir identity having made the complex social realities. For India it controlled part of the Kashmir inhabited by the four Muslim groups, Hindus, Sikhs as well as Buddhists. Each of this belong to the different sects, ethnicity, tradition as well as culture. For the side of Pakistan, the reality is the same for the Northern areas they are dominated by Shia religion communities as well as Sunnis being majority in the Azad Jammu and Kashmir. They are belonging to the different cultures as well as heritage though it professes religion of Islam. Its notable that growth in population in the Northern areas that do not perceive themselves as Pakistan’s or the Kashmiri.

For the rivalry that exist between Pakistan and India it is deep rooted that it cannot be resolved in the win-win solutions. Most of the scholars as well as leaders are viewing Indo Pakistan relationship as the zero sum game in which gain for one is the loss for the other.

Conclusion

History for the international relation for the entire region has been marked with conflicts than through cooperation. For the region it is experiencing Kashmir conflicts, this is one of the conflicts which is protracted in the world which is the time bomb for southern Asia. It’s time for realizing importance of the resolution for the conflicts. This is widely being recognized that having peace and prosperity for south Asia depends mostly on the future of the conflict.

Citations

Bose, Sumantra. Kashmir – Roots of conflict, Paths to Peace, Harvard University Press, Cambridge. 2003;2,4.

Blank, Jonah. “Kashmir: Fundamentalism Takes Root”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, No. 6, 1999; pp. 36-53

Ganguly, Sumit. The Crisis in Kashmir – Portents of War, Hopes of Peace, The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Cambridge.1997;1-39.

Paul, T.V. The India-Pakistan Conflict – An Enduring Rivalry, Cambridge University Press, New York. “2005;4-85.

Rowen, Henry S. Prospects for Peace in South Asia, Stanford University Press, Stanford. 2005;240

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