Major Nutrients

Quest # 1 Nutrition Info Outline—all put in own words, nothing copied from a book

Major Nutrients

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Major Nutrients
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Basic Definitions:

Nutrients—consumables that perform a function in the human body

Calories—units of measurement of energy

  1. Macro-Caloric Nutrients (Large with Calories)
    1. Proteins (4 calories/gram)–Made up of amino acids (AA’s); there are 20 amino acids; 9 are Essential Amino Acids (EAA’s); 11 are Endogenously created (they are made from ingredients in the body)
      1. Complete Proteins—have all 9EAA’s (or all 20 AA’s)
        1. Sources of Complete Proteins Enzymes that break Proteins down to AA’s
          1. Meat pepsin—breaks long chains into short
          2. Eggs trypsin—breaks short chains into AA’s
          3. Dairy
      2. Incomplete Proteins—DO NOT have all 9 EAA’s
        1. Complementary Proteins–2+ Incomplete Proteins that together have all 9 EAA’s, creating a Complete Protein
    2. Carbohydrates (4 calories/gram)—the preferred fuel of the body
      1. Simple Carbs
        1. Monosaccharides
          1. Glucose
          2. Fructose
          3. Galactose
        2. Disaccharides Enzyme that breaks it down
          1. Maltose = glucose + glucose Maltase
          2. Sucrose = glucose + fructose Sucrase
          3. Lactose = glucose + galactose Lactase
      2. Complex Carbs
        1. Fiber (2 calories/gram)
          1. Soluble
          2. Insoluble
        2. Polysaccharides (Starch, etc.)
    3. Fats (Lipids)(9 calories/gram)—heat, & cushioning
      1. Saturated
      2. Unsaturated
        1. Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA’s)
        2. Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA’s)
          1. Omega 3’s
          2. Omega 6’s
      3. Other (for our purposes)
        1. Triglycerides
        2. Cholesterol
          1. HDL’s (High Density Lipoproteins)—‘good cholesterol’
          2. LDL’s (Low Density Lipoproteins)—‘bad cholesterol’
        3. Trans Fats (Hydrogenated Fats)—result of high heat applied to PUFA’s & used to extend shelf life of foods.
  2. Macro-Non-Caloric Nutrient (Large, No Calories)
    1. Water
  3. Micro-Non-Caloric Nutrients (Small, No Calories)
    1. Vitamins
      1. Fat Soluble
        1. Vitamin D—helps uptake calcium
        2. Vitamin E—potent antioxidant
        3. Vitamin K—helps in blood clotting
        4. Vitamin A–
      2. Water Soluble
        1. Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12—various energy uptake and production functions
        2. Vitamin C—antioxidant and bone health
        3. Biotin–
        4. Choline
        5. Folate
        6. Pantothenic acid
    2. Minerals
      1. Metals
        1. Na, Mg, K, Ca
      2. Non-Metals
        1. F, P, Cl, Se, I
      3. Transition Metals
        1. Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo
    3. PhytoChemicals
      1. Just remember anticancer for now. We’ll go into details later. They give fruits and vegetables their color.

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