Literature Analysis: Topic Identification & Bibliography

Proposed Topic:

Youth in the Criminal Justice System

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Proposed Thesis Statement:

In the United States, approximately 250,000 juvenile youth face prosecution every year in the adult criminal justice system. The step arises because of the belief that critical crimes they commit, for instance, kidnapping, rape, murder, drug crimes, and robbery, qualify their treatment as adults. The prosecution of minors as adults depicts failure in the current justice system. Should juvenile youth be tried as adults in the criminal justice system?

Preliminary Bibliography

Arya, N. (2012). Key facts: youth in the justice system. Campaign for youth justice, 1-2

Annotated Bibliography

This article illustrates that youth commit a minimal portion of the country’s crime. For instance, in 2014, 10.4 percent of violent crimes, 14.8 on asset crimes nationally in the united states, involved juvenile youth below 18 years, 9.1 percent of all the accounted arrests. The article further states that the judiciary legally waived less than 1% of the formally do cases to criminal courts represented the youth below 18 years that are tried in the adult system. In the United States, approximately 6000 children in a single night are held in adult jails and prisons, while the law is varied on whether juveniles should be kept in adult facilities.

Preliminary Bibliography

Castro, E., Muhammad, D., and Arthur, P. (2012). Treat kids as kids: Why youth should be kept in the juvenile system. California Alliance, P2-P4.

Annotated Bibliography

This article states that approximately 6500 juvenile youth below the age of 18 years are incarcerated in adult prison facilities, and out of these 1000 juvenile youth are subjected to the criminal justice system of adults, particularly in California. The article further explains that research has established that treating juvenile youth offenders as adults are legally and fundamentally wrong because it is detrimental to their holistic growth and development.

Preliminary Bibliography

David, F. (2012). SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. “Your Teen’s Brain: Driving without the Breaks.” Available at http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guestblog/2012/03/15/your-teens-brain-driving-without-the-bra

Annotated Bibliography

This article elaborates on how different juvenile’s brains are from those of adults in Miller and Jackson v. Hobbs cases. The amicus briefs were filed by the American Medical Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association, among others. The article explains that the brain continues to mature and develop throughout adolescence and even into early adulthood. The writer further illustrates that according to their brain development, juvenile youths are more likely to act on impulse, misread social cues, and others like engaging in more risk-taking behavior.

Preliminary Bibliography

Laurence, S. (2012). CNN Opinion. “Do not put Juveniles in Jail for Life.” Available at http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/19/opinion/steinberg-juvenilecrime/index.html

Annotated Bibliography

This article brings into context more than 2,500 individuals serving life sentences without the probability of parole for crimes they committed when they were young youths. The writer explains the court appeals of two cases that questioned whether life without parole is an appropriate sentence for the youth convicted of homicide. This book further explains that there is no scientific evidence that sentencing juveniles long in prison will deter other young youth from committing crimes.

Preliminary Bibliography

McCrea, H. (2008). Juveniles Should Not be Tried in Adult Courts. Should Juveniles be Tried as Adults? Gale Publishers, 2-4.

Annotated Bibliography

This article articulates that juvenile youth should never be tried because they tend to have double standards that might compromise fairness in the administration of justice. In addition, research has shown that a person’s environment plays a crucial role in shaping their physical, psychological, and mental wellness. Finally, trying juveniles in adult judicial criminal justices and consequently imprisoning them in adult prisons leads to disruptive disarray effects on young prisons. It exposes young prisoners to negative behavior in adult prisons.

Preliminary Bibliography

Scialabba, N. (2016). Children’s Rights Litigation: Should juveniles be charged as adults in the criminal justice system? American Bar Association, 1.Available at https://www.americanbar.org/publications/litigation-committees/children-rights/articles/2016/should-juveniles-be-charged-as-adults.html

Annotated Bibliography

This article explains that juvenile actions cannot be similar to adults’ actions based on crime. It talks about a 14 year old boy who was arrested for throwing a rock to the police during a political rally. Prosecutors said that the boy, who was charged with two felonies, would be tried as an adult, but the police spokesperson stated that they do not want to make an example out of the 14 years boy. This article highlights a fundamental aspect of the criminal justice system, the legal creation of juvenile crime.

Conclusion

The six articles are powerfully articulate for the need to have or establish a separate youth criminal justice system as opposed to subjecting the juvenile youth to the same judicial justice systems with the adults. The article highlights several reasons why juveniles should never be tried as adults in the criminal justice system. For example, it is unfair and unlawful to subject juveniles to a similar judicial justice system. The articles will be used to justify that prosecution of minors as adults represent a failure in the current justice system; hence juvenile youth should never face the adult’s justice system.

References

Arya, N. (2012). Key facts: youth in the justice system. Campaign for youth justice, 1-2

Castro, E., Muhammad, D., and Arthur, P. (2012). Treat kids as kids: Why youth should be kept in the juvenile system. California Alliance, P2-P4.

David, F. (2012). SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. “Your Teen’s Brain: Driving without the Breaks.” Available at http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guestblog/2012/03/15/your-teens-brain-driving-without-the-bra

Laurence, S. (2012). CNN Opinion. “Do not put Juveniles in Jail for Life.” Available at http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/19/opinion/steinberg-juvenilecrime/index.html

McCrea, H. (2008). Juveniles Should Not be Tried in Adult Courts. Should Juveniles be Tried as Adults? Gale Publishers, 2-4.

Scialabba, N. (2016). Children’s Rights Litigation: Should juveniles be charged as adults in the criminal justice system? American Bar Association, 1.Available at https://www.americanbar.org/publications/litigation-committees/children-rights/articles/2016/should-juveniles-be-charged-as-adults.html

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