neuropsychological disorder Schizophrenia.
Running head: WEEK 3 OUTLINE 0
Week 3 Outline
You may delete all green “Tip” boxes before submitting by clicking on the edge of each box, then hitting “Delete”.
- Here, identify the neuropsychological disorder using current terminology. (For behavioral/mental health disorders, use DSM-5 current terminology; for neurological conditions not found in the DSM-5, use terminology from current clinical guidelines from appropriate professional societies).
- Here, define the type of disorder it is. (Neurological, Psychological, Neuropsychological)
- Diagnostic Criteria
- Here, identify what components must be present for the disorder to be diagnosed? (Use DSM-5 for mental/behavioral health disorders; use clinical guidelines for neurological conditions not found in the DSM-5)
- Here, briefly identify physical and psychological signs and symptoms.
- Reasons for Choosing Topic
- If applicable, state your personal experience reason here.
- If applicable, state your professional experience reason here.
- Here, state any other reason you chose this topic.
- Detailed Description of Disorder
- Here, thoroughly identify signs and symptoms.
- Here, include the epidemiology. Include who is more likely affected and at risk—young/old, male/female, rural/urban environment, what economic groups, and what ethnicities.
- Here, identify any subtypes of the disorder (for mental/behavioral health conditions, use DSM-5 for this; for neurological conditions not found in the DSM-5, use terminology from current clinical guidelines from appropriate professional societies).
- Description of Natural History of Disorder
- Here, state how the disorder develops over time with treatment.
- Here, state how the disorder develops over time without treatment.
- Methods to Diagnose, Evaluate, and Manage Disorder
- Here, state methods of initial diagnosis (e.g., physical exam, imaging and/or laboratory testing, special studies, psychological evaluation, psychometric testing)
- Here, state methods of ongoing management (e.g., physical exam, imaging and/or laboratory testing, special studies, psychological evaluation, psychometric testing)
- Risk Factors
- Here, identify genetic factors.
- Here, identify lifestyle factors.
- Here, identify environmental factors.
- Other Causes
- Here, identify other known causes.
- Here, identify theorized causes.
- Nervous System Structures and/or Pathways Involved Here, detail the underlying pathology as it applies to nervous system structures (e.g., areas of the brain) and functional neural pathways (e.g., systems in the brain responsible for certain functions).
- Neurotransmitter(s) and Receptor System(s) Here, detail the neurotransmitters and receptor systems involved in the pathology of the disorder.
- Current Treatment Options
- Here, identify drug (pharmacological) therapies and why they would help relieve symptoms (e.g., provide information on how the drug works and why it would restore normal function by interacting with nervous system structures and/or neurotransmitter/receptor systems).
- Here, identify non-pharmacological therapies (including psychological and other therapeutic services).
- Here, identify types of care providers (e.g., medical, nursing, therapists).
- Here, identify types of healthcare setting (e.g., hospital, home, outpatient, nursing facility).
- Future Areas of Research
- Here, briefly identify needed areas of research of treatment options.
- Here, briefly identify needed areas of reach in the evaluation and diagnostic methods for initial diagnosis.
- Here, briefly identify needed areas of research for increasing knowledge relating to etiology and pathologic processes.
Write conclusion here (briefly summarize your topic and research findings)
Use APA format to create a references list containing at least 6-8 credible sources used in your outline. These references should also show up as in-text citations in the body of your outline.
You may delete the Sample Discussion section before submitting your outline for grading.
EXAMPLE OF PARTIAL “DISCUSSION” SECTION FOR AN OUTLINE ON PTSD:
Section II: Discussion
- Detailed Description of Disorder
- Signs and symptoms: The signs and symptoms of PTSD are similar to other anxiety disorders with some exceptions. There must be a history of exposure to a traumatic event, and the symptoms must have appeared after the event. The symptoms of PTSD are variable depending on the individual and the nature of the trauma. Some people may exhibit anxiety, lack of sexual desire, dysphoria, anger, aggression, dissociative episodes, or a combination of all of the above (APA, 2013)
- Epidemiology: Events that may lead to the development of PTSD may include violence on the person, exposure to disasters and accidents, a result of combat events, and any other form of violence. Almost one-half of U.S. adults will experience one or more traumatic events in their life, but most do not develop PTSD (National Institutes of Health, 2017). Both men and women may be exposed to trauma, and women may seek help more quickly than men (National Center for PTSD, 2015). This condition can develop in children, and symptoms may vary depending on the age of the individual (Neuropsychiatric Hospitals, 2018). Socioeconomic factors have been found to affect the development of this disorder, such as living in an urban environment and being poor. In addition, some studies have demonstrated a higher risk of PTSD in African-Americans as compared with other races/ethnicities (Parto, Evans, & Zonderman, 2011).
- Any subtypes of the disorder: Adjustment disorders may have a trauma component but does not meet the DSM-v criteria for a PTSD diagnosis. Acute stress disorder does not meet PTSD diagnostic criteria because symptoms are of a limited duration (APA, 2013). Anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder include intrusive thoughts that are indicative of PTSD, but lack the trauma component (APA, 2013). According to the DSM-5 : “Individuals with PTSD are 80% more likely than those without PTSD to have symptoms that meet diagnostic criteria for at least one other mental disorder” (APA, 2013, sect. II Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Comorbidity, para. 1).
- Detailed Description of Natural History of Disorder
- How the disorder develops over time with treatment: The American Psychological Association recommends four core treatments. These are all variations of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Engaging in such treatment leads to healthier behaviors and reduced emotional disruption (2018)..
- How the disorder develops over time without treatment: Generally, people will develop symptoms of PTSD within three months of exposure to a traumatic event, but it is not uncommon for months or years to pass before a PTSD diagnosis is appropriate (APA, 2013, sect. II Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Development and course).
- Initial diagnosis: Tsai et al (2012) used a variety of psychometric tests to establish a baseline in their study. They included the PTSD Checklist-Military version, the Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales (FACES III), the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Postdeployment Social Support Scale (PSSS), the Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ), the Cognitive-Behavioral Avoidance Scale (CBAS, and others. This broad array of questionnaires addresses the complex nature of the disorder. Chandra et al (2009) utilized a structured interview, Index of Spouse Abuse ((ISA), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Post-Traumatic Symptom Checklist (PCL), and other scales in their study.
2. Ongoing management: A variety of therapeutic treatment options have shown promise with PTSD in veterans and include, cognitive processing therapy, therapies focusing on acceptance and commitment, peer support groups, and educational resources for friends and family members (Tsai et al, 2012). This may be an opportune time to mention that support groups for PTSD patients tend to be oriented to the circumstances surrounding the trauma, i.e. Rape survivors and combat veterans may not benefit each other in a peer support setting.