3. If a group of English speakers came into contact with a group of speakers of language X what words would you expect them to borrow from language X? Why? What words would you not expect them to borrow from language X? Why?
4. How can you identify whether a language is an adstratum language, a substratum language, or a superstratum language?
5. What is the difference between borrowing and native language influence?
7. Consider what you know about the history of the speakers of a language other than English. What languages might you expect that language to have borrowed words from? Why?
8. The following is from the Oxford English Dictionary‘s etymological entry for chocolate:
French chocolat, Spanish chocolate, Mexican chocolatl “an article of food made of equal parts of the seeds of cacao and those of the tree called pochotl.”
Dissect this definition. Show the history of this word from its origins to the point in which it was borrowed into English. State the language of origin as well as any intermediate languages.
9. The following is the Oxford English dictionary‘s etymological entry for apricot:
Originally > Portuguese albricoque or Spanish albaricoque, but subseq. assimilated to the cognate French abricot (t mute). Compare also Italian albercocca, albicocca, Old Spanish albarcoque, <Spanish Arabic al-borcoq(ue) for Arabic al-burquq, -barquq, i.. al the +barquq, <Greek, <Latin praecoquum, variant of praecox, plural praecocia, “early ripe, ripe in summer”, an epithet and, in later writers, appellation of this fruit, originally called prunum or malum Armeniacum. The change in English <abr- to apr- was perhaps due to false etymology; Minsheu 1617 explained the name quasi “in apricot coctus” ripened in a sunny place: compare the spelling abricoct.
Dissect this rather densely worded definition. Show the history of this word from its origins to the point in which it was borrowed into English. State the language of origin as well as any intermediate languages.
11. Using a good etymological dictionary such as the Oxford English dictionary list the language that English most recently borrowed each of the following words from.
13. Using a good etymological dictionary such as the Oxford English dictionary answer the following questions about the English word hippopotamus:
I. The word hippopotamus was adopted from Latin but its origins lie in another language. What language does this word originally come from?
II. The Oxford English dictionary entry shows how this word can be broken down into constituent parts. What morphological process is responsible for the formation of this word? What parts can this word be broken down into? What do these words mean in English?
16. The following data or taken from Tok Pisin, an English-based expanded pidgin. Which of the common features of pidgins are found in these examples? Consider phrenology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
A. kapa – lid/cap
Bilong – belong
Pinga – finger
I waitpela – white
“The fingernail is white/ The fingernails are white”
B. jumi – we
Save – can
Tok – talk
Pisin – pidgin
“We can speak Tok Pisin”
C. mi – I
Laik – like
Baim – buy
Sampela – some
Pis – fish
“I want/ would like to buy some fish”
D. mi – I
Dringim – drink
Liklik – little
Hap – bit
Wara – water
“I drink a little water”
17. The following words are from Tok Pisin, an English-based expanded pidgin. Which English words are the blank words derived from? In other words, how would they be translated literally into English?
Tok pisin English Translation
a. taim bilong kol winter
b. taim bilong san summer
c. man bilong wokim gaden farmer
d. kamap arrive
e. tasol only
f. haus sik hospital
g. haus mani bank
h. olgeta all
i. sapos if
j. solwara ocean
k. kukim long paia barbeque
l. handet yia century
m. hamas krismas yu gat How old are you?
n. hanger long dring thirsty
o. pinga bilong fut toe
18. Consider the Russenorsk, Norwegian, and Russian data below and answer the questions. Russenorsk is a pidgin delivered through contact of Norwegian and Russian.
I. Based on the example sentence given which Russenorsk elements do you think derive from Russian in which drive from Norwegian?
II. Why do you think the Russenorsk phrase for I shall not die soon is I’ll sleep on the church soon?
III. Why do you think the Russenorsk word for captain is principal?
A. Russenorsk: Moja kopom fiska
Norwegian: jeg kjoper fish
Russian: Ja pokupaju rybu
Translation: I buy fish
B. Russenorsk: stari gammel, snart pa kjaeka slipom
Norwegian: jeg er gammel, jeg skal dor snart
Russian: Ja staryj. Ja skoro umru
Translation: I’m old, I shall die soon
C. Russenorsk: Moja vil spraek pa principal
Norwegian: Jeg vil taler med kapteinen
Russian: Jaco pogovorit’s lapitanom
Translation: I want to speak to the captain
21. Consider the Hawaiian creole English text below. Which aspects of the text are similar to and which are different from English? How much of the text can you understand?
Hukilepo, get many peoples on dees island who stay tink me I outa be een som pupule hospeetal. But me I goin tell you something… One keiki been tell da udder one fo go buy ice cream fo dey eat up on top dey bus. Den da udder one newa like go so he been say, “Poho money.” Wasamala wid heem, he can no say “Me I stay broke?”
24. Consider the following dialogue that took place in Quebec. French is marked by italics. What do you think is going on in the dialogue? What does this tell you about language choice or language abilities?
Man: could you tell me where the French test is?
Receptionist: Pardon? (Pardon?)
Man: could you tell me where the French test is?
Receptionist: En Francois? (In French?)
Man: I have the right to be addressed in English by the government of Quebec.
Receptionist: Qu’est-ce qu’il dit? (What’s he saying?)