project: analysis of a destination

course title: understanding travel and tourism

assignment 3 with 2500 words in project style.

all of the detail in the attachment.

requirement: graded credit or above.

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Journal of Consumer Culture

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2007 7: 305Journal of Consumer Culture
Kevin Fox Gotham
urban tourism

Destination New Orleans : Commodification, rationalization, and the rise of

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ARTICLE

Destination New Orleans
Commodification, rationalization, and the rise of urban tourism
KEVIN FOX GOTHAM
Tulane University

Abstract
This article uses a case study of New Orleans to illustrate the nexus of
commodification and rationalization in the development of urban tourism during the
first half of the 20th century. Tourism is exemplary of the consumption of space and
involves the circulation of people to particular locations to consume local culture,
nature, history, or otherness. I examine the role of urban literary writers, visitor
guidebooks, and the New Orleans Association of Commerce in constructing a
‘destination image’. As a collection of symbols and motifs representing a locale, a
destination image is a visual cue that acts both as an attraction for potential tourists
and as a cultural framework for authenticating the tourists’ experience once they
arrive in the city. I argue that creating and (re)producing a destination image and
assorted urban symbols requires an institutional system or set of formal organizations.
Institutions and organizations create the rules, routines, and structures that shape how
tourism markets and destination images develop, how actors present and arrange
symbols to persuade people to invest in and travel to cities, and how actors develop
promotional strategies. Analysis of rationalization and commodification in the
production of a destination image offers a unique perspective for understanding
tourism as a major consumption practice constituted by a set of ‘distant’ processes and
‘local’ practices.

Key words
authenticity ● commodification ● New Orleans ● rationalization ● tourism

Journal of Consumer Culture

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INTRODUCTION
Recent years have witnessed the growth of a burgeoning literature on the
rise of urban tourism, entertainment, and consumer culture. Scholars have
noted that during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, tourism shifted
from a set of leisure activities for members of the elite to a mass phenom-
enon with hotels, conventions, and other facilities making up the expand-
ing industry (Desmond, 1999; Gottdiener, 2000, 2001; Rojek and Urry,
1997; Urry, 2002). During this period, US cities began to create specific
organizations and promotional strategies to advertise themselves as attrac-
tive places for commercial investment and pleasure travel. In addition to
sponsoring international expositions, cities established chambers of
commerce, commercial and industrial associations, and placed advertising
in newspapers and magazines to attract visitors and enhance local distinc-
tiveness (Cocks, 2001; Ewen, 1976; Hannigan, 1998; Leach, 1993). The
scholarly diversity and richness of accounts on the rise of urban tourism
show that the subject has been a major topic of intellectual concern for
some time. Yet differences in theoretical orientation, methods, and analyti-
cal techniques have led to alterative ways of conceptualizing tourism, assess-
ing consequences, and delineating the effects of tourism on local culture.1

Few scholars have provided a theoretically sophisticated account of the
diverse ways early 20th-century elites used tourism to transform space and
engineer the post-Second World War growth of what George Ritzer
(2005) calls the ‘means of consumption’ of corporate entertainment, theme
parks, and retail chains. More rarely have scholars connected their empiri-
cal work on tourism with a broader analysis of consumer culture and the
rise of mass consumption. Indeed, the linkages between tourism, consump-
tion, and consumer culture remain undertheorized and poorly understood.
Scholarship lacks specificity in analyzing how and under what conditions
tourism developed as a rationalized industry devoted to the aestheticization
of local culture and the production of spaces of consumption, leisure, and
entertainment.

This article uses a case study of New Orleans to illustrate the interplay
of commodification and rationalization in the development of urban
tourism. During the 19th century, the emergence of jazz music, the
increased popularity of voodoo ceremonies and gaming, and the indelible
Mardi Gras celebration contributed to projecting an image of New Orleans
as a unique place with an individuality and authenticity of its own. Early,
the emerging railroad industry, guidebook companies, and urban literary
writers published a variety of tourist manuals, descriptive essays, and whim-
sical pieces describing New Orleans as a crucible of cultural diversity and

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creativity (Boyer, 1994; Jackson, 1969: 23–4, 63, 255–7, 273–82). As I show,
New Orleans’s image and reputation as a sui generis place was not some-
thing that developed by fortuity or happenstance. By the late 19th century,
the promotional material of local business leaders implied an evolving form
of civic boosterism centered on attracting tourists and remaking the city
into a landscape of consumption. In 1894, several hundred businessmen
formed the Young Men’s Business League for the purpose of bringing ‘to
the notice of the business world the material wealth of our city and its
advantages for business, manufactures and residences’.2 By the turn of the
century, more local businesses joined to create the New Orleans Progress-
ive Union, an organization to entertain distinguished visitors to New
Orleans. In 1913, the Union and the Young Men’s League merged with
several other associations to form the New Orleans Association of
Commerce.3 A year later, the Association joined the Chamber of
Commerce of the United States. The Association of Commerce was the
first organized group of business leaders in New Orleans to create a tourism
and convention bureau, promote the city on a widespread scale, and
encourage people to view the city as a collection of tourist attractions
(Stanonis, 2006). Early New Orleans literary writers – Grace King, Kate
Chopin, Lafcadio Hearn, Robert Tallant, George Washington Cable,
William Coleman, Lyle Saxon, and others – facilitated the creation of a
collective memory of New Orleans culture with deep historical roots in
an amalgam of different people and groups. Yet it was the Association of
Commerce that supplied the organizational structures, marketing strategies,
and promotional efforts to disseminate this image on an international scale
and link New Orleans with a fledgling mass tourism industry.

My case study of New Orleans addresses two major limitations in
scholarship on the rise of urban tourism and consumer culture in early
20th century America. First, I maintain that early efforts to promote tourism
emerged during the 20th century not as a linear transition or smooth
progression from less developed patterns of urban promotion and booster-
ism. Rather the development of tourism was uneven and chaotic, punctu-
ated by periods of growth and prosperity as well as by severe crises and
instability. The precariousness of industrial expansion and commercial
transformation was marked by increasing anxiety and mobilization among
business groups. During the 1910s, new business associations began forging
networks with the emerging convention industry to transform tourism into
a highly organized and rationalized set of enterprises, enabling people to
consume specially prepared spaces. By the 1930s, a formal system of tourism
infrastructure – hotels, sightseeing tours, travel bureaus, tourist information

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centers, tourist publications, a convention and visitors bureau and public-
ity bureau located within the Association of Commerce, and so forth – had
replaced the more piecemeal and unconnected services offered to visitors
during the early 20th century. The development of tourism in New
Orleans was intimately linked with the rationalization of place promotion
activities and the commodification of indigenous products, cultures, and
social relations. As two defining processes of consumer culture, the spread
of commodification and rationalization presaged a new era whereby locally
conceived social forms could be transformed into abstract and iconic images
and symbols that could be used for the cross-promotion of diverse
commodities (guidebooks, hotels, railroads, airlines, etc.). In the signifying
act of the tourist advertisement, otherwise disconnected images could be
transferred from one social activity and reference set to another. In this
sense, the advertising of New Orleans as a tourist site became an import-
ant and strategic device in the production of urban space.

Second, recent historical scholarship on the rise of tourism in the
United States has focused on the role of consumer demand and individual
travel preferences in the development of tourism venues and promotional
activities during the late 19th and 20th centuries (Rothman, 2003; Shaffer,
2001). While these factors are important, they can obscure the powerful role
of political and economic elites, coalitions of businessmen, and other
organized interests in shaping and influencing tourists’ views of cities. As I
show, the members of the committees of the Association of Commerce
were urban imagineers – signifying agents – who helped fashion a ‘desti-
nation image’ and worked diligently to influence the (re)presentation of the
city to locals, businesses, and tourists. A destination image is a set of visual
symbols and descriptors that provide visitors and residents with a trans-
parent and recognizable local iconography for interpreting the cultural
attractions of a city or destination. As a socially constructed cultural script,
a destination image emerges from interactions among local actors, corpor-
ations, and other economic and cultural interests linked through organiza-
tions and network ties. I draw upon archival data, especially minutes of
meetings of the Association of Commerce, to reveal the key actors, organ-
ized interests, patterns of interaction, and important motivations underly-
ing the elaboration and development of New Orleans’s ‘destination image’
and the early building of tourism in the city.4 The minutes of meetings of
the bureaus, departments, and committees of the Association of Commerce
are infused with a political messianism. Members viewed themselves as the
civic guardians of New Orleans culture and they engaged in actions to
create organizations and promotional strategies to ‘construct’ New Orleans

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as a place of leisure, entertainment, and consumption. The creation and
stabilization of networks and organizational ties helped businessmen
produce collective representations of New Orleans, and disseminate these
representations to the world through the institutional channels of the
emerging convention and advertising industries. The Association of
Commerce was organized in a quasi-bureaucratic form with a flexible
division of labor, a several-layered authority system, and a strong commit-
ment to organizational continuity and goal achievement. This organiza-
tional structure rationalized the process of symbol production while
creating opportunities for the amplification of local culture on a global
scale.

COMMODIFICATION, RATIONALIZATION, AND URBAN TOURISM
Tourism stands at the nexus of the ‘distant’ processes of commodification
and rationalization, and ‘local’ forces of territorial embeddedness and place
particularity. Unlike other commodities that are bought and sold in markets,
the tourism commodity and related services are spatially fixed and
consumed at the place of production. At the same time, tourism is a set of
extra-local practices and activities that are subject to the fluid dynamics and
anarchic character of capital investment. It is this duality between localized
and non-transportable products and distant and mobile capital that makes
the study of tourism especially important for illuminating the rise of
modern consumption practices. On the one hand, scholars have long
conceptualized tourism as an extension of commodification that transforms
indigenous places and cultures into saleable products that are devoid of
authenticity (for example, see Boorstin, 1964; Britton, 1991; Debord, 1994;
Watson and Kopachevsky, 1994). In Zygmunt Bauman’s (1998) work,
tourism is a force of standardization that promotes the growth of extra-
territoriality whereby ‘intra-planetary connections . . . stamp uniformity
where connections would be, sameness over differences, uniformity over
exchange’ (Franklin, 2003: 212). Other scholars have viewed tourism as a
‘local’ practice that nurtures the growth of indigenous identities and trans-
mits expressive resources for localized cultural valorization (for example,
see Coleman and Crang, 2003; Eade, 1997). Rather than viewing terms
like the ‘distant’ and ‘local’ as binaries or independently given sets of
phenomena, it is helpful to see them as existing in a dialectical, reciprocal,
and interactive relationship. Such a perspective recognizes that distant
processes like commodification and rationalization are articulated in
everyday social behaviors and cultural practices in particular places at
specific times. In this dynamic relationship, every local context involves its

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own appropriation and reworking of extra-local processes and influences,
thus encouraging diversity and variety. Understanding tourism as an
amalgam of both distant and local influences helps to shift analytically from
the macro-level and accompanying abstract dimensions to the local, the
specific, and the micro-level of everyday experience. Such a perspective
adjudicates between a ‘top-down’ approach that stresses the role of distant
forces and macrostructures in driving tourism, and a ‘bottom-up’ approach
that focuses on the role of local influences and particularizing forces.

References to commodification and rationalization abound in recent
studies of urban tourism, place marketing, and consumer culture. Commod-
ification refers to the dominance of commodity exchange-value over use-
value and implies the development of a consumer society where market
relations subsume and govern social life. In the context of urban tourism,
local customs, rituals, festivals, and ethnic arts become tourist attractions,
performed for tourist consumption, and produced for market-based instru-
mental activities (for overviews, see Gotham, 2002; Judd and Fainstein,
1999; Rath, 2007). Rationalization is a process whereby social actions and
interactions become based on considerations of efficiency and calculation
rather than on motivations derived from custom, tradition, or emotion. Max
Weber (1968 [1921]; 1995 [1905]) used the concept formal rationality to
explain the process by which the major institutions of the West became
dominated by means-ends calculation guided by universally applied rules,
laws, and regulations. Formal rationality is implemented most fully through
bureaucratic organizations. Following other scholars such as Ritzer (2004)
and Gottdiener (2000), I use the term rationalization to analyze the imple-
mentation of formal procedures to enhance the efficiency, calculation, and
predictability of producing tourism products, images, and spaces. Broadly,
the commodification of local cultural products and the production of
spaces of consumption could not take place without rationalized organiza-
tions and institutions. Rational organizations provide a regulatory frame-
work of rules, norms, and procedures in which the production and
consumption of local culture and tourism-building take place. Codified
procedures and rules also establish stable routines to localize and reproduce
flows of capital, culture, images, and people. Commodification and rational-
ization always appear on the same stage in each other’s company, and to
speak of one is to imply the existence of the other. Thus, commodifica-
tion and rationalization are not pre-given or independent categories but
are uneven and historically changing processes that never reach any ultimate
conclusion or completion.

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Commodification and rationalization are important for explaining the
formation of structured webs of cultural meaning and significance that
animate expressions and representations of urban identity in tourism
promotion. Over the 20th century, the cultural meanings and significations
that people in different places have assigned to local products, organizations,
and other creations have been shaped by wider structures and processes of
commodification and rationalization. The pioneering work of John Urry
(2002), Stuart Ewen (1976), and William Leach (1993) draws attention to
the rise of standardized factory production and mass advertising as central
components in the development of a broad-based consumer capitalism
with tourism as a form of rationalized leisure. In his oft-cited book, The
Society of the Spectacle, Guy Debord (1994) developed the concept of the
‘spectacle’ to refer to the ‘historical moment at which the commodity
completes its colonization of social life’ (p. 42) and images and symbols
become commodity-spectacles. As the processes of commodification and
rationalization spread through society, towns and cities increasingly re-
organize themselves as exotic places for the consumption of culture and
uniqueness, both for residents and tourists, a phenomenon described by
Mark Gottdiener (2001), Richard Williams (2004), and Anne-Marie
Broudehoux (2004). Every town and city, as David Harvey (1989: 13) notes,
‘has to appear as an innovative, exciting, creative, and safe place to live, play,
and consume. Spectacle and display [become] the symbols of [a] dynamic
community.’ These perspectives are important for drawing attention to how
tourism framings of local culture, history, and identities spring from an
interplay of signification and interpretation that are structured by a plethora
of intersecting rules, codes, formal organizations, and rationalized
procedures. While localized cultural invention and interpretation are based
on people’s negotiation of shared cultural meanings, these meanings are
neither spontaneously created nor structurally determined. Structures,
organizations, and processes constrain choices, enable decision-making, and
provide opportunities and symbolic resources to forge some kinds of
cultural meanings rather than others.

Many scholars acknowledge the rise and development of urban
tourism during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but they disagree
over its form, impact, and trajectory. Cocks (2001) attributes the growth of
urban tourism to increasing and more affordable transportation, rising
middle-class income, and the development of new urban hotels. Sears
(1989) maintains that the rise of American tourist attractions during the
19th century assumed the function of ‘sacred places’ for affirming a national
collective identity and a broad cultural sensibility. Reflecting Sears’s cultural

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approach, Shaffer (2001: 6) argues that tourism operated to forge a modern
American cultural identity: ‘both the production of the tourist landscape
and the consumption of the tourist experience [were] central to the
development of a nascent national cultural in the United States’. These
diverse accounts offer broad insight into the connections between tourism
and consumer culture, and the role of consumer demand in stimulating
travel. Yet, at the same time, this scholarship is less helpful in explaining the
uneven development of tourism, analyzing how and under what conditions
tourism emerged in major cities, and identifying how tourism became
intertwined with mass consumption. Just as racial and ethnic interactions
and relations, social conflicts, and the nature of work varied from place to
place, the emergence of urban tourism reflected local idiosyncrasies, local
histories, and indigenous practices in the making of urban culture and
place. More important, situational and contextual factors specific to each
city under study complicate cross-city generalizations about tourism and
consumption. As far as tourism is an expression of larger processes and
socio-economic relationships, the development of tourism in any particu-
lar city will express the particularities of the place in the making of its
urban space. In short, place matters in the study of tourism because an
analysis of why and how tourism develops will need to take into account
where (and when) it develops.

URBAN TOURISM AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF A DESTINATION IMAGE
Scholars have noted that a city’s ‘destination image’ comprises a distinct set
of iconic representations and cultural symbols that people associate with a
particular locale. The destination image is a visual cue that acts as both an
attraction for potential tourists and as a cultural framework for authenticat-
ing tourists’ experiences once they arrive in the city. Jane Desmond’s (1999)
examination of Hawaii’s destination image locates the construction of the
female hula dancer in the circulation of visual and verbal representations
that romanticized 19th-century representations of ‘natives’ to sell a pleasur-
able image and experience to tourists. Mimi Sheller’s (2003) study of
tourism consumption in the Caribbean and Michael Dawson’s (2004)
historical analysis of consumer culture and tourism in British Columbia
suggest that destination images are constructed not only from publicity
materials but also from other forms of representation, including fashion,
cuisine, urban literary descriptions, historical narratives, music, and news
stories. While most scholars agree that destination images are ‘constructed’,
there is much disagreement over how organizations and institutions shape
the production of a destination image, how past actions and choices

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constrain and/or enable the process of destination image creation, and
how powerful actors fabricate and deploy cultural themes to legitimize their
own interpretations of the destination image. Creating and (re)producing
a destination image and assorted urban symbols requires an institutional
system or set of formal organizations. Institutions and organizations create
the rules, routines, and structures that shape how tourism markets and
destination images develop, how actors present and arrange symbols to
persuade people to invest in and travel to cities, and how actors develop
promotional strategies.

The early construction of a New Orleans as a tourist destination is
connected to several major developments that link the process of destina-
tion image construction with the rise of mass tourism: the rise of literary
writers, guidebooks, and the mass media; and the actions of the New
Orleans Association of Commerce. In his book, The Culture of Time and
Space, 1880–1918, Stephen Kern (1983: 34) explains how, in the 19th
century, communication, transportation and the growth of journalism made
it possible for more people to read about distant places in the newspaper,
see them in magazines and movies, and travel more widely. As human
consciousness expanded across time and space, people could not help
noticing that in different places there were vastly different customs. While
attention to transportation and communication technologies is important
for understanding the increasing rapidity and velocity of flows of travel, it
is less helpful in explaining the conditions under which different cities
mobilized their cultural attributes to develop different destination images
to attract capital and consumers. As Cocks (2001) has noted, descriptions
of cities contained in tourist guides published by hotels, railroads, and other
travel interests were sites on which various social groups, institutions, and
ideologies struggled over the definition and construction of urban reality.
Understanding the construction of destination images means focusing
analytical attention on identifying the institutional relations linking macro-
processes and social actors in the development of modern tourism. Such
an approach calls for greater attention to the complex and nuanced ways
that destination images emerge from interactions among national and local
actors connected through organizations and network ties.

THE ROLE OF LITERARY WRITERS, GUIDEBOOK PUBLISHERS, AND THE
MASS MEDIA
One way rational organizational forms and commodity images of places
and cultures became enmeshed in the emerging consumer culture of urban
America was through the ideas and representations purveyed by urban

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literary writers and guidebook publishers. Throughout the 19th century,
architectural guidebooks, local storybooks, cookbooks, and a variety of
visitor guides published by Benjamin Moore Norman (1845), J. Curtis
Waldo (1879), and William H. Coleman (1885), among others, contained
descriptions of New Orleans; identified a variety of local myths; celebrated
the city’s cultural expressions, customs and traditions; and included songs,
recipes, and collective memories. New Orleans’s first guidebook, Norman’s
New Orleans and Environs, a 223-page book published by Benjamin Moore
Norman in 1845, offered itself as a ‘historical sketch of the Territory and
State of Louisiana and the City of New Orleans, from the earliest period
to the present time: presenting a complete guide’. J. Curtis Waldo, a local
publisher and photo-engraver, issued his Illustrated Visitors’ Guide to New
Orleans in 1879, featuring tourist highlights along with prominent busi-
nesses (and businessmen), institutions, and organizations of the day. In the
ten years he was in New Orleans, from 1877 to 1888, Lafcadio Hearn
published hundreds of descriptions of New Orleans that appeared in the
New Orleans Daily Item and Times-Democrat, Harper’s Weekly, and Scribner’s
Magazine.5 The prolific writings of Hearn complemented a plethora of
stories about New Orleans written by George Washington Cable that were
published nationwide in the popular Century Magazine.

The spread of newspapers, guidebooks, magazines, and other media
helped popularize and disseminate an image of New Orleans as a city of
romance, uplifting culture, and architectural splendor. Specifically, the ingre-
dients of New Orleans in destination image included French and Spanish
architecture, Creole culture, the Vieux Carre (French Quarter), Mardi Gras,
Les Coulisses (French Opera), beautiful oak trees, Spanish moss, voodoo,
cities of the dead (above-ground cemeteries), and scenes of romance and
mystery. Later writers such as Grace Elizabeth King (1895, 1932), Robert
Tallant (1948), and Lyle Saxon (1928) would elaborate on these resonant
themes and amplify them to build a veritable cornucopia of culture
materials to lure tourists to the city.

The invention of photography helped support the expansion of a vast
literature on American cities, through booster literature, travel sketches,
guidebooks, tourism itineraries, and other illustrated brochures of cities and
urban life (Cocks, 2001; Shaffer, 2001). Photography enabled travelers to
transcribe reality visually, thus providing a motivation for people to visit
exotic places and capture images and experiences on film.6 Early visitor
guides were organizers and transmitters of cultural information that
reflected as well as created public opinion about cities. Railroad, hotel, and
other emerging travel industries, in turn, adapted and reshaped images of

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cities to stimulate desire to travel and thereby create a market for their
products and services. In a section titled ‘Why We Travel’, a Rand McNally
guidebook published for the 1884 World’s Fair in New Orleans declared
that people travel to ‘find constant pleasure and profitable interests over
every mile’. Juxtaposing ‘pleasure and profit’ connected with a narrative
strategy of extracting, reducing, and recombining iconic representations of
New Orleans to construct and project an image of the city as place of
amusement. To ‘fix salient points in the mind’, the guidebook instructed
visitors to take a notebook and ‘write out condensed memoranda of what
you learn. It will assist you in memorizing and photographing on the mind
what you acquire.’ The Rand McNally guidebook drew a sharp distinction
between ‘a time of labor’ and a ‘time for recreation’, noting that visitors
who travel to New Orleans ‘will come back refreshed and enlightened from
what they have seen and learned’.7 In the 19th century, the advertising work
of railroad companies and guidebook publishers complemented and
embellished the place-making work of George Washington Cable, Lafcadio
Hearn,William H. Coleman, and other New Orleans writers to frame social
conditions, assign meaning to New Orleans, and thereby organize tourist
experience. The partial and selective descriptions of the city deployed by
these and other literary writers coupled with the appearance of undeviat-
ing candor and credibility helped supply an interpretive schema that could
act as an attraction for potential tourists.

By the 20th century, the image-building of urban writers, journalists,
and guidebook publishers reflected and supported an emerging system of
urban promotion led by magazines, music, silent films, motion pictures,
radio, and later, television. Recording and radio made it possible to project
music over time and space and introduce people around the world to New
Orleans jazz (Raeburn, 2002). The transmission of cultural images and
symbols about the city received an added boost with the development of
silent films. In 1912, George Klein, Samuel Long, and Frank Morton
founded the Kalem Company, and began to produce silent films using New
Orleans as a setting. During its first year, the company produced The Belle
of New Orleans, Girl Strikers, The Pilgrimage, Mardi Gras Mix-up, Bucktown
Romance, and The Darling of the C.S.A. (Rosendahl, 1984). Later, the advent
of television and motion pictures encouraged the theatrical stereotyping of
New Orleans, creating a symbolic reality colored by the selective interpret-
ations of producers and writers. Cinema, motion pictures, and television
superimposed a ‘visual city’ on the ‘built city’, creating a narrative map of
familiarity and coherence in place of complexity and variety. Movies like
Streetcar Named Desire with Marlon Brando, Louisiana Purchase with Bob

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Hope, King Creole with Elvis Presley, and many others, presented slices of
authenticity to reinforce and accentuate certain stereotypes while creating
for each viewer a private impression of New Orleans. Overall, the
(re)presentation of urban life and culture in visitors’ guides and mass media
transmitted ideas about New Orleans to a broad audience, thus captivating
attention and nurturing people’s understandings of the city and its people.
The discourse and imagery contained in visitors’ guides, literary depictions,
movies, and television made it possible for more people to visually consume
representations of New Orleans and to imagine what it would be like to
travel to the city.

The above points draw attention to the centrality of literary writers,
guidebook publishers, and the mass media as institutions that appropriate
and transform otherwise mundane and ordinary images, symbols, and
experiences into spectacle and fantasy. For Guy Debord (1994), an essen-
tial part of contemporary society is the vast commercial effort to ‘spectac-
ularize’ the world through the production of commodity-images as ruled
by the logic and dictates of commodified media culture. For Ritzer (2005),
consumer society is dominated by the process of ‘re-enchantment’ by
which various entertainment firms, theme parks, and other enterprises use
spectacles and simulations to seduce people into consuming more
commodities. These points reflect a long-standing sociological concern in
explaining cultural phenomena and meaning-creation in terms of actors,
organizations, structures, and processes. In every society, as Bourdieu (1984
[1979]) noted, cultural objects are located within complex systems and
organizations that are created and reproduced through social interaction
among people. This argument also dovetails with Baudrillard (1998 [1973]:
79–80), who argues that processes of cultural production provide a code
that people use to construct and reconstruct cultural identities and
meanings through the exchange of commodities: ‘The circulation,
purchase, sale, appropriation of differentiated goods and signs/objects today
constitute our language, our code, that code which the entire society
communicates and converses.’ In the case of New Orleans, a variety of
corporations and organizations appropriated different components of urban
culture using rational techniques of image production. Processes of
commodification and rationalization assisted in abstracting New Orleans
‘culture’ from local contexts of interaction and meaning-making. Once
converted into an abstract and auto-referential image, culture was put
into the service of the commodification process and repackaged and sold
in a variety of market-based forms (tourist guides, books, magazines,
movies, and exotic stories). By the 1920s and 1930s, visual and verbal

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representations of New Orleans had been commodified in pictures, post-
cards, and advertisements to supply potential visitors with an inexhaustible
repertoire of pleasurable experiences, a development that both reflected and
legitimized the development of a rationalized tourism industry.

THE ROLE OF THE NEW ORLEANS ASSOCIATION OF COMMERCE
The mobilization of businessmen and the creation of the New Orleans
Association of Commerce in 1913 represent a major turning point in the
development and elaboration of New Orleans’s destination image. We can
view the Association as a major agent linking the processes of commodi-
fication and rationalization with the local actions of economic elites in the
institutionalization of a destination image, and the establishment of a local
tourism industry. During the first two decades of the 20th century, the
Association created over a dozen internal bureaus, committees, and depart-
ments to support inward investment, lobby city and state governments in
support of business-friendly legislation, collect data on demographic and
population trends, and represent the commercial interests of members.8

The establishment of a Convention and Visitors’ Bureau (CVB) and a
Publicity Bureau in the years after 1915 laid the institutional foundation
for disseminating New Orleans’s destination image through organized
promotional activities and network connections with national and inter-
national tourism organizations. Hierarchical organization and routinized
network ties helped stabilize and structure relationships to harness
commodity flows and create new circuits of representation, including
news stories, photographs, songs, nostalgic descriptions, literary narratives,
cuisine, and so forth. More important, networked relationships provided
for the creation and transmission of cultural knowledge about New
Orleans, and the mobilization of capital and resources for early tourism-
building. The CVB established the Greater New Orleans Hotel and
Lodging Association in 1924 and the New Orleans Restaurant Men’s
Association in 1931, two major developments that facilitated the building
of an alliance to represent the interests of restaurants and hotels and
provide for regularized interaction and cooperation within the emerging
tourism industry.9 In 1930, the CVB was accepted for membership in the
International Association of Convention and Visitors Bureaus (IACVB)
and thus, according to the Association of Commerce, ‘attained national
recognition as the official Convention and Tourist Bureau of the City of
New Orleans’.10

From the turn of the century through the Second World War, the CVB
and the Publicity Bureau played strategic roles in systematizing the process

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of attracting, planning, and organizing conventions in an effort to undercut
other cities in the competitive race to gain tourism investment. From the
early 20th century onward, city after city established convention bureaus
including Detroit (1895), Honolulu (1902), Atlantic City (1908), Denver
(1909), Atlanta (1913), Minneapolis (1927), Washington, DC (1931),
Cleveland (1934), New York City (1935), Philadelphia (1942), and Chicago
(1943) (Flynn and Flynn, 1996). In these and other cities, CVBs designed
their promotions and advertising to enhance predictability and reduce
uncertainty in the decision-making calculus. Early on, the Association of
Commerce recognized that attracting conventions ‘is about the most
effective form of advertising we could possibly have’ and is ‘tantamount to
selling New Orleans on a wholesale scale’.11 Members argued that the
systematization of promotional efforts was a logical and rational means of
doing business to benefit the entire city. Though all members were of a
similar class background to businessmen and entrepreneurs, different coali-
tions of interest cut across class boundaries within the organization. Almost
from the beginning, Association members disagreed on whether the CVB
should be led by hotel owners with specific interests in attracting mainly
conventioneers, or whether the bureau should contain a broad representa-
tion of business owners such as retail merchants and others interested in
bringing diverse kinds of visitors to New Orleans. The routinization of
action within a CVB and Publicity Bureau helped actors cultivate a cogni-
tive framework within which to interact and construct meanings about
New Orleans, engage in strategic and long-range tourism planning,
troubleshoot present problems in light of past actions, and forecast future
developments.

Members of the Association of Commerce recognized the fierce
competition of attracting visitors and struggled to build networks and
organizations to entice conventions to the city. Yet the volatile currents of
social unrest and economic instability unleashed by the First World War,
the Great Depression in the 1930s, and the Second World War hampered
elite efforts to attract visitors and build tourism institutions. New Orleans’s
famed Mardi Gras krewes (organizations that plan and stage parades)
cancelled their parades during the First World War, the first ever mass
cancellation of the Mardi Gras season. It was not until the 1920s that the
four major krewes – Comus, Momus, Rex, and Proteus – returned to the
streets to host their parades. During the Great Depression, the Carnival
schedule shrunk to only three parades as lack of money forced Momus
to cancel its parades from 1933 through 1936. In 1932, the Annual Report
from the CVB lamented that ‘the stringency of the economic situation’

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has ‘had a most militating effect upon our efforts . . . to secure a steady
flow of desirable and profitable conventions for New Orleans’.12 The
‘world strife’ of the Second World War resulted in a ‘turbulent and trou-
blous year of 1940’, according to the CVB.13 The number of visitors to
Louisiana plummeted during the crisis of the Second World War, from
391,372 in 1940, to 82,606 in 1945, and only 12,000 in 1946.14 The
downturn in the number of visitors, conventions and attendance during
the Second World War also reflects federal restrictions imposed by the
Office of Defense Transportation (ODT) that banned conventions except
those that helped the war effort. The federal government also required the
conversion of tourist camps into military camps.15 By 1944, the ODT
required meetings of more than 50 participants to apply for authoriza-
tion. Around the nation, up to one-third of all convention and visitors’
bureaus discontinued their activities, and another third reduced their offer-
ings (Flynn and Flynn, 1996). Even after the Second World War, the CVB
primarily sought small conventions for the city due to a limited amount
of convention space and a lack of hotel rooms to accommodate large
conventions.

In general, the political instability of world wars and the Great
Depression portended a new era of seemingly chronic instability and
volatile transformation for New Orleans and other cities. As the Great
Depression spread, it created persistent mass unemployment, devastated
whole communities, and generated an upsurge of protest. As in other cities,
the unemployment rate in New Orleans peaked at 25 percent and only
gradually declined after the early 1930s. Compounding this problem was
the fragile New Orleans economy that was dominated by the port industry
and the oil industry, two industries extremely vulnerable to periodic down-
turns in the national and global economy. Despite being a center of trade
and commerce, New Orleans never developed a high-wage manufacturing
sector or textile industry. Most of the city’s industrial activity was limited
to cotton production and trade, sugar refineries, tobacco factories, coffee,
and businesses catering to the local market.16 Anxieties about the uncertain
place of New Orleans in the changing US economy and society fueled
debate and contestation over the future of the city while creating oppor-
tunities for elites to reinvent the city and to (re)present urban culture as a
theatrical spectacle. For New Orleans during the first half of the 20th
century, local elites working through the Association of Commerce
attempted to control the discourse of urban place-making and promotion,
legitimate tourism expansion, and define urban culture in the language of
the commodity-spectacle.

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An approximation of the size, complexity, and specialization of the
New Orleans’s tourism sector can be gauged from Table 1, which lists the
number of hotels and motels; tourist camps, homes, and courts; amusement
places; sightseeing tours; travel bureaus and tourist information centers; and
museums from the early 20th century to 1950. These figures come from
listings in New Orleans phone books for the given years. The table provides
a general indicator of growth in the number, differentiation, and special-
ization of tourism facilities. Before the 1920s, tourism promotion was
relatively ad hoc and uncoordinated. The few hotels in the city and the lack
of amusement places, sightseeing tours, and other tourism facilities suggest
that tourism was not a rationalized and distinctive set of activities. Although
different interests and actors advertised New Orleans as a tourist destina-
tion, this was not carried out on any systematic and routinized basis.
Moreover, lack of capital financing and low levels of tourism flows dis-
couraged large-scale tourism investment and commercial development in
the city. In addition, we can see from the table the precariousness and
unevenness of tourism development as the number of amusement places
plummeted after the beginning of the Great Depression, and the number
of sightseeing tours and travel bureaus dropped after the US entered the
Second World War. Almost all categories registered major increases in the
five years after the end of the war in 1945.

CITY OF PROGRESS, ROMANCE, AND UNIQUENESS
The mobilization for the First and Second World Wars, and the prolonged
economic instability caused by the Great Depression, threatened the
fortunes of economic elites and created a sense of political crisis among
leaders with interests in promoting tourism and attracting conventions.
Confronted with socio-economic uncertainty and unpredictability,
members of the Association of Commerce mobilized to establish and insti-
tutionalize a series of interconnected networks with railroad companies,
hotels, national book publishers, newspapers, and magazines to expand the
repertoire of urban place promotion and control the process of tourism-
building. As information disseminators, the CVB and the Publicity Bureau
produced and supplied photographs, tourist guides, booklets, special articles,
and other general publicity to travel editors, columnists, automobile clubs,
magazines, and tourist information centers around the world. During the
1920s, the Association began publishing and disseminating a weekly digest,
titled New Orleans is Growing, of news items showing the progress and
development of the city to hundreds of ‘interested publishers, editors,
correspondents, advertising agents, and individuals known to be interested

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321

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in New Orleans’. Importantly, the CVB established procedures to assist
‘visiting newspapermen, radiomen, writers and photographers while
visiting New Orleans, in most cases escorting them around the city, working
with them, so that they may see New Orleans through “our” eyes’.17

Through its various formal connections and cooperative agreements
with firms and tourism boosters, the Association embraced a holistic
approach of doing ‘everything possible to get favorable publicity for New
Orleans from the business, industrial, and tourist viewpoints in travel
magazines, convention organs, trade and business publications, financial and
business pages of newspapers’.18 What is important is that promotional
networks were not only structures of communication but were conduits of
resources and information exchange that served as a basis of collective
action. Through the creation of different network forms, the Association
was guided by a logic of commodification and rationalization of image
production. To enhance the building of a tourism infrastructure and attract
capital investment, the Association and its bureaus designed routines to
clarify goals, reduce the uncertainty of place promotion, and identify
opportunities to stimulate consumer demand to visit the city.

The growth and extension of networks between the bureaus of the
Association of Commerce and other corporations and tourism interests
helped encourage the formation of synergistic promotional opportunities
and corporate tie-ins to expand and legitimate the commodity form. One
of the first international publicity efforts involved making contact with the
commercial firm of Thomas Cook and Sons, a company that pioneered
the packaged tour and day excursions (Cocks, 2001: 110–16; Urry, 2002:
23–4, 46, 86, 138, 148). According to a July 1921 report, the Bureau ‘distrib-
uted about 3000 pieces of literature advertising New Orleans . . . not only
in all parts of the United States but also in several foreign lands through
the tourist services of Thomas Cook and Sons, and commercial
exchanges’.19 Organizational ties with the Cook company combined with
other international promotional efforts fueled the production of tourist
images of New Orleans and provided a rationale for identifying and
creating additional media outlets to advertise the city. In June 1924, the
Publicity Bureau reported that it sent 4000 pieces of printed matter to
London for distribution at the New Orleans Advertising Club’s conven-
tion.20 In 1927, the CVB was proclaiming itself ‘as the clearing house for
matters having to do with advertising to the nation and world at large, the
progress, possibilities, and attractions of the city’.21 The February 1932
Report noted that the CVB ‘effected an arrangement with the American
Express Company as a medium through which literature on New Orleans

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would be distributed to agencies of the company in foreign countries’.22

A year later, at the 1933 ‘Century of Progress’World Exposition in Chicago,
the Association of Commerce opened an office at 334 S. Michigan Avenue
‘to develop increased tourist interest’ in New Orleans.23 According to the
Annual Report of the CVB, the office ‘was the only representative New
Orleans and Louisiana had in Chicago during the Exposition’ and ‘attracted
thousands of people from every section of the country and abroad, and as
a result, we are in position to know that a considerable volume of visitor
business was and will be directed to New Orleans’.24

As the above points suggest, structured patterns of interaction and
information exchange between the bureaus of the Association and other
organizations allowed for the systematization of cross-promotional activi-
ties and the institutionalization of the destination image. This rationaliza-
tion process also involved the representation and production of culture as
an object of visual consumption. In 1924, the Publicity Bureau adopted
and broadcast weekly slogans ‘emphasizing various phases of New Orleans
business . . . for use on letters, published newspapers, and . . . generally for
publicity purposes’. These slogans included, for example, ‘New Orleans –
The South’s Greatest City’ (14 January), ‘New Orleans – America’s Most
Interesting City’ (4 February), ‘New Orleans – City of Progress’ (4 May),
‘New Orleans – City of Romance’ (18 May), among several dozen other
slogans.25 What is important is that these and other slogans were carefully
crafted and adopted by the Association of Commerce to ‘construct’ New
Orleans, and to imprint different images of the city on the world’s
consciousness. Members of the Association attempted to make New
Orleans attractive and accessible to the imagination by simplifying and
reducing the city to a set of spectacular images and slogans. The Associ-
ation recognized that the use of slogans, combined with other visual images
of the city, could be effective tools in putting the city on the tourist’s mental
map. Sloganeering dovetailed with the tendencies of urban boosters to
demystify New Orleans by signposting sights and sites as worthy of
meaning and significance. Broadly, the members and staff of the Association
not only positioned themselves as image-makers but also as storytellers who
translated New Orleans into a place of unique authenticity, economic
progress, and romance. In the 1930s and later, the Publicity Bureau prepared
at least 40 ‘canned’ stories about New Orleans that it sent to magazine
editors and newspapers for their use. Declaring New Orleans as ‘one of the
three outstanding “story” cities in this country’, the Association produced
stories such as ‘Historic New Orleans’, ‘Port of New Orleans’, ‘Modern
New Orleans’, and other topics covering cemeteries, antiques, recreation,

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courtyards, monuments, old homes, streets, museums, and other stories. The
Publicity Bureau even turned otherwise mundane topics such as ‘Spanish
moss’, the city’s ‘drainage system’, ‘water supply’, ‘bridges’, and ‘spillways’
into extraordinary and spectacular ‘stories’ of interest.26

The mass production of entertaining stories and images of New
Orleans not only exemplifies the rationalization of place promotion but
illustrates the establishment and institutionalization of information
exchange networks within the city government to entice people to travel
to consume local culture and heritage. In the 1940s, the New Orleans
Public Service, an advertising agency supported by the city government and
the State of Louisiana, published leaflets and travel sketches about New
Orleans to persuade people to travel to the city.27 The agency also
purchased advertising space in many high-profile newspapers and maga-
zines such as The New York Times, the Chicago Tribune, Time Magazine,
Newsweek Magazine, and others to promote the unique attractions of New
Orleans.28 Together, the New Orleans Association of Commerce and the
city government became major drivers of tourism development and power
agents of information transmission. The annual amount of printed matter
distributed by the Association of Commerce increased from 20,000 items
in 1921, to 200,000 in 1927, and 434,000 in 1937.29 This vast increase
reflects technological innovations in print and visual media, the cultivation
of new contacts with advertisers and journalists, and the rationalization of
producing and disseminating material about New Orleans. As an industry
coordinator, the New Orleans Association of Commerce united diverse
businesses – hotels and motels, restaurants, airlines, travel agencies, and so
on – into a loosely organized network where actors could interact, identify
goals, and engage in strategic tourism planning. Working with different
tourism interests, the Association of Commerce carefully crafted and
deployed a variety of slogans, themes, and motifs to ‘construct’ New
Orleans, to imprint different images of the city on the world’s conscious-
ness, and to ‘sell’ New Orleans to the world.

In addition, relationships between the Association of Commerce and
the rising mass tourism industry accumulated into a network containing a
repository of information about New Orleans to enhance the commercial
value of the city and region. The combination of rational organization and
sophisticated promotional strategies enabled actors to cultivate an image of
New Orleans as an enchanted place worth visiting and doing business in
and to project this image on a global scale. Moreover, the high level of
rationality exhibited by the Association of Commerce suggests that the
CVB and the Publicity Bureau were not responding to consumer demand

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per se, but were, to a large extent, proactive in stimulating and enhancing
consumer desires. Reflecting broad changes in urban culture and consump-
tion during the early 20th century, the Association was not content to react
to the uncertainties of consumer demand. Indeed, the minutes of meetings
of the Association of Commerce are clear that members acted strategically
and methodically to formulate promotional strategies to entice, mold, and
channel consumer choices to travel to New Orleans and ‘experience’ the
city. John Urry’s (1995: 132; 2002) concept of the ‘tourist gaze’ suggests
that tourism is about the consumption of exotic ‘experiences’ where ‘places
are chosen to be gazed upon because there is anticipation, especially
through day-dreaming and fantasy, of intense pleasures, either on a different
scale or involving a different sense from those customarily encountered’.
The Association’s promotional strategies to create consumable ‘experiences’
reflected and reinforced a market-driven conception of urban culture as
ruled by dictates of mass advertising and bureaucratic rationality. ‘Every
convention at which we put on a campaign results in creating a desire on
the part of a large number of people, who possess the means, to visit New
Orleans, according to the CVB.’30 Similarly, a 1937 Annual Report stated:

Contrary to the opinion prevailing in the minds of many of our
citizens and businessmen, conventions simply do not gravitate
naturally to New Orleans because our city is popular and
desirable. We are one favorite convention center of the nation
among some forty or more others in this country, competing
with other foreign capitals. . . . The campaign demands to secure
conventions are insistent that the Bureau and its executive staff
be constantly alert and active in behalf of maintaining the
position and desires of New Orleans before the influential spirits
of convention organizations which are prospects for the City.
You all know the story of convention development. Some
groups must be followed for years before they are ripened to the
point of becoming New Orleans conscious. All must be sought
from one to three years before they are secured. A lapse of an
interval often breaks the chain and throws years of effort and
expense to the winds.31

The reference to multi-year efforts to make conventions and consumers
‘New Orleans conscious’ is repeated throughout the 1930s and 1940s in
the monthly and annual reports of the CVB. The staff and members of the
CVB attempted to structure the desires of potential conventioneers and
tourists by providing a range of slogans, images, and other representations

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and promoting these intensively. What is important is that neither aggre-
gate consumer desires nor visitor demand were given, pre-existing factors
that explain the development of tourism in New Orleans. Members of the
Association of Commerce actively worked to shape, influence, and control
preferences and travel motivations through their advertising and publicity
efforts. Stuart Ewen (1976: 25–6) has suggested that during the early
decades of the 20th century, the pressure of industrial competition
compelled business elites to organize their businesses ‘not merely around
the production of goods, but around the creation of a buying public’. The
above points suggest that the rationalization and expansion of tourism as a
mass phenomenon was intimately connected with the creation of this
‘buying public’. Anticipating later developments in mass advertising and
niche marketing, the positive images projected by the tourism companies
interpreted New Orleans’s history and culture, and imparted to the tourist
what to do, where to go, and how to feel. In this way, mass advertising and
rationalized production of tourism images of New Orleans and other cities
helped fuel the commodification of local culture while bureaucratic
procedures were essential to priming consumer desires to travel to distant
cities to consume exotic cultures.

CONCLUSION
In this article I have identified the key actors and organized interests
involved in formulating promotional strategies, networks, and formal
organizations to cultivate a destination image and to build a nascent tourism
infrastructure in New Orleans. For decades, scholars have viewed tourism
as a set of discrete economic activities or a spatially bounded locality that
is subject to external forces producing impacts. In contrast, I have concep-
tualized tourism as a set of practices and institutions involved in the
rationalization of place promotion and the reframing of local culture as
consumption-based entertainment experiences. The rise of mass tourism
during the early 20th century reflected and reinforced an emerging view
of cities as places of amusement, fascination, and exoticism. New forms of
urban representation including photography, visitors’ guides, and literary
descriptions of New Orleans nurtured an embryonic destination image
while hotels, railroads, and other travel interests operated as communication
networks to disseminate local images, symbols, and motifs to a national and
international audience. By the early 20th century, the rising mass media of
radio, silent film, and magazines had become significant social forces in
forming and delimiting public assumptions, attitudes, and views of New
Orleans. In the 1920s and later, the Association of Commerce helped

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inaugurate a new era of specialized place promotion and tourism develop-
ment that aimed to reorganize New Orleans into a ‘landscape of consump-
tion’ (Ritzer, 2005), a process that would be further rationalized in the
decades after the Second World War. Indeed, the ability to create and deploy
selective and partial images of New Orleans through tourism and adver-
tising media became a new form of urban representation and reality
construction. The Association of Commerce employed rational organiz-
ation to localize distant capital flows, commodify images of New Orleans,
and transmit local information to far-away places through network ties with
corporations. Rational organizations not only streamlined the process of
image production but opened up new avenues and opportunities for
consuming cultures and places.

My study of place promotion in New Orleans provides insight into
the important role played by tourism in helping to support the rise of mass
consumption and the development of a broad-based consumer culture in
the United States. Local economic elites borrowed from a rich cornucopia
of cultural materials to produce and disseminate a destination image that
would facilitate the modern creation of what Don Slater (1997) calls a
‘consuming self ’ and what Steven Miles and Malcolm Miles (2004) call
‘consuming cities’. As a means of consuming culture and space, tourism
practices and discourses helped construct both the consuming subject and
the idea that cities should be seen as places of visual consumption (e.g.,
sites of ‘history’, ‘culture’, and ‘otherness’). As discussed, the New Orleans
Association of Commerce appropriated, organized, and disseminated
symbols, images, and motifs of New Orleans that had been popularized
during the 19th century by urban literary writers, journalists, and guide-
book publishers. Images of New Orleans as a place of unique architecture,
the Vieux Carre, creole culture, Mardi Gras, Les Coulisses, voodoo, cities
of the dead, and romance and mystery were the cultural raw material that
fed the commodification process and became the major elements of the
destination image. Against the backdrop of intensified urban competition
for conventions and visitors, the members of the Association of Commerce
labored to create and routinize a set of tourism practices to pin-point the
destination image, focus global attention on New Orleans, and channel and
direct consumer desires to visit the city to consume the markers of local
culture. In this sense, the Association of Commerce became a major
organization of aesthetic production that provided both symbolic and
material resources to engineer the development of a rationalized tourism
infrastructure. The rationalization of symbol production and the culti-
vation of sophisticated promotional strategies transmitted imagery and

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interpretive schemes, thereby connecting the city and region with a rising
consumer culture.

My analysis suggests that the early development of tourism had an
elective affinity with the transformation of urban culture into an abstract
image or commodity-spectacle. As I have pointed out, the Association of
Commerce helped legitimate an emerging conception of urban culture
as an object of visual consumption, a conception that reflected broader
transformations in the political economy of consumer capitalism. One
characteristic of early place-promotion activities was the growing
emphasis placed on commodity display, entertainment, and amusement as
central components of urban life. In Land of Desire, William Leach (1993:
xiii) described the rise of consumer capitalism during the late 19th
century and early 20th century as a ‘future-oriented culture of desire that
confused the good life with goods’. By the end of the 19th century,
according to Leach, the ‘cardinal features’ of the rising consumer culture
were ‘acquisition and consumption as the means of achieving happiness;
the cult of the new; the democratization of desire, and money value as
the predominant measure of all value in society’ (p. xiii). Like other
business organizations and chambers of commerce in other cities, New
Orleans’s social elites and their organizations played key roles in generat-
ing and supporting the development of mass consumption by presenting
culture, traditions, and customs as objects of consumption. The images of
New Orleans presented through the signifying work of the Association
of Commerce were hypostatized descriptions that reflected profiteering
motives, including a desire to celebrate travel and expand the commodity
form. Over the course of the 20th century, the local elites would estab-
lish sophisticated networks and synergies with transnational hotel firms
and entertainment chains to further rationalize the production of urban
imagery and transform the metropolitan area into a major site of tourist
consumption.

Notes
1. In their edited volume, C. Michael Hall, Allan M. Williams, and Alan A. Lew

assert that the field of tourism has been ‘substantially criticized in terms of its
theoretical base’ (Hall et al., 2004: 14). Kevin Meethan (2001: 2) maintains that
‘for all the evident expansion of journals, books and conferences specifically
devoted to tourism, at a general analytical level it remains under-theorized’.
Likewise, in criticizing the tendency within tourism studies to ‘internalize
industry led priorities and perspectives’, Adrian Franklin and Mike Crang (2001:
5) argue that conventional tourism scholarship does ‘not include the tools
necessary to analyze and theorize the complex cultural and social processes that

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have unfolded’ over the decades. For an overview of theoretical debates in urban
tourism, see Fainstein et al. (2003).

2. Young Men’s Business League of New Orleans (n.d.) New Orleans of 1894: Its
Advantages, Its Conditions, and Its Prospects. Howard Tilton Memorial Library, Jones
Hall, Louisiana Collection. Vertical file:’Descriptions, New Orleans, 1880 – 1899.’
New Orleans, LA.

3. In 1950, the Association of Commerce changed its name to the Chamber of
Commerce of the New Orleans Area.‘Chamber History’ (n.d.) box 652, folder
#5, MS 66. Chamber of Commerce of the New Orleans Area. University of
New Orleans.

4. The main primary sources in this article are the reports, analyses, and minutes of
meetings of the Chamber of Commerce of the New Orleans Area. In addition to
examining published material and reports of the many committees, bureaus, and
departments of the Chamber, I accessed minutes of every meeting of the
Convention and Visitors’ Bureau and the Publicity Bureau from the 1910s
through 1979 (the last year on record). The collection is located at the University
of New Orleans and the manuscript number is 66.

5. For an overview of Lafcadio Hearn’s writings, see Starr (2001).
6. On the significance of photography for tourism, see Urry (2002: 128–9). As

Brown (2005) has noted, the rise and popularization of photography was a major
technological force that modern corporations appropriated to consolidate
corporate power and rationalize commercial culture. For Brown, photography was
‘structured by the economic, while at the same time working to naturalize
capitalism at the level of ideology’ (p. 16). These points dovetail with the work of
Nye (1985) and Marchand (1997), who draw attention to the ideological role that
photographic images and advertisements played in the development of consumer
markets and workplace rationalization schemes. Even more important,
photography allowed people to visually represent urban reality at one fixed point
in time and space. This new mode of representation, in turn, valorized the notion
of cities as having distinctive ‘personalities’ that could be interpreted through film
and visual imagery (Cocks, 2001).

7. Rand, McNally and Company (1885) The World’s Industrial and Cotton
Centennial Exposition at New Orleans, pp. 8–9, 14–15. Chicago: Rand, McNally.
Howard Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University, Jones Hall. Louisiana
Collection.

8. In 1917, for example, the Association contained a Board of Directors (14
members), a Members Council (22 members), and the following bureaus, each
with a chairman, vice chairman, and several committees: Civic Bureau; Industrial
Bureau; Wholesale Merchants and Manufacturers Bureau; Foreign Trade Bureau;
Legislation and Taxation Bureau; Traffic and Transportation Bureau; Retail
Merchants Bureau; Good Roads Bureau; Publicity, Convention and Tourist
Bureau; Agricultural, Reclamation and Immigration Bureau; and a Young Men’s
Department.

9. By the 1930s, the Greater New Orleans Hotel and Lodging Association was made
up of directors of the La Salle Hotel, Hotel De Soto, Hotel New Orleans,
Monteleone Hotel, Pontchartrain Hotel, St Charles Hotel, Roosevelt Hotel, and
the Jung Hotel (Summary of Semi-Annual Accomplishments of the Convention and

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Visitors’ Bureau for the Period Jan. 1 – June 30, 1931, Vol. 37, p. 2 (MS 66. NOCC.
UNO).

10. The development of the convention industry in the US received a major boost
with the creation of the American Hotel and Lodging Association in 1910 and
the International Association of Convention Bureaus (IACB) in 1914. The
IACB held its first formal meeting in 1920 and adopted a code of ethics to
promote professional practices three years later in 1923 (Ford and Peeper,
2007).

11. Annual Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 6 November 1932, Vol. 39, p. 2
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

12. Annual Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 6 November 1932, Vol. 39, p. 1
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

13. Annual Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 25 November 1940, Vol. 55
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

14. Letter from Bethoe Gessner, Advertising Manager, Capitol Guide, to Mayor de
Lesseps Morrison, 21 August 1946, box 3, folder 1 (MS 270. De Lesseps Morrison
Collection, Tulane University).

15. Annual Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 1 November 1945, Vol. 65
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

16. Annual Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 1 November 1945, Vol. 65
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

17. The production of touristic images and discourses about New Orleans was
bolstered through the creation of cooperative agreements with railroads, hotels,
sightseeing tours, cab companies, and travel bureaus in preparing tourist guides
and organizing tours. See What’s Being Done to Help the Growth of New Orleans:
Civic, Industrial, Commercial as a Port. 1927 (A Report of the 1927 Activities of
the Bureaus and Committees and of the New Orleans Association of
Commerce), Vol. 29, pp. 57, 60 (MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

18. Minutes of the Meeting of the Publicity Committee, 5 February 1946, Vol. 67
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

19. Report for the Month of July, Convention and Tourist Bureau, 30 July 1921, Vol. 23
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

20. Report for June 1924 of the General Manager to the Board of Directors, New Orleans
Association of Commerce, Vol. 26, p. 2 (MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

21. What’s Being Done to Help the Growth of New Orleans: Civic, Industrial, Commercial as
a Port. 1927 (A Report of the 1927 Activities of the Bureaus and Committees
and of the New Orleans Association of Commerce), Vol. 29, p. 6 (MS 66.
NOCC. UNO).

22. Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, February 1932, Vol. 39, p. 2 (MS 66.
NOCC. UNO).

23. August Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 1 September 1933, Vol. 41, p. 1
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

24. Annual Report, Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 24 November 1933, Vol. 41, p. 3
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

25. Annual Report, Publicity Department, for 1924. Submitted by Wilson S. Callender,
Secretary, Publicity Department of the New Orleans Association of Commerce,
Vol. 26 (MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

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26. ‘Revised List’ of stories from P.J. Rinderle, ed., Bureau of New Orleans News,
1938, Vol. 50 (MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

27. Letter from Bethoe Gessner, Advertising Manager, Capitol Guide, to Mayor de
Lesseps Morrison, 21 August 1946; box 3, folder 1. Letter from De Lesseps
Morrison, Mayor, to Mr Walter M. Holmes, Jr, Passenger Agent, Southern Pacific
Line, 24 February 1947; box 3, folder 4. Letter from Rod Raimondy, Chairman,
Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, to Mayor de Lesseps Morrison, 21 November
1946; box 8, folder 25 (MS 270: De Lesseps Morrison Collection. Special
Collections, Howard Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University, New Orleans,
LA).

28. Full-page advertisement: ‘News from New Orleans’, proclaiming New Orleans
the ‘International City’. Advertisement appears in New York Times (21 March
1948), New York Herald-Tribune (28 March 1948), Chicago Tribune (4 April 1948),
Time Magazine (15 March 1948), and Newsweek (29 March 1948). Advertisement
sponsored by the Greater New Orleans, inc. box 3, folder 5 (MS 270: De Lesseps
Morrison Collection. Special Collections, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library,
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA).

29. Convention and Tourist Bureau, 15 October 1921, Vol. 23; What’s Being Done to Help
the Growth of New Orleans: Civic, Industrial, Commercial as a Port. 1927 (A Report
of the 1927 Activities of the Bureaus and Committees and of the New Orleans
Association of Commerce), Vol. 29, p. 6; Annual Report of the Publicity Department,
30 November 1936, Vol. 47 (MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

30. Annual Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 24 November 1933, Vol. 41,
p. 4 (MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

31. Annual Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 30 November 1937, Vol. 49;
Annual Report of the Convention and Visitors’ Bureau, 20 November 1938, Vol. 51
(MS 66. NOCC. UNO).

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Chun kei Yip YIPCY010
1

Chun kei Yip YIPCY010
2
2

Summarizing a journal article – Assignment 2

Name: Chun Kei Yip

ID: yipcy010

In this article titled ‘Destination New Orleans: commodification, rationalization, and the rise of urban writers’ in vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 305-334 of Journal of Consumer Culture in 2007, Gotham provides the look up of New Orleans to demonstrate the connection of rationalization and commodification in urban tourism development in the 20th century first half. Tourism involves space consumptions and flow of people in specific areas to enjoy nature, local culture, persevered nature or otherness. This article examines the part played by visitor guidebooks, literary writers and the New Orleans Association of Commerce in creating a destination image. Destination image is a seen signal that plays the role of attracting potential tourists and also portraying the framework of culture that authenticate the experience of the tourist while in New Orleans city.

This article argues that, (re)producing and creating symbols of assorted urban and a destination image need a system of institutional or formal organizations set. Organizations and institutions create the routines, rules and structures that model the way in which destination images and tourism markets develop how actors arrange and present symbols to influence people in travelling and investing, and how the actors build up promotional strategies. Analysis of commodification and rationalization in the destination image production provide a unique viewpoint for appreciating tourism as a consumption practice that is comprised of a set of local practices and distant processes.

Gotham (2007) has identified the main players and organized interests that are involved in the formulation of promotional strategies, formal organizations and networks to create an image of destination and to construct a promising infrastructure of tourism in the city of New Orleans.

Gotham (2007) has conceptualized tourism as institutions and practices set that take part in place promotion rationalization and local culture reframing as the experiences of consumption-based entertainment. The increase of mass tourism in the beginning of the 20th century reinforced and reflected cities scenery as places where one can get fascinated, amused and exoticism. Urban representation new forms that included, visitors’ guides, photography and literary description of the city nurtured an emergent destination image, as railroads, hotels and other mode of transport acted as communication networks that disseminated motifs, symbols and local images to the international, as well as, the national audience.

Gotham (2007) looks at the role that the Association of Commerce played in promoting development of tourism and place-promotion. During the 1920s and after that, the Association of Commerce aided in inaugurating a fresh age of specialized tourism development and place promotion that was meant for the purpose of restructure New Orleans’ consumption landscape, a procedure that would be rationalized further in the after decades of the II World War. The ability to deploy and create partial and selective images of the city of New Orleans through advertising and tourism media turned out to be the new mode of realty construction and urban representation. The Association of Commerce used rational organization in localizing the flows of distant capital. New Orleans’ commodity images and broadcast local information to distant areas through network connections with corporations. Rational organizations did not only streamline the image production process, but also helped in opening up of new opportunities and avenues for consuming places and cultures.

Gotham’s study of promotion place in the city of New Orleans offers imminent into the important part that tourism plays in the support of helping to increase mass consumption and establishment of a culture that is consumer broad-based in America. Elites of local economic borrowed the culture from an abundance cultural material to disseminate and produce an image of destination that helps in facilitating the contemporary creation of consuming cities or consuming self. As a way of consuming space and culture, tourism discourses and practices helped in the creating a consuming subject, as well as the idea that suggest that cities are also places of visual consumptions, such as historical sites and culture.

Gotham’s analysis of commodification and rationalization in the destination image production claim that early tourism development had an optional similarity with the urban culture transformation into a commodity-spectacle or abstract image. The Association of Commerce aided in legitimating an urban culture developing conception that mirror broader transformations in consumer capitalism political economy. One of the place-promotion characteristics that were being emphasized in the early times was based on display of commodity, amusement and entertainment as the main constituent of the urban life.

Gotham looks at the consumer capitalism rise in the end of the 19th century as described by leach (1993). According to Leach (as cited in Gotham, 2007, p. 328) consumer capitalism is desire culture that is future-oriented that confused what he called the good life with goods. As the 19th century was ending, leach claims that cardinal aspects of the increasing consumer culture shifted to consumption and acquisition as a way of being happy; the new cult; the desire democratization and the value of money as the main value measure in the society. Similar to other organizations of business and commerce chambers in the other cities, the organizations and the social elites in New Orleans played a major role in supporting and generating mass consumptions development by presenting traditions, cultures and customers as consumption objects.

Gotham (2007) claim that, New Orleans’ images that were presented through the Association of commerce signifying work were descriptions that were hypostatized and the mirrored profiteering motives, which included celebrating desire of travelling and expanding the form of commodity. During the course of 20th century, the elites in the local were responsible for establishing stylish synergies and networks with hotel organizations and entertainment programs to help in furthering rationalize urban imagery production and change the metropolitan region into a tourism consumption major site.

Study guide – Part

2

Weeks 5-7

TOUR 1001

Understanding travel and tourism

Graham Brown, Shirley Chappel, Jenny Davies

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOPIC 4 SUMMARISING A JOURNAL ARTICLE – ASSIGNMENT 2

TOPIC 5 INTRODUCTION TO ASSIGNMENT

3

Note: This Study Guide is available on the World Wide Web.

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2

TOPIC 4: SUMMARISING A JOURNAL ARTICLE

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this topic you should be able to:

 explain the structure of a journal article

 explain the meaning of ‘refereed journal’

 explain the meaning of double-blind peer review

 explain the term ‘literature review’

 explain the term ‘theoretical framework’

 explain the research methods used in the article you choose to summarise

 explain the meaning of ‘teaching-research nexus’

 demonstrate your ability to access journal articles

.

REQUIRED READING

You must choose one of the following articles:

New Orleans, USA

Gotham, KF 2007, ‘Destination New Orleans: commodification, rationalization, and the rise of

urban tourism’, Journal of Consumer Culture, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 305-334

Or

Venice, Italy

Quinn, B 2007, ‘Performing tourism: Venetian residents in focus’, Annals of Tourism Research,

vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 458-476.

Due date for assignment: Friday, 3 May, 2013.

ACCESSING THE JOURNAL ARTICLES

You are not provided with direct links to these articles because in the real world of

research you will not always have direct links. The University is preparing you for lifelong

learning.

3

Destination: New Orleans, USA

Step 1: Go through your student portal and click on the Library icon.

Step 2: Type Destination New Orleans: commodification, rationalization and the rise of urban

tourism in the space provided under Search the Library Catalogue and then click on

SEARCH.

Step 3: Click in the box to the left of Journal Article on the left hand side of the screen and

click on Destination New Orleans: commodification, rationalization and the rise of

urban tourism in the middle of

the screen.

Step 4: Click on Access this article via SAGE Sociology Full-Text Collection in the middle of

the screen.

Step 5: Click on All Issues near the bottom of the screen.

Step 6: Click on 2007.

Step 7: Click on November 2007.

Step 8: Find Kevin Fox Gotham and click on Full-Text PDF below the name of the author.

Step 9: Click on Print icon.

Step 10 Click on Print.

Destination: Venice, Italy

Step 1: Go through your student portal and click on the Library icon.

Step 2: Type Performing tourism: Venetian residents in focus in the space provided under

Search the Library Catalogue and then click on SEARCH.

Step 3: Click in the box to the left of Journal Article on the left hand side of the screen and on

Performing tourism: Venetian residents in focus in focus in the middle of the screen.

Step 4: Click on Access this

article.

Step 5: Click on volume 34 on the left hand side of the screen.

Step 6: Click on issue 2 on the left hand side of the screen.

Step 7: Click on Performing tourism: Venetian residents in focus in the middle of the screen.

It is number 11.

Step 8: Click on PDF near the top of the screen.

Step 9: Click on print icon.

Step 10: Click on Print.

4

THE STRUCTURE OF A JOURNAL ARTICLE

Introduction

 For Assignment 2 you are required to summarise an article that relates to a particular

destination. Please see the Required Reading above. The destinations and the articles are

also listed in your Course Outline.

The teaching-research nexus

 See Topic 1 under the heading Academic Literacies.

 The Learning and Teaching unit of the University of South Australia refers to the ‘teaching-

research nexus’, that is, the connection between research and what students are taught and

learn. Although students are referred to a textbook, the main resources for this course are

refereed journal articles and scholarly books. Students learn how researchers gain

information for the books and articles they write. In Assignment 2 students are required to

comment on the research methods of authors.

Journal articles

 Journal articles are a very important source of ideas and information in studies at a

university.

 They are the result of research scholars have done about particular topics.

 If the articles are in refereed journals, this means that their contents have been checked for

accuracy by scholars unknown to the writer or writers of the articles. The scholars who do

the checking do not know the identity of the writer or writers of the articles. This is referred to

as a double-blind peer

review.

The Abstract

 Most articles have an abstract at the beginning. Abstracts usually give you an idea of the

main points of the article. Therefore, they should provide you with some guidance about

what to include as the main ideas in your summary. Sometimes, however, they may contain

concepts you do not understand. Do not worry about this. By the time you have finished

reading the article you should have a much better idea of the meaning of the abstract.

 Sometimes abstracts give some general background information about the topic.

 Sometimes the title ABSTRACT is provided. Sometimes there is no title.

 The abstract section may be typed in bold or in italics if the title ABSTRACT is not used.

 Do not summarise the abstract. In the article the main points of the abstract will be

discussed in much greater detail. These are the points you must summarise.

 Students sometimes ask whether they are required to do any additional reading for

Assignment 2. You may wish to do additional reading to clarify what you are reading about in

the article. Your summary, however, is a summary of the article. It must not include any

information that is not in the article.

 The articles about New Orleans and Venice have abstracts..

5

The Main Theme and the Title

 The article has a main theme. You must summarise what the article tells the reader about

that theme. The title of the article gives you an idea of the main theme although you may find

the title hard to understand until you have read the article.

 After reading the article, you should be able to explain what the title of the article means.

 The Introduction to the Venice article tells the reader what the main theme of the article is.

 The Introduction to the New Orleans article tells the reader about the main theme of the

article.

Reviewing the Literature

 Articles provide information about what scholars have already written about a topic. This is a

literature review. This information may not mean much to you if you do not read the

references used in this literature review.

 Very often you may find the literature review quite difficult. Do not worry about it. If you keep

reading the article, by the end of it you are likely to have at least some idea of the main points

in the literature review. You will need to read the article several times when you are

preparing your

assignment.

 You must include the main ideas of the literature review in your

summary.

 The list of references also tells you what literature has been used to write the article.

 When scholars conduct a good literature review, they should be able to judge where there is

a gap in knowledge about a particular topic. In their research, they may choose to fill this gap

and thus add to knowledge about the topic.

 In one of the weekly Shirley’s Corners you will be taught how to summarise the literature

review.

Research Methods

 Articles usually describe the research methods used to gain information for the article. You

are expected to summarise these research methods when you write your summary.

 In the Venice article the research methods are in the section called Study Methods.

 In the New Orleans article the research methods are in the Introduction.

Theoretical Framework

 Articles usually are based on some tourism theory. Sometimes a theory from another subject

area is applied to the topic about which the author or authors of the article are writing.

 In the Venice article the theoretical component is about tourism as a performance, mobility,

resident-tourist encounters and spaces.

 In the New Orleans article the theoretical component is about commodification,

rationalization, urban tourism and destination image.

 You will receive help with writing about the theoretical framework in one of the weekly

Shirley’s Corners.

6

Conclusion

 A well-written conclusion to an article can also be a good place to look for the main points

made in an article.

 Sometimes conclusions also indicate what additional research could be done about a topic.

RULES FOR SUMMARISING

1. When you read the journal article you have selected for Assignment 2, write down and

explain the main ideas of the article in your own words. Examples will help your explanation

but you should not include unnecessary detail.

2. As you read the article, do not stop to look in a dictionary for the meanings of words you do

not understand. Underline or highlight these words and find their meanings in a dictionary

after you have finished reading the article. If you stop to look up words while you are reading

the article you will lose your train of thought and you will find yourself re-reading what you

have already read.

3. When you start to write your summary, write an introductory sentence that includes the

following:

a. The title of the article in single quotation marks. The New Orleans article is called

‘Destination New Orleans: commodification, rationalization, and the rise of urban

tourism’.

The title of the article about Venice is called ‘Performing tourism: Venetian residents in

focus’.

b. The surname or family name of the author or authors of the article in the order in which

they are found in the article. The New Orleans article was written by Gotham. The

article about Venice was written by Quinn.

c. The name of the journal from which the article comes. The name of the journal is in

italics.

The New Orleans article is from a journal called Journal of Consumer Culture. The

article about Venice is from a journal called Annals of Tourism Research. Please note

the spelling of the word Annals.You will lose marks if you spell the word incorrectly.

d. The details of the journal from which the article comes including the year of publication,

the volume number, the issue number, the number of the page on which the article

begins and the number of the page on which the article finishes. The details for the New

Orleans article are as follows: vol. 7, no.3, pp.305-334. Its year of publication is 2007.

The details for the article about Venice are as follows: vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 458-476. Its

year of publication is 2007.

e. The main idea of the article.

4. In the main part of the summary, write a paragraph about each of the main ideas. In the

summary below, the writer has grouped within one paragraph main ideas that have

similarities or connections.

5. Use quotations sparingly. If you use quotations they must be very short (two or three words).

Write most of the summary in your own words. Do not copy from the article. If you do use a

quotation, provide the page number. Do not use quotations to cover the fact that you do not

understand what you are reading. If you have difficulty in understanding what you are

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reading, consult the tutor by email or by a question on the Discussion Board. See how short

quotations are used in the example below.

6. The example below is a summary of one of the articles set for Assignment 1. The summary

does not refer to research methods, a literature review and theoretical frameworks. These

aspects of journal articles will be dealt with in a Shirley’s Corner and will be directly relevant

to the articles you are required to summarise.

AN EXAMPLE OF A SUMMARY

In an article titled ‘Who is a tourist? A conceptual clarification’ in vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 527-555 of

The Sociological Review in 1974, Cohen provides a conceptual definition of ‘tourist’ that

distinguishes a tourist from other kinds of travellers. Tourists make a journey and visit places

outside their normal environment for limited periods of time. Six characteristics differentiate

tourists from other kinds of travellers. Partial tourists, whose travels are similar in some ways to

tourism, do not satisfy all the requirements. To define ‘tourist’, Cohen uses already existing

definitions and adds some ideas of his own. He uses the word ‘fuzzy’ to indicate that it is not

always easy to differentiate a tourist from other kinds of travellers.

A tourist is a person who chooses to travel, unlike refugees, exiles and prisoners-of-war who are

forced by their circumstances to travel. Some travellers are not physically forced to travel but do

so because of the social requirements of the group to which they belong.

Unlike nomads who travel as a way of life, tourists are temporary travellers. Whereas nomads

have no fixed abode, tourists have permanent homes to which they return after a limited period

away from home. It is difficult to determine, however, the shortest period of time a person must

be away from home to be classified as a tourist. Similarly, it is also difficult to determine the

longest period of time tourists must be away from home before their classification changes to

permanent resident.

The tourist returns eventually to the place at which the journey began, thus being differentiated

from a migrant who makes a one-way journey to a new permanent destination. Although tourists

may stay away from home for a long time, they are still tourists if they intend to return home.

Unlike beach-house owners who have their holidays in the beach-house every year, tourists are

non-recurrent travellers who do not travel to the same place regularly on holidays. Regular

holidays at the same place lose their novelty although it is difficult to determine how frequently a

person must visit a place before this happens.

A tourist’s trip is ‘relatively long’ (p. 532); its length distinguishes it from a short trip. Length,

however, is not only decided by physical distance but can also depend on previous experience

and on the travel practices of the group to which the person belongs. People who are not

accustomed to travel may need to travel only a short distance to experience novelty which is

essential to tourism. The tourist does not have a specific purpose such as business, religion or

education. Instead, he or she has a general purpose, namely, the ‘expectation of pleasure’ (p.

533) from experiencing ‘novelty and change’ (p. 533). There is a slight difference between

‘novelty’ and ‘change’ (pp. 532-533). ‘Novelty’ is something new; ‘change’, however, does not

necessarily involve something new. Tourists who seek novelty are sightseers. Vacationers seek

change in the form of facilities and amenities such as good accommodation.

.

8

TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODS

You are required to summarise the research methods used in the article you have chosen. To

help you with this, here are some explanations of important research methods.

 Case study: Some articles will be described as a case study. In a case study, the

researchers concentrate on studying a group of people or a particular kind of tourism at a

particular place. Sometimes the researcher who develops a case study may rely upon

government documents and business records to collect the information.

 Content analysis: In this kind of research, the researchers study written text or pictures and

try to discover the symbolic meanings in these texts or pictures. In one of his lectures

Professor Brown showed you a poster of a family at the beach in the 1950s. The image of a

family at the beach symbolised the importance of the family in the 1950s.

 Data: This is the information collected by the researchers.

 Discourse analysis: In this kind of analysis, the researchers study the written and spoken

word to find out what has motivated the words that have been written and spoken.

 Desk research: In this kind of research, the researcher does not collect the data. Instead,

the researcher uses the data collected by other researchers. In this way, the researcher

gains background information about a topic. The data are referred to as secondary data.

Primary data are collected by the researcher. Please note that ‘data’ is a plural word and is

therefore followed by a plural verb. For example, you write ‘data are’, not ‘data is’.

 Direct observation: The researchers directly observe aspects of the topic of their research,

for example, the way tourists behave at the beach.

 Empirical: This is the word used to show that the researchers have used their senses (e.g.

sight and hearing) to gather their information about a topic.

 Ethnography, field research and participant observation: In some articles the writers use

ethnography and field research. Ethnography is also referred to as ‘participant-observation

research’ (Neuman 2000, pp. 344-345). The word is made up of the words ‘ethno’ which

means ‘people’ and ‘graphy’ which means ‘describing something’ (p. 347). It means

‘describing a culture and understanding another way of life’ from the point of view of the

people being studied (p. 347). Neuman defines participant observation as a research style

in which ‘a researcher directly observes and participates in small-scale social settings in the

present time’ (p. 345). The field researcher ‘directly talks with and observes the people being

studied’ (p. 345). In field research, the researcher asks questions, listens, shows interest,

and records answers (Neuman 2000, p. 370). In the field interview, ‘[o]pen-ended questions

are common, and probes are frequent’ (p. 371). Open-ended questions allow the person

being questioned to tell his or her story. The interviewer uses the interviewee’s answers as a

starting-point for gaining further information.

 Exploratory research: This involves research ‘into an area that has not been studied and in

which the researcher wants to develop initial ideas and a more focused research question’

(Neuman 2000, p. 510).

 Hypothesis: The researchers provide an explanation of a situation and then, through their

research, try to prove whether their explanation is correct or incorrect.

 Interviews: Interviews are like a conversation between the person doing the research (the

interviewer) and the person who is being interviewed (the interviewee) whose ideas provide

the interviewer with the data the interviewer is seeking. In an unstructured or in-depth

9

interview, the interviewee does most of the talking. The interviewer may ask a question now

and then for clarification. In a semi-structured interview, the interviewer does have a list of

topics to be discussed to focus the interviewee on the topic. In group interviews, several

people are interviewed at the same time.

 Longitudinal studies require the study of a research topic over a long period of time, for

example, the development of a child’s social skills over a long period of time.

 Purposive judgement samples: ‘Sample’ refers to the group of people chosen by the

researchers as the subjects of their research. In purposive or judgemental sampling the

researchers choose subjects they think would be best suited to the research study they are

conducting.

 The term ‘qualitative data’ means information in the form of words’ (Neuman 2000, p.

516).

 The term ‘quantitative data’ means ‘information in the form of numbers’ (Neuman 2000, p.

516).

 Survey: When a survey is conducted by researchers, they require many people to answer

the same questions. The researchers keep a record of the answers and analyse the

answers. The questions asked are known as a questionnaire. Before asking the questions,

the researchers have worked out what questions they are going to ask. This is a structured

questionnaire. Some of the questions will require one answer and are used to get factual

information. These questions are close-ended. Other questions are open-ended. These

allow the people being questioned to give a longer answer in which they can express their

points of view.

THE ORDER IN WHICH YOU DO THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SUMMARY

 There is no set order for the summary but you should make your summary flow so that the

person reading it will be able to make sense of it. Of course, the introductory sentence must

come first.

MINI-CHECKLIST FOR ASSIGNMENT 2

 Format of the summary

o The introductory sentence in the summary follows the guidelines explained in the Study

Guide Part 2, Rules for Summarising.

o The summary is written in the student’s own words with only very

brief quotations.

o Quotations are used sparingly in the summary.

o Quotations used are no more than three words in length.

o Quotations used are followed by the page number in brackets.

o The summary contains no in-text referencing, except for the page numbers for the very

brief quotations.

o The summary does not have a list of references.

o The summary is no longer than two A4 pages, that is, two sides of one piece of paper.

o Font 12, Times New Roman and single-line spacing are used in the summary.

o The summary has a title page containing the following information:

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 The student’s name – (Chinese and Korean students must use their full Chinese or

Korean name.)

 The student’s ID number

 Assignment 2

 The name of the destination chosen – New Orleans or Venice

 Submission date

o The summary does not use headings.

o The summary does not use dot-points.

o The summary does not use contractions such as don’t.

o The summary has a conclusion that does not repeat information already contained in the

summary.

 Content of the summary

o The summary concisely and correctly explains the main points of the article.

o The summary identifies and concisely summarises the main ideas of the literature review.

o The summary identifies and concisely summarises the research methods used in the

preparation of the article.

o The summary identifies and concisely summarises theory used in the preparation of the

article.

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE RUBRIC FOR ASSIGNMENT 2

 Learning outcome 1 – understanding of article content – 75% of marks for this

assignment

 Learning outcome 2 – adherence to summarising guidelines outlined in study guide part

2, rules for summarising.

 Up to 5% of the marks will be deducted from the final mark for incorrect spelling and/or

grammar and for failure to follow the guidelines for the title page.

 Late assignments will receive a 10% penalty per day late.

REFERENCE

Neuman, WL 2000, Social research methods: qualitative and quantitative approaches, 4
th
edn,

Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights, Massachusetts.

11

TOPIC 5: INTRODUCTION TO ASSIGNMENT 3

SEE THE COURSE OUTLINE FOR THE ASSIGNMENT DETAILS FOR ASSIGNMENT 3.

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this topic you should be able to:

 analyse a tourist

destination

 locate your chosen destination on a political map

 identify the major features of the natural environment that would be interesting to tourists

 describe the society at the destination you have

chosen

 explain how tourists would become aware of the cultural features of the society at the

destination

 explain how the heritage resources at the destination you have chosen illustrate the history of

the destination

 explain how the tourist destination became a tourist destination

 explain why tourists are motivated to visit the destination you have chosen

 identify the ‘push’ factors that enable tourists to visit the destination you have chosen

 explain the ‘pull’ factors that attract tourists to the destination you have chosen

 discuss the kinds of souvenirs tourists are able to buy at the destination you have chosen

 identify the impacts tourism has had on the people who live at the destination you have

chosen

 identify the kinds of accommodation available to tourists at the destination you have chosen

 explain how people access the destination you have chosen

 describe the kinds of transport available to tourists at the destination you have chosen

 identify the gastronomic experiences available to tourists at the destination you have chosen

 explain the purpose of the promotion of a destination

 identify the ways in which websites interpret the destination you have chosen

 produce the components of an original brochure to promote and interpret the destination you

have chosen.

When you have finished Assignment 2, you must start collecting your information

for the following parts of Assignment 3. You may find some of the information in

the article you have summarised.

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Features of the natural environment

 Features of the natural environment include climate, seas, rivers, lakes, waterfalls,

mountains, coastlines, deserts, grasslands, reefs, natural events such as volcanic eruptions,

jungles, flowers, autumn leaves, rainforests, wildlife, sea life, birds and animals that are

national icons. (See your textbook: Weaver & Lawton 2010, pp. 115-123.)

Society at the destination

 The society at the destination includes the following topics: the racial and cultural diversity of

the people, the languages spoken, the ways in which the languages are written (the script),

the religions of the people, and the ways in which the people earn their living and the

destination gains its wealth.

 When you collect this information you should try to imagine how, as a tourist, you would be

aware of the characteristics of the society if you went to that destination. What would you

see? What would you hear? What would you smell?

History and heritage

 The history of the destination refers to the story of the destination told in chronological order.

 You are expected to write about what tourists would see at the destination from which they

could learn about the history of the destination. This means that you are required to write

about the heritage resources of the destination. Heritage refers to the remains of the past

that are passed on from one generation to the next. Heritage tourism can involve the

following activities:

o visiting historical monuments

o visiting museums and art galleries

o visiting historic houses and historic villages

o visiting theme parks that are based on the history of the destination

o attendance at re-enactments of historical events.

Tourist attractions

 Attractions can be:

 natural attractions such as beaches and dolphins

 cultural attractions such as festivals, sporting events and famous buildings

 specialised recreational attractions, made especially for tourism and recreation, such as

Disneyland or a golf course.

 See your textbook: Weaver & Lawton 2010, pp. 115-123, 123-128, 128- 130, 130-132.

The tourism industry

 At a destination, the tourism industry provides for the needs of tourists, for example,

providing accommodation, food and beverage and transport. Your search for information

should therefore include the following kinds of topics:

o What kinds of accommodation are available for tourists?

o What kinds of accommodation would enable tourists to experience the local culture?

o What kinds of transport are used to take tourists to and from the destination?

13

o What kinds of transport do tourists use when they are at the destination?

o Are there special kinds of transport that are used as a tourist attraction?

o What kinds of food and beverage outlets are available for tourists at the destination?

o What special kinds of food and drink are available at the destination?

o What kinds of souvenirs would tourists collect at the destination?

o How is the destination you have chosen advertised on websites?

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

 At this stage of Study Period 2 you should look for general information about these topics.

Later, you will be directed to scholarly information in journal articles and books.

 Each week in Shirley’s Corner I shall make suggestions about sources of information for

each of the destinations.

 As the Study Period progresses, you will be taught the theory that applies to the assignment.

The theory section includes motivation, ‘push’ factors, ‘pull’ factors, impacts, promotion and

interpretation.

 Try to spend at least 20 minutes each week collecting the information for your major

assignment.

SOME SUGGESTIONS

 To help you choose your destination, type into your computer the following:

o New Orleans tourism

o Venice tourism

 This will make available to you a number of websites from which you can get information

about tourism in each of these destinations. The information in the websites should then help

you to choose the destination on which to base your major assignment.

REFERENCE

Weaver, D, Lawton L 2010, Tourism management, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Queensland.

Study guide – Part

3

Weeks 7- 11

Assignment 3 – Major Assignment

TOUR 1001

Understanding travel and tourism

1

Graham Brown, Shirley Chappel, Jenny Davies

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOPIC 6 ANALYSIS OF A DESTINATION

Note: This Study Guide is available on the World Wide Web.

3
TOPIC 6 ANALYSIS OF A DESTINATION

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this topic you should be able to:

 analyse a tourist destination

 demonstrate your ability to apply tourism theory to the analysis of the destination you have

chosen

 communicate your analysis of a destination in clear, formal English

 show your understanding of the difference between formal English and the kind of language

used in brochures, advertisements and guidebooks

BEGINNING ASSIGNMENT 3

1. You should begin your preparation for Assignment 3 by reading the following:

o The assignment details in the Course Outline (on the website if you do not have a copy)

o The article you read for Assignment 2

o Shirley’s Corners 3, 4 and

5

o The handouts for Weeks 4, 5 and

6

o The Bali example in Study Guide Part 3

o Topic 5 in Study Guide Part 2

2. In Assignment 3 you must include a substantial amount of information from the article you

read for Assignment 2. In addition to the information from the article for Assignment 2, you

must include information from other articles and other sources of information.

3. Students who have chosen the New Orleans article will be able to use it to explain the history

of tourism in New Orleans.

4. Students who have chosen the Venice article will be able to use it to explain the impact of

tourism on the people who live in Venice. The article also contains some information about

the history of tourism in Venice.

5. The Bali example shows you how to set out Assignment 3. It is long because I wanted to

give you as many ideas for examples as I could. Your assignment must not be as long as

the Bali example.

ON-GOING SUPPORT THROUGH ASSIGNMENT 3

1. During the weeks while you are doing Assignment 3 your tutor is willing to give you support

although finding the information for your assignment is your job.

2. Your tutor will act as your supervisor if you keep in touch with her about any problems you

are having. If you do not seek help when you are having problems, the tutor cannot help you.

You can get help through the submission of parts of your assignment as you do them. The

4

tutor will not have time to give feedback on finished assignments close to the date of

submission.

3. Shirley’s Corner and the Discussion Board will also be used to help you with the

assignment.

4. You are expected to use journal articles for parts of the assignment. At some time after

Week 7, you will receive brief summaries of relevant journal articles to which you can refer.

THE FORMAT OF ASSIGNMENT 3

PROJECT

1. The assignment is called a project. It is not an essay. It is not a report. It must be set out in

the way the Bali example is set out in Study Guide Part 3. Do not number the headings.

2. The assignment must have an introduction and a conclusion. Please do not use the word

Body in referring to any part of your assignment.

3. Do not have a table of contents.

4. Do not have an appendix.

5. Your task in the assignment is to do your own research.

APPLYING TOURISM THEORY

1. You must also apply some aspects of tourism theory to tourism at the destination you have

chosen and to the kinds of tourists who would choose the kinds of tourism you

have chosen.

The assignment is intended to give you the opportunity to apply theory to a particular

problem.

2. Later in Study Guide 3 you will be given advice about using tourism theory.

WRITING THE

INTRODUCTION

1. In the introduction you should provide general background information about the topic. This

general information is also an outline of the main themes of the assignment.

2. Read the introduction used in the Bali example to get ideas about writing your introduction. .

You will find the Bali example later in Study Guide 3.

3. The introduction to your project should not be quoted from one of the sources you have used.

It should not sound like a guidebook, an advertisement or a brochure. It should not include

statements such as ‘I have chosen’ or ‘I have selected’. It should be written in the third

person. This means that it will not include words such as ‘I’, ‘we’ or ‘you’. If you wish to

include your personal experiences of a place, you may do so. Consult Shirley Chappel about

the way to do this.

WRITING THE

CONCLUSION

1. When you write your conclusion, you should use two or three sentences to summarise what

your assignment has been about.

2. Do not repeat the sentences you have used already in your assignment.

5

3. The sentences in the conclusion should be generalisations about the assignment. They

should not contain specific details.

4. In the conclusion you can make recommendations about what the destination you have

chosen needs to do about remaining a sustainable destination. For example, you can write

about what Venice needs to do in order to deal with its carrying capacity problem. If you

have chosen New Orleans for your topic, you can write about the tourism re-building

problems the city faced after Hurricane Katrina.

5. The conclusion is also the place to suggest what kinds of research need to be done about

the destination you have chosen in the future. This kind of suggestion should be based on

what seems to be lacking from the material you researched for your assignment. This means

that you need some knowledge of the research articles and book chapters that have been

written about New Orleans.

6. From reading about the destination you have chosen you may also wish to suggest other

attractions that the tourism authorities may not have discovered at the destination you have

chosen. For example, there may be a heritage site that is not advertised as a tourist

attraction. You may think that it would be interesting to

tourists.

WRITING STYLE

1. In your third assignment, you are required to use a formal, academic style of writing. You are

not allowed to use the style used in brochures, advertisements and guidebooks. A formal,

academic style should not be a complicated style. It should be a clear, concise style. Here

are some examples of the styles you are not allowed to use.

BROCHURE/ADVERTISING WRITING STYLES

These styles are meant to promote a destination and its attractions. They do this by using words

and pictures that are meant to persuade potential tourists to buy a certain tourism product. Your

major assignment is an academic analysis of a destination and its attractions. It is not a

promotion of a destination and its attractions. You can make negative comments about the

destination as well as positive comments. Here are some examples of the style of writing used to

promote a destination, its attractions and facilities. I have put in italics the promotional words.

Gateway to Alaska’s magic

Resorts that have it all

Exotic cuisines that will satisfy even jaded palates

Blue waters that are balm to weary minds, tired bodies and sore eyes

You are not allowed to use brochure and advertising style in your assignment.

GUIDEBOOK LANGUAGE

These are quotations from a guidebook about Dubai. Here are the reference details of the

guidebook.

Carter, T, Dunston, L 2006, Dubai: City Guide, Lonely Planet Publications, Melbourne

6

‘If you’ve never seen a Bollywood movie on the big screen, add that to your list of things to do –

they’re a hoot!’ (p. 108).

‘…this is a great little independent (no alcohol) eatery that has been packing punters in for years’

(p. 84).

‘At the end of the street turn right into Al-Ahmadiya St. until you arrive at the beautifully restored

Heritage House’ (p. 64).

The information in guidebooks is often written in the second person (that is, it uses the word

‘you’) and it gives advice to tourists. It is also often very informal.

You are not allowed to use guidebook style language in your assignment.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

In your third assignment you must make substantial use of the article you summarised for the

second assignment. You must also include references to other journal articles. As we work our

way through the parts of the third assignment, in Shirley’s Corner I will give you advice about the

ways in which you may use other articles.

SECTIONS OF THE ASSIGNMENT

After you have written the Introduction to your assignment you must complete the following

sections of the assignment.

SECTION 1 – MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS

2. In Section 1 of Assignment 3 you are required to provide a map of the destination you have

chosen. The map should be placed at the beginning of your assignment

3. Place is very important in tourism. Maps show where places are.

4. Find a political map of the country you have chosen for your destination.

5. The map must be referenced, that is, you must show the source from which you got the map,

usually the Internet. If you have used a map from a book or a journal article, you must

provide the reference details near the map as you would for an in-text reference. If you have

used a website, you must provide the website address.

6. The map must also show at least some of the places to which you refer in your assignment.

These are places on land and also at sea.

7. You are not required to use pictures to illustrate your assignment but you may do so if you

wish. The pictures you use must relate to what you write about. They are not intended just

to make your assignment look pretty as you may have done in a school project.

8. You should not have many pictures because there is a limit on the size of the file for this

assignment. This is an extremely important point and has caused students a lot of anxiety at

the time when they were submitting their assignment.

9. The pictures must also be referenced, that is, you must show the source from which you got

them. If they are photographs you or your family have taken, you will use yourself or a

member of your family for your reference.

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SECTION 2 – FEATURES OF

THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

1. For the destination you have chosen, you must discuss two major features of the natural

environment that would be interesting to tourists. Your discussion must show how

tourists

would experience these natural features.

2. Read Chapter 5 in the textbook (2010 edition, pp. 115-123; 2006 edition, pp. 130-137) for

information about features of the natural environment that would be interesting to tourists.

This is general information. It does not relate specifically to the destination you have chosen

but it does explain what natural sites and natural events are.

3. See also the natural environment section of the Bali example in Study Guide Part 3.

4. Then, using your own research, find information about two natural features of the destination

you have chosen for your project. You may use guidebooks, websites, encyclopaedias and

journal articles for this section of the assignment.

5. You will be judged on whether the examples you have chosen would be interesting to

tourists.

6. Your descriptions of these aspects of the natural environment should be written in the way

tourists would understand. You should not write in scientific language as though you were

writing for other scientists to read.

Do not choose climate as one of the natural features of the destination you have chosen if there

are more interesting natural features to

choose.

SECTION 3 – THE

SOCIETY AT THE DESTINATION

1. In this section of the assignment you must describe the kind of society the tourists would find

at the destination you have chosen. Your description must show the ways in which tourists

would become aware of the cultural features of the society.

2. The society at the destination is not necessarily associated with the tourism industry but it is

important to study the host society because its members are likely to be affected by tourism

even though

they are not involved in it.

3. In the past some students have used this section of the assignment to write about dances

and festivals and other forms of the expressive culture of the local people. While you may

refer to these kinds of activities and practices in this section of your assignment, they are not

the major focus of this section. You are writing about matters concerned with the everyday

life of the people at the destination. The people do not engage in expressive activities such

as dancing every day of their lives. In some cases it may be better to write about these kinds

of activities in the ‘pull’ factors section of the assignment if these activities are promoted by

the tourism industry as attractions.

4. The host society is not necessarily associated with the tourism industry but it is important to

study the host society because its members are likely to be affected by tourism even though

they are not involved in it.

5. In the past some students have used this section of the assignment to write about dances

and festivals and other forms of the expressive culture of the local people. While you may
refer to these kinds of activities and practices in this section of your assignment, they are not
the major focus of this section. You are writing about matters concerned with the everyday
life of the people at the destination. The people do not engage in expressive activities such
as dancing every day of their lives. In some cases it may be better to write about these kinds
of activities in the ‘pull’ factors section of the assignment if these activities are promoted by
the tourism industry as attractions.

6. When you write about the people at the destination your content should not be like answers

to a set of questions in an examination. You should describe the people of the destination in

a way that interests your reader.

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7. CULTURAL UNIFORMITY OR CULTURAL DIVERSITY?

Some societies are mono-cultural. This means that there is one dominant culture. Japan

and Korea are mono-cultural although South Korea is now bringing in workers from South-

east Asia. Some societies are multi-cultural. This means that the population consists of a

variety of cultures. It is ethnically diverse. Australia and Malaysia are multi-cultural.

When you are writing about whether a society is mono-cultural or multi-cultural you should

consider the following points:

The kinds of races that make up the population of a destination. In Malaysia, for

example, Malays, Indians and Chinese are racially different.

The languages spoken by the population at the destination. You should identify the

languages spoken at the destination. One of the characteristics of a destination that makes it

extraordinary to tourists is language. Does the destination have more than one language? If

so, why? Sometimes languages are written in different scripts. This is also something that

intelligent tourists would notice. What kinds of scripts are used at the destination you have

chosen? You should try to discover the ways in which the sights and sounds of language are

part of the experience of tourists at many destinations.

Religion is an important cultural characteristic of people at a destination. In secular

societies religion is a private matter and therefore the practice of religion may not be obvious

to tourists visiting a destination. If a tourist is visiting a foreign country, religious practices

may be obvious even if the country is secular. India, for example, is a secular country but to

an Australian visitor the presence of religion in India is obvious. In your research you should

find out about the religious practices of people at your chosen destination. You should also

describe how those religious practices would be visible to a foreign tourist. You can do this

by making reference to the kinds of religious buildings you see at the destination. For those

students who wish to illustrate the assignment this is a place where pictures may be used –

for example, pictures of churches, mosques and temples. Tourists may also become aware

of the local religious practices from the sounds that they hear. For example, in a Muslim

country the sound of the call to prayer is, for the foreign tourist from a non-Muslim country, an

extraordinary experience. In some Christian European countries, the sound of church bells is

an indication of Christianity. Sometimes the clothes people wear is an indication of religious

practices. For example, in Thailand the clothes of the monks are an indication of Buddhism.

Food styles and ways of eating are also indicators of culture. There is, however, a

separate component of the assignment where information relating to food and drink

experiences is better placed. Leave food experiences to the Gastronomy section of the

assignment.

8. EARNING A LIVING

You should describe the ways in which people earn a living at a destination. Your description

should deal with relevant examples from the following topics:

 If the society is predominantly agricultural, you should describe the kinds of

agricultural activities in which the people are involved. Once again, this is an

occasion when you can use illustrations to support your written description.

People who travel in foreign countries frequently regard seeing people involved

in agricultural work as a photograph opportunity. The housing of people who live

in agricultural areas also is another example of the extraordinary. Vineyards and

orchards are special examples of the ways in which people earn a living at the

destination. Tourists visit these places.

 If the pastoral industry is a major part of the economy of the destination, you

should describe the kinds of animals involved. In some places, the pastoral

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industry provides the nucleus for a tourist attraction, for example, watching

sheep being shorn or watching sheep dogs rounding up the sheep in Australia.

 The fishing industry is sometimes the major economic focus of a destination.

When this is the case, your description of people at the destination should give

some attention to the fishing industry at the destination. The fishing industry can

also be the focus for specific tourist experiences at the destination. For example,

meals of fish may be one of the attractions of the destination. Remember,

however, that there is a section of the assignment for gastronomic experiences.

Sometimes, festivals based on the fishing industry are an attraction. In some

places, tourists can do some of their touring on a fishing vessel.

 At some destinations manufacturing industry may be the major focus of

economic life. A good guide should be able to interpret the economic life of a

destination by being able to explain what kinds of industries are dominant at a

destination. Often industrial sites are not regarded as places that tourists want to

see. However, if tourism is concerned with international understanding and not

just with seeing beautiful scenery, seeing factories should be part of the

experience. In some countries, tours of factories are an important component of

the tourist’s experience.

 In some places the service industries are a dominant part of the economy. In

Singapore, for example, the image of Singapore that is dominant features the

banks and other financial institutions that constitute the financial service

industries. Singapore’s large number of hotels shows the importance of the

hospitality industry.

9. SOURCES OF INFORMATION

 The first place you should look for information is the article you summarised for

Assignment 3. You must make substantial use of the article in Assignment 3 if its

information is relevant to this part of the topic.

 Guidebooks such as Lonely Planet often provide this kind of information. Make

sure that you note the date of publication of your sources of information so that

your information is up to date.

 The Encyclopaedia Britannica is another possible source of information.

 The popular magazine, National Geographic, may have relevant information.

SECTION 4 –

HISTORY AND HERITAGE

1. In this section of your assignment you must describe two major heritage resources of the

destination you have chosen and show how these resources help tourists to understand the

history of the destination. In the first sentence of this section you must explain what heritage

means.

2. Pages 123-125 of your textbook provide you with information about heritage resources.

3.

Heritage refers to the remains of the past that are passed on from one generation to the next.

Heritage tourism can involve the following activities: visiting historical monuments, museums,

art galleries, historic houses and villages and theme parks that are based on the history of

the destination. It also includes attendance at re-enactments of historical events

Heritage refers to the remains of the past that are passed on from one generation to the next.
Heritage tourism can involve the following activities: visiting historical monuments, museums,

art galleries, historic houses and villages and theme parks.

4. When tourists engage in sight-seeing that helps them to learn about the history of the

destination, they are engaging in heritage tourism. The article you were required to read for

Assignment 3 may provide you with some information about your chosen destination’s

heritage resources. Detailed guidebooks often provide information about the history of a

destination. If you were a history student writing a history essay you would not use

guidebooks for the task. You are tourism students who should develop the practice of seeing

destinations as a tourist would see them. When you read about the history of the destination

in a guidebook, you should also read about the attractions of the destination because the

attractions often help to illustrate the history of the destination. It is relevant to consider the

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kinds of buildings you would find at a destination or pictures in the art gallery can help you to

understand the history of the destination. Exhibits in a museum also help you to learn about

the history of a destination. Sometimes destinations have old towns especially constructed

for the entertainment of the tourists. Sovereign Hill in Ballarat in Victoria, for example, helps

to inform tourists of life in 19
th
century Australia at the time of the Gold Rush.

Encyclopaedias, particularly the Encyclopaedia Britannica, are another source of information

for this

section of your assignment.

SECTION 5 – HOW A PLACE BECOMES A TOURIST DESTINATION

1. Places become tourist destinations for any of a number of reasons. Listed below are some

examples.

a. In this section you must explain how the destination you chose became a tourist

destination.

b. Tourism may have been deliberately adopted to create another kind of economic

activity at a time when there were changes (or there were likely to be changes) in the

established economy.

c. Tourism may be established at a destination because an important political figure

encourages its establishment. The ruling family in Dubai had a lot to do with Dubai

becoming a tourist destination. President Sukarno, Indonesia’s first President, also

played an important part in encouraging international tourism in Indonesia.

d. A place may become a tourist destination because it is situated on the route to

another tourist destination. Singapore is a possible example of this.

e. When a country develops its infrastructure (for example, roads, airlines and airports),

this may help in the development of tourism at a destination. To encourage

international tourism, China developed its infrastructure.

f. The place may have been discovered by a few people as an interesting place to visit.

The discoverers tell their friends about it and more people come to visit the place.

Tana Toraja in Indonesia is an example of this.

2. The New Orleans article is about how New Orleans became a tourist destination.

3. A section of the Venice article is about the history of tourism in Venice.

4. The summaries of journal articles you will receive after Week 7 may also help you with this

section of your assignment.

SECTION 6 PART 1 – MOTIVATION

1. Motivation is an important factor influencing tourists’ choice of a destination. In this section

you must explain what motivation means and show how it influences tourists to visit the

destination you have chosen. This means that you must decide the likely inner wants, needs

and desires that would be satisfied if tourists visited the destination you have chosen and

engaged in its activities.

2. Read the section on motivation on p. 170 of the textbook and make sure that you can tell the

difference between motivation and travel purpose.

3. People are motivated to do what they do by their needs, wants and desires.

4. Because motivation is intrinsic (within the person), it cannot be seen (Zimbardo 1985, p.

376). We can make an intelligent guess about what motivates a person by observing their

behaviour but we cannot be sure that our guess is correct.

5. The Bali example refers to likely motivations. The word ‘likely’ is used to show that we

cannot be certain what motivates people and so we are making an intelligent guess as a

result of observing people’s behaviour.

6. When you are writing about motivation in your assignment, please start the section with a

concise explanation of what motivation means.

7. This is a section of the assignment where you must apply tourism theory to the topic you

have chosen. In this case, the theory is motivation theory.

8. Here is a list of various kinds of motivation for travel and tourism. From this list choose the

motivations that are relevant to tourists who go to the destination you have chosen. The

theory for each of these motivations has been developed by a particular scholar. Therefore,

when you use these motivations, you must provide an in-text reference to indicate the scholar

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who developed the theory. The Bali example that you will find later in this Study Guide will

show you how this is done. You are not expected to write about all of these motivations.

Choose two or three motivations relevant to your topic. The distinction and high distinction

students will show that they have thought carefully about the choice they have made.

9. Dann (1981, p. 189) – Travel is a ‘response to what is lacking yet desired’. We go away to

experience something we cannot experience at home.

Cohen (1979, p. 187) – People are motivated to travel by their desire to experience

authenticity. They think that their own lives are not authentic.

Cohen (1979, p. 189) – People travel to seek meaning in the lives of people in other

societies by living the lives of people in other societies.

Lett (1983, p. 38) – People travel to satisfy their need to play.

Graburn (1983, p. 21) – People travel to experience ‘ritual inversion’, that is, to satisfy their

need to do the opposite from their daily routine.

McKean (1989, p. 183) – People travel because they desire to know ‘others’ and thus to gain

a greater understanding of themselves. ‘Others’ refers to people of other cultures. When

people learn about other cultures through their travels, they become more aware of their own

culture by comparing and contrasting their way of life with other people’s ways of life.

Rojek (1993, pp. 113-114) – People seek the roots of their heritage in another country. They

enhance their feelings of self-worth by identifying with their heritage in another country.

Rojek (1993, pp. 113-114) – People who live in ever-changing contemporary societies

engage in heritage tourism because they can make connections with sites and sights that are

more permanent than aspects of their own societies. These signs of permanency include the

Egyptian pyramids, the Great Wall of China and the temple complex of Angkor Wat in

Cambodia.

Ryan (1997, p. 28) – People are motivated by their desire to learn, to satisfy their curiosity

and to see for themselves what they have read about or seen on the screen.

Ryan (1997, p. 28) – People are motivated to go on holiday simply to be in the company of

other people.

Ryan (1997, p. 28) – People are motivated to travel by their need to acquire physical and

social skills and to confront challenges. When travellers successfully meet these challenges,

they receive the respect of others and improve their self-respect.

Maslow (1969, p. 58) – People travel to satisfy their spiritual need for cosmic identification,

for seeing their place in the universe. This can happen in the presence of some magnificent

natural attraction such as the Grand Canyon in the United States or a star-lit sky in the

Australian Outback.

SECTION 6 PART 2 –

‘PUSH’ FACTORS

1. In this section you must explain what ‘push’ factors are and show how they influence people

to visit the destination you have chosen. This means that you must write about the factors

that make it possible for people to become tourists and to visit the destination you have

chosen. In this section you are applying the theory of ‘push’ factors to the destination you

have chosen.

2. Read pp. 59-70 of your textbook to learn more about ‘push’ factors.

3. Begin this section of your assignment with an explanation of what ‘push’ factors are.

4. Find answers to the following questions in relation to the destination

you have chosen.

a. Do the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen have spare money

(discretionary income) to spend on tourism?

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b. Do the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen have access to a tourism

industry that helps people to plan their

holidays?

c. Do the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen come from a place where

people are given paid holidays (discretionary time) to go on holiday?

d. Do the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen come from highly

urbanised societies?

e. Do the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen come from advanced

economies where, through good health care, people live long lives, retire early and

have pensions to support them?

f. Do the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen have access to

transportation technology which enables them to travel long distances for their

holidays?

g. Can the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen use the Internet to

arrange their holidays?

h. Do the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen come from countries which

give them the freedom to travel to other places?

5. It is highly likely that the tourists who visit the destination you have chosen come from

developed countries. In your research you should try to find data indicating the origin

countries of the tourists who visit the

destination you have chosen.

SECTION 6 PART 3 –

‘PULL’ FACTORS

1. In this section you must explain what ‘pull’ factors are and show how they influence people to

visit the destination you have chosen. This means that you must write about the factors that

attract people to visit the destination you have chosen. In this section you are applying ‘pull’

factors theory to the destination you have chosen.

2. You are not required to write about every ‘pull’ factor. You must choose the most important

‘pull’ factors that influence people to visit the destination you have chosen. You must explain

why you have chosen certain ‘pull’ factors.

3. Read pp. 86-95 of your textbook.

4. Begin this section of your assignment with an explanation of what ‘pull’ factors are.

5. The following questions will help you think about how ‘pull’ factors apply to the destination

you have chosen.

a. Do tourists who come to the destination you have chosen come from countries that

are near to the destination you

have

chosen?

b. Are domestic tourists an important part of the tourist market for the destination you

have chosen?

c. Do tourists come from countries that are distant from the destination you have

chosen?

d. What kinds of transport links exist between the destination you have chosen and the

rest of the world? It would be a good idea to write about this in the transportation

section of the assignment rather than in the ‘pull’ factors section of the assignment.

e. Is the destination you have chosen an expensive destination? Is its cost of living

high? How does the value of its currency compare with the value of the currency of

the countries from which tourists come to this destination? Is it a suitable destination

for backpackers on a budget?

f. What kinds of attractions are available for the enjoyment of tourists at the destination

you have chosen? There are other parts of the assignment where you can also write

about attractions. For example, you write about the attractions of the natural

environment in the section about features of the natural environment. You write

about heritage attractions in the history and heritage section of the assignment. You

write about food and drink attractions in the gastronomic experiences part of your

assignment. Therefore, in this ‘pull’ factors part of your assignment you should write

about a special attraction that does not fit into these other parts.

g. Do tourists come to the destination you have chosen because they are culturally

similar to the people who live at the destination? Or do they come there because of

cultural dissimilarity?

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h. Is the destination you have chosen well provided with facilities such as

accommodation (to cater for budget travellers as well as for affluent travellers) and

local transport? It would be better to write about these matters in the sections of your

assignment in which you are asked to write about transportation and

accommodation.

i. Are there special ways in which the government and the tourism authorities at the

destination you have chosen show that they welcome tourists?

j. Is the destination you have chosen politically stable? Does it have a history of

terrorist acts? Are there media images of the destination you have chosen that may

deter tourists from visiting the destination you have chosen? Does the destination

have a high crime rate? Has the Australian government or the government of the

country from which you come issued warnings about visiting the destination you have

chosen? Type Travel Advice (and then the name of the destination you have

chosen) into your computer and see what kind of information you get about crime,

stability and safety.

SECTION 7 –

MERCHANDISE

FOR TOURISTS

1. In this part of the assignment you are required to write about four examples of the kinds of

objects tourists buy at the destination you have chosen. The objects they buy are intended to

remind them, when they return home, of their visit to the destination. They are souvenirs.

2. These objects may be cheaper items such as key-rings, mugs, t-shirts and postcards. They

may be more expensive objects such as carpets, works of art, pieces of sculpture or

woodwork or special kinds of clothing associated with the culture of the destination.

3. Read about merchandise on p. 202 of your textbook.

4. Websites and guidebooks will provide you with this kind of information.

SECTION 8 – IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE HOST SOCIETY

1. In this part of the assignment you must discuss the impacts (the effects) tourism has one the

lives of the host society (the local people) at the destination you have chosen.

2. In this section you are applying impacts theory to the destination you have chosen. You

must provide evidence for what you write by using in-text references from relevant journals.

The summaries of journal articles you will receive after Week 7 will help you with this.

3. Students who chose Venice as their destination can use the content of the Assignment 2

article for this section.

4. Read pp. 213-217, 218-221, 222-223, 225-226, 227-231, 239-258 of the textbook.

5. The important theoretical terms and ideas from which you can choose for this section are as

follows:

Economic impacts

a. Direct revenue – the money the tourists spend and pay in taxes to the government of

the host country

b. Job creation – employment in the tourism, events and hospitality industries

c. Multiplier effect – other businesses besides tourism and hospitality benefit from the

money the tourists spend

d. Backward linkages – links between tourism and other industries that supply the

tourists

e. The provision of infrastructure to meet the needs of the tourists but can also be

available for the use of the local people

f. The informal sector – street stall vendors, unofficial guides, local transport providers,

prostitutes

g. Profits to developed countries which invest their capital in developing countries

h. The use of expatriate managers

i. Menial jobs for local workers – part-time, casual, seasonal, semi-skilled, little chance

of career advancement

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j. Leakage effect – money lost to the local economy because goods are imported to

serve the tourists’ needs, profits to international investors, money paid for

international advertising

k. Diversion of funds to tourism from money required for the basic needs of the local

people such as health and education

l. Diversion of local people from traditional employment – for example, abandonment of

farming in Nepal for work in trekking

m. Inflation – for example, increase in land prices required for tourist facilities thus

making land too expensive for the local people

Socio-cultural impacts

a. The homogenisation of society – traditional societies become more like modern societies

and lose their traditional culture

b. Demonstration effect – members of the host society copy the style and behaviour of the

tourists

c. Pseudo-events – the loss of authenticity

d. Preservation of culture – tourism gives a society a reason to keep its traditional culture

alive because tourists will pay to see it

e. False impressions – performances of traditional culture for the tourists may give the

impression that the society has not progressed

f. Commodification of culture – dances, ceremonies and artefacts become commodities for

sale to the tourists

g. Social change as the traditional leaders of a society lose their influence because of the

influence of international tourists on the local people

h. Marginalisation of local society members who adopt the ways of the international tourists,

thus distancing themselves from their own society but not being fully accepted into the

society of the tourists

i. The development of a middle class in the host society from the money earned from

providing services for tourists

Environmental impacts

a. Loss of a sense of place – that is loss of a sense of attachment to where a person lives

because the place has been changed by tourism

b. Coastal areas damaged by tourist boats

c. Oil spills from cruise liners causing pollution of seawater

d. Damage caused to rock face by climbers in mountainous areas

e. Pollution of sea-water and mountain streams because of inefficient waste disposal

f. Foreign vegetation brought into a native environment causing harm to native vegetation

g. Characteristics of wilderness areas lost because of too many tourists and building

programs

h. Animal habitats disturbed by the provision of facilities for tourists

i. Eating patterns of animals disturbed by tourists feeding the animals

j. Fishing areas of local fishers disturbed by tourist activity

SECTION 9 – ACCOMMODATION AVAILABLE TO TOURISTS

1. In this section you must write about the accommodation available for tourists at the

destination you have chosen.

2. You must not give the names of hotels (for example, Intercontinental) but just the kinds of

hotels and other forms of accommodation (for example, youth hostels) that are available.

3. You must consider why different kinds of tourists would choose different kinds of

accommodation.

4. Read pp. 140-142 of your textbook.

5. Websites and guidebooks will provide you with information for this section.

6. Accommodation is available in a variety of forms to suit a variety of budgets. Travellers can

choose from a range of hotels: city hotels in inner cities, convention hotels for meetings,

conventions, conferences and exhibitions; airport hotels; resort hotels that provide

15

recreational facilities; and apartment hotels in which travellers are able to do their own

cooking.

7. Motels, which were developed as accommodation for people travelling by car, are another

type of accommodation.

8. Timesharing is another form of accommodation for contemporary holidaymakers. It involves

people sharing the purchase of a property at a holiday location and then sharing access to

the accommodation.

9. Caravans, caravan parks and camping grounds also provide a casual form of

accommodation provision for holidaymakers often in family groups. These forms of

accommodation are suitable for beach holidays and holidays in national parks.

10. Bed and breakfast accommodation provision and vacation farms also offer accommodation

on a small scale and provide opportunity for travellers to have more personal contact with the

host families providing this kind of accommodation. Homestays also serve this purpose.

Vacation farms comprise farm houses or other farm buildings that have been converted into

accommodation. People who use this kind of accommodation may also participate in farm

activities.

11. The importance of backpackers as a market for tourism has made hostels important. Hostels

provide dormitory accommodation and an opportunity for backpackers to get to know young

travellers from many countries. Sharing of backpacker experiences is an important part of

the tourism experience for these young travellers.

12. Guesthouses or private hotels providing rooms and meals were once popular but are now

declining in importance. They have not, however, completely disappeared.

13. Caravanseries in the Middle East and Asia traditionally provided overnight rest for travellers

and were located on the caravan trade routes. In those days people travelled in groups for

mutual protection. Some of these caravanseries have now been converted into hotels for

tourists.

14. You must also consider how accommodation enables tourists to experience local culture and

heritage. For example, in Mongolia tourists may stay in a yurt. In France, tourists may

choose to stay at a chateau.

SECTION 10 – TRANSPORTATION TO AND AT A DESTINATION

1. In this section of the assignment you must explain the kinds of transport tourists would

use in order to visit the destination you have chosen. This includes the transport they

use to come to the destination and also the transport they use while they are at the

destination. It is likely that the transport they use to get to the destination will also be the

kind of transport they will use to leave the destination but this may not always be the

case.

2. Read pp. 137-140 of your textbook.

3. Websites and guidebooks will provide you with information for this section.

4. Travel to, from and within a destination is an important part of the tourist’s

experience.

The development of the steam train was a turning-point in the history of travel and

tourism. Currently transport is provided by trains, cruise liners, houseboats, river-boats,

coaches or buses, automobiles and aeroplanes.

5. The use of motor transport necessitates good roads. Freeways assist in rapid movement

from one place to another but deprive travellers of much of the sightseeing experience of

pre-automobile days.

6. In this section of the assignment you should consider whether there are any special kinds

of travel developed for tourists such as the Palace on Wheels in India.

7. You should also consider whether the destination you have chosen is on the route of a

cruise liner so that the destination’s tourists will also include people who come ashore

from the liner for a few hours.

8. Using local transport, especially when it is very different from the kinds of local transport

to which tourists are accustomed, is another kind of tourist attraction. In the Philippines,

for example, having a ride in a jeepney is an experience tourists may like to have.

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SECTION 11 – GASTRONOMIC EXPERIENCES AT A DESTINATION

1. In this section of the assignment you must explain the kinds of food and drink experiences

available for tourists at the destination you have chosen.

2. Read pp. 126-127 of your textbook.

3. Websites, guidebooks and journal articles will provide you with information for this section.

4. Please note that you are not being asked to write about the food and drink consumed by the

local people unless this food and drink is also consumed by the tourists.

5. Besides providing for the sustenance needs of tourists and other travellers, food and

beverage provision at a destination and along the transit route also provides tangible contact

with the gastronomic culture of locations. Food and beverage outlets take a variety of forms.

These include hotel dining rooms, fine dining restaurants, ethnic restaurants, cafeterias,

cafes and food malls, hawker stalls and other kinds of street food places, markets, fast food

outlets and supermarkets.

6. You should consider the kinds of tourists who are likely to visit the destination. If they are

people who do not like to eat unfamiliar food, you should consider what kinds of food outlets

are available to serve the needs of such people.

7. Food at a destination can also be a negative experience for tourists. Sickness caused by

what tourists eat at a destination disrupts tourists’ holidays.

8. Tourists are also likely to be concerned with the quality of water available at destinations.

9. In some cultures the consumption of alcohol is not allowed. Therefore, this can impact on

the experience of tourists who come from countries where there is no prohibition on the

consumption of alcohol.

10. You should also try to find out whether there are any special gastronomic experiences

associated with the destination you have chosen. In Singapore, for example, having high tea

or drinking a Singapore Sling at Raffles Hotel is something tourists like to do. Eating food

from a Japanese lunch-box is another kind of cultural experience.

SECTION 12 – PROMOTION, BROCHURES AND

INTERPRETATION

1. There are several parts to this section of the assignment. You must explain the purpose of

promotion of a destination. You must find out what interpretation means. When you know

what interpretation means, you must explain how websites you have accessed interpret the

destination you have chosen. You must learn how destinations are promoted. You must

learn what a brochure is. You must prepare the components for an original brochure you

would design to promote to interpret the destination you have chosen.

2. Read pp. 201-205 of your textbook.

3. The brochure you design must convey a message to your target market about the destination

you have chosen. In your brochure, you must use words and pictures that will persuade

people to have a holiday at the destination you have chosen. You can get ideas from the

Internet but your brochure must be original. An example of a brochure prepared for this

assignment will be put on the website.

4. Begin this section of your assignment with a statement about the purpose of promotion.

5. Promotion is one aspect of the marketing of a tourism product. Weaver & Lawton (2010, p.

201) explain promotion as follows: ‘Promotion attempts to increase demand by conveying a

positive image of the product to potential customers through appeals to the perceived

demands, needs, tastes, values and attitudes of the market or a particular market segment’.

6. KINDS OF PROMOTION

a. Publicity (Weaver & Lawton 2010, pp. 201-201). Weaver & Lawton describe the

press release approach to promotion as ‘one of the least expensive means of

promotion, and one that can be readily used by destination managers’. Other forms

of publicity may be provided through magazine articles and special programs on

television. Sometimes celebrities are used to promote a destination.

b. Merchandising (Weaver & Lawton 2010, p. 202). At a tourist destination, tourists

may buy t-shirts, key-rings and mugs as souvenirs of destinations. These objects,

bearing a picture or some kind of sign of the destination, then become a means of

publicising a destination or a travel company. Postcards are a particular kind of

souvenir that can publicise a place.

17

c. Advertising (Weaver & Lawton pp. 202-203). ‘Traditionally, advertising has been

defined as a form of controlled communication that attempts to persuade consumers,

using strategies and appeals, to buy or use a particular product or service’ (Defleur &

Dennis 1996, in Chiou, Wan & Lee 2007, p. 146). Weaver & Lawton (2006 2010, p.

202) describe advertising as ‘the most common form of promotion’. Advertising in

the mainstream media can be accessed by large numbers of people. Alternatively,

advertising can target a specific section of the market through the use of selected

media. A tour of the opera houses of Europe, for example, may be placed in the

kinds of magazines likely to be purchased by opera enthusiasts.

d. Television (Weaver & Lawton 2010, p. 203). Television, according to Weaver &

Lawton (2006, p. 203), is able to convey ‘an animated, realistic image of a product’

but is a very expensive means of promotion.

e. Radio (Weaver & Lawton 2010, pp. 203-204). Although unable to provide visual

images of a destination, radio ‘can evoke desirable and attractive mental images’ (p.

204) and much more cheaply than television.

f. Newspapers and magazines (Weaver & Lawton 2010, pp. 204-205). As

promotional tools, newspapers and magazines are easily accessible but it is difficult

to know how many people access their content. The images they use are static and

therefore not necessarily as appealing as television images.

g. Brochures (Weaver & Lawton 2010, p. 205). Brochures are widely used in the

tourism industry to attract people to destinations and to provide information about

destinations. They are distributed through travel agencies, tourism information

centres, hotels and by mail. Besides including visual material to attract potential

tourists to a destination, they may also contain practical information such as phone

numbers of travel agencies, hotels and tour companies.

h. Internet (Weaver & Lawton 2010, p. 203). As a means of finding out about

destinations, the Internet has the advantage of providing visual material that enables

potential tourists to have ‘a direct experience without actually being there’ (Chiou,

Wan & Lee 2007, p. 146).

i. Movies. Besides the forms of media to which Weaver & Lawton refer, movies have

also been identified as a way of promoting a destination. ‘Through movies, people

are sometimes induced to visit what they have seen on the silver screen’ (Riley,

Baker & Van Doren 1998, p. 919). The film Australia was used to promote Australia

to international tourists.

j. Novels and other literary works. Novels and other literary works also encourage

people to visit places associated with the literary works and their authors. The novel

Anne of Green Gables has encouraged people to visit Prince Edward Island in

Canada.

k. Autonomous information sources. Autonomous information sources such as mass

media news, documentaries, films and television programs provide information about

a destination free from the influence of the tourism industry. These kinds of

information may not always provide a favourable image of the destination and are

difficult to control in a free society.

l. Word of mouth information about a destination may have the same effect.

7. THE ETHICS OF PROMOTION

In choosing words and images to promote a destination, the tourism marketers are likely to

be highly selective. In 1984, Kathleen Adams wrote an important article about the ways in

which brochures and leaflets used by travel agents presented a picture of Tana Toraja in

Sulawesi in Indonesia. She claimed that this kind of promotional material uses images and

wording that create ‘ethnic stereotypes’ and that show a ‘superficial understanding of

traditional societies’ (1984, p. 471). A poorly informed selection of ethnic markers such as

feasts and dances is designed to sell a destination to tourists in search of the exotic. Thus

when the tourists visit the destination, they will see it in the way the brochure has persuaded

them to see it rather than in the way it really is.

8. INTERPRETATION

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The idea of interpretation can be traced back to the days of Ancient Greece when guides

showed people around a place, pointing out to them important sights, describing local rituals,

explaining local customs and telling them historical and mythical stories associated with the

place (Stewart et al. 1998, p. 257). At that time there were also written commentaries

describing the points of interest about sights and sites people visited. In the contemporary

world interpretation refers to the information tourists learn about sites and sights from

guidebooks, tour guides, signs, postcards, brochures, posters and visitor centres. In your

assignment you are required to write about the meanings of the pictures you put in your

original brochure. For students who have chosen New Orleans, for example, one of your

pictures may be of a voodoo museum. When you do the interpretation section of your

assignment you must, therefore, write a few sentences explaining what voodoo is. In the

hand-out for Week 6 you were given some ideas about this. For students who have chosen

Venice, for example, one of your pictures may be of St Mark’s Square (Piazza San Marco).

When you do the interpretation section of your assignment you must, therefore, write a few

sentences telling the story of St Mark’s Square.

When you have finished the Interpretation section, you must write your Conclusion.

See p. 5 of this Study Guide.

9. DESIGNING THE BROCHURE FOR ASSIGNMENT 3

The brochure must be original. You are not allowed to copy a brochure that already exists.

You must not submit your brochure in the way brochures are usually folded. Do not use

special brochure-designing software when you prepare your brochure. The brochure must

be two A4 pieces of paper on which you provide the pictures you have chosen to use. Your

brochure must provide the following kinds of information: a selection of the attractions

available at the destination, practical information such as addresses and phone numbers of

travel agencies at the destination. The words you use are not included in the word count of

the assignment. This is one part of the assignment (the only part) where you are able to use

brochure-style language. In your list of references you must have a separate section for the

Web addresses of the pictures you have used in your brochure. Do not forget to look at the

example of a brochure on the course website. Put the brochure in your assignment after the

Conclusion you have written. Write the Conclusion after you have written about

Promotion

and Interpretation.

REFERENCES USED IN THIS FIRST SECTION OF STUDY GUIDE PART 3

Adams, K 1984, ‘Come to Tana Toraja, land of the heavenly kings: travel agents as brokers in

ethnicity’, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 469-485.

Cohen, E 1979, ‘A phenomenology of tourist experiences’, Sociology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 180-201.

Dann, 1981

Chiou, WB, Wang, CS, Lee HY 2007, ‘Virtual experience vs. brochures in the advertisement of

scenic spots: how cognitive preferences and order effects influence advertising effects on

consumers’, Tourism Management, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 146-150.

Graburn, NHH 1983, ‘The anthropology of tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 10, no.1,

pp. 9-33.

Lett, JW 1983, ‘Ludic and liminoid aspects of charter yacht tourism in the Caribbean’, Annals of

Tourism Research, vol. 10, pp. 35-56.

Maslow, AH 1969 ‘Various meanings of transcendence’, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology.

No other details available.

19

McKean, 1989, ‘Towards a theoretical analysis of tourism: economic dualism and cultural

involution in Bali’, in V Smith (ed.), Hosts and guests: the anthropology of tourism, 2
nd

edn,

University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 119-138.

Riley, R, Baker, D, & Van Doren, C 1988, ‘Movie-induced tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research,

vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 919-935.

Rojek, C 1993, Ways of escape: modern transformation in leisure and travel, Macmillan,

Basingstoke, Hampshire.

Ryan, C 1997, ‘Similar motivations – diverse behaviours’, in C Ryan (ed.), The tourist experience:

a new introduction, Cassell, London.

Stewart, EJ, Hayward, BM & Devlin, PJ 1998, ‘The “place” of interpretation: a new approach to

the evaluation of interpretation’, Tourism Management, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257-266.

Weaver, D & Lawton, L 2006, Tourism management, 3
rd

edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton,

Queensland.

Weaver, D & Lawton, L 2010, Tourism management, 4
th
edn, John Wiley & Sons, Milton,

Queensland.

REFERENCING AND PLAGIARISM

1. Assignment 3 is the assignment in which some students plagiarise. This is very hard to do in
Assignment 1 because you are given specific required reading and it is, therefore, easy to
detect whether or not you have plagiarised. The same thing applies to Assignment 2
because you have one specific piece of reading to do for it. In Assignment 3, however, you
are required to do quite a lot of your own research and it is, therefore, more difficult for the
person who marks your assignment to judge whether you have plagiarised although the
difference between the writing style of the student and the writing style of the information
source may make the marker of the assignment suspicious. For this reason, we take very
seriously the degree of similarity shown by Turnitin. Each time the course is taught we find
that a number of students have plagiarised. Sometimes the number is more than 10.

2. If Turnitin shows that you have plagiarised, you will receive from the Academic Integrity
Office of the university a letter requiring you to meet an Academic Integrity officer who will
discuss your plagiarism with you and explain to you what the penalty for plagiarism will be.

3. Each semester when students are notified of their grades for Assignment 3, the tutor
receives emails from students who are wondering why they have not been notified of their
grades. The reason is likely to be that their assignments are being checked for plagiarism.
You may think that your assignment has not been submitted properly. If you think this
explains why you have not received your grade, you can check with Jenny Davies, the
course coordinator, to see whether your assignment has been submitted properly.

4. To avoid being in trouble for plagiarism, you must make sure that you reference quotations
from the readings you have used. You must also reference specific information you have
used from your sources even if this specific information is not quoted. When you quote, you
must use single quotation marks to show that you are quoting. Failure to use quotation
marks is a major reason why students get into trouble for plagiarism.

5. In Assignment 3 sometimes students want to take several points from one source of
information. For example, if you want to write about the climate at the destination you have
chosen, you may want to write several sentences from the book or article of the author. The
several sentences make one paragraph. If you do want to do this, write the sentences in
your own words. Before you do this, write the following kind of sentence: The information
about climate in this paragraph is a summary of information from John Smith’s book,
Australia’s climate (2001, pp. 43-48). In this way you will be letting the reader know that you
are not plagiarising. Do not put the reference at the end of the paragraph. You should
not need to do this very often. Mostly your referencing will be ordinary in-text referencing.

20

6. You will be in trouble for plagiarism also if you copy another student’s assignment. If the
student did the assignment in another semester, copying is not just dishonest; it is also stupid
because the assignment destinations change each semester. What a student wrote about
Morocco in 2006 is not relevant to what you are required to write about New Orleans or
Venice in 2013.

7. Some students seem to have the idea that they are required to reference only when they are
using tourism theory. This is not true. When you are writing about accommodation or
attractions or transport or climate or anything else you must provide reference details
showing the source of your information.

8. Some referencing guidelines
a. On the left hand side of the course website you will find the Course Menu. On the

Menu you will find Harvard Referencing. Click on it and print the document about
referencing. It has all the answers to the kinds of questions students ask about
referencing.

b. You must reference on the following occasions:
i. when you use facts that a well-educated person would not be expected to

know
ii. when you use another person’s ideas

iii. when you quote the words of the source of information you are using
c. You should not use direct quotations very often.
d. If you are quoting the actual words of the author and the quotation is short, you must

put the words in quotation marks. Use single quotation marks on either side of the
quotation. In the bracket alongside the quotation, you provide the author’s name, the
date of publication and the page number on which you found the quotation.

e. Quotations must be copied exactly as they are written in the book or article from
which you are quoting. This means that if the author has made an error of some kind
you must copy the error. You do not correct it. To show that you know that it is an
error, however, you write sic after the word that is wrong.

f. It is not right to copy a sentence or a group of sentences from a book or article and
just change a few words, even if you provide a reference.

g. At the end of your assignment you must have a list of references. The list is called
REFERENCES.

h. The list of references is in alphabetical order using the first author’s surname or
family name. The first author is the person whose name appears first on the cover of
the book or the article or the book chapter.

i. The titles of books and journals in the list of references must be in italics.
j. The titles of journal articles must be in plain print with single quotation marks on

either side of the title.
k. Volume and number details and page numbers must be provided for journal articles

as you were told in Study Guide Part 1 and Study Guide Part 2.
l. When you use a book which contains chapters written by different authors, you list

the title of the author in your list of references but you must also include the editor of
the book and the page numbers on which the chapter began and on which it finished
in your item in the list of references. The title of the chapter must be in single
quotation marks.

m. Always include the date of publication if it is available. If no date is provided, put n.d.
The year of publication is not the last time the book was printed.

n. For books, always include the publisher and the city or town (not the country) of
publication.

o. The publisher is not the company that printed the book.
p. Referencing a book

i. In the text of your assignment (in-text), you may have the following kind of
sentence: Rojek (1993, p. 137) explains that, during the 1970s and 1980s,
considerable capital was invested in the expansion of theme parks. In the
list of references, the reference would be as follows:

Rojek, C 1993, Ways of escape: modern transformations in leisure and travel,

Macmillan, Basingstoke.

q. Referencing a book chapter from a book in which the chapters are written by
different authors

21

i. In the text of your assignment you may have the following kind of sentence:
According to McKean (1989, p. 122), the Balinese have taken care to ensure
the profitability of their tourist industry activities. In the list of references, the
reference is as follows:

McKean, PF 1989, ‘Towards a theoretical analysis of tourism: economic

dualism and cultural involution in Bali’, V Smith (ed.), Hosts and guests: the

anthropology of tourism, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp.

119-138. (The page numbers here are the page number of the first page of

the chapter and the page number of the last page of the chapter.)

r. Referencing a journal article
i. In the text of your assignment (in-text) you may have the following kind of

sentence: Lett (1983, p. 49) explains that charter yacht tourists in the
Caribbean achieve anonymity through their uniform dress. In the list of
references, the reference is as follows:

Lett, JW 1983, ‘Ludic and liminoid aspects of charter yacht tourism in the

Caribbean’, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 35-56.

s. Dictionaries and encyclopaedia where the author’s name is not provided
i. If the author of a section is given, you use the same system as you use for a

chapter from a book in which there are chapters written by different authors.
If no author is given, according to the University’s guidelines you refer to the
dictionary or encyclopaedia by name and date of publication in the text (in-
text) of your assignment. In the list of references, according to the
University’s guidelines, you make no entry.

t. Brochures
i. If you are referring to information from a brochure in the text (in-text) of your

assignment, you write your reference as follows:

(The Salamanca Markets, 2010)

The words in brackets are the name of the brochure.

In your list of references you put the following:

The Salamanca Markets 2010, Tourism Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania.
ii. The university’s guidelines give one example. Not all brochures are the

same. Therefore, the one example may not apply to the brochure you want
to reference. If you want to know whether you are correct, contact the
course tutor by email and provide her with as much information as you can
about the brochure you want to reference.

u. Personal communication
i. If you are referring to information someone, such as a friend or relative, has

given you about your topic, record it as follows in the text (in-text) of your
assignment: Smith, a friend of the author of this assignment, informed the
author that the penguins in Antarctica seemed to be frightened by the sound
of the plane.

ii. According to the University guidelines, you do not record this personal
communication in your list of references.

v. The Study Guide
You have permission to quote from or refer to the Study Guide but there is no reason
why you should need to do so in Assignment 3.

w. Websites

The university reference document provides you with more than one example of the

ways in which to reference websites. Read the university document and then do

your referencing according to the guidelines. If you want to make sure that you are

correct, email me what you have done.

22

THE BALI EXAMPLE

 This example is intended to give you an idea of what is expected for Assignment 3. It is

detailed to give you an idea of the content that is suitable for the assignment. Your

assignment, however, must be shorter than the Bali example.

 Use side headings. Do not use the questions as headings. Change the questions into

headings. For example, the heading Bali’s Natural Environment replaces the question asked

in Section 2 of the assignment details for the major assignment.

 Avoid very long and very short paragraphs. They should be from four to eight sentences in

length.

Tourism in Bali

Please note that I have not provided a map of Bali. You, however, are expected to provide a

political map of the destination you have chosen.

Introduction

Bali is one of the world’s major tourist destinations. Over a long period of time the

attractions of this small island in the Indonesian archipelago encouraged travellers to

come to visit. Among those people were artists who were entranced by the beauty of the

island and its people. In early times only a few people came to Bali. In more recent

times, however, it has become a mass tourism destination. A wide variety of natural and

cultural attractions that suit the motivations of visitors from many countries entice people

to the island. The tourist industry has responded to the international travel market by

providing an extensive range of facilities to satisfy travellers’ demands. Tourism has

given the Balinese a reason for preserving their culture and protecting their heritage.

The Bali bombings of 2002, however, showed how vulnerable tourism is to international

terrorism.

This project aims to provide an analysis of Bali as a tourism destination and to explore

the impacts of tourism on Balinese culture and society. It identifies attractions that ‘pull’

people to Bali and considers the motives that influence people to respond to the ‘pull’ of

its attractions. It also notes the ways in which the major divisions of the tourist industry

supply the needs of tourists.

Bali’s natural environment

(In this section, please note how Balinese cultural beliefs have been related to the

natural environment.)

Bali is an island. The following legend explains its existence as an island and its

separation from Java (Covarrubias 1974, pp. 4-5). A Hindu priest sent his son with

whom he was displeased into exile in the most easterly part of the island of Java.

According to the legend, the priest drew with his finger a line in the sand across the

easterly section of the island. The line he made filled with water thus cutting off the

eastern section of Java from the rest of the island. The separate section became the

island of Bali (Hullett 1984, p. 9). As the legend indicates Bali was once physically

connected to Java (Covarrubias 1974, p. 4).

23

Bali is a mountainous island. According to legend, it was once unstable. To stabilise it,

the Hindu gods imposed a mountain, Gunung Agung, upon it. Covarrubias (1974, p. 6)

claims that the Hindu gods created the various mountains of Bali as their dwelling-

places. The mountains with their lakes and their rivers are regarded as ‘holy and

healthy’ because they are the home of the gods and the source of the island’s fertility

(Covarrubias 1974, p. 10). The Balinese believe that everything high is good and

powerful (Covarrubias 1974, p. 10). Volcanic mountains dominate the Balinese

landscape. For the Balinese, the presence of the volcanoes means the constant threat

of eruption. This happened spectacularly in 1963 (Black and Hanna 1989, p. 292).

As an island Bali is surrounded by sea. Like the mountains, the sea also has

significance for the Balinese. By contrast, however, the sea is associated with evil.

[I]t is natural that the sea, lower than the lowest point of land, with sharks and

barracuda that infest the waters, and the deadly sea-snakes and poisonous fish

that live among the treacherous coral reefs, should be considered as…magically

dangerous, the home of evil spirits (Covarrubias

1974, p. 10).

Traditionally, the Balinese have shunned the sea. According to Covarrubias (p. 10) the

Balinese ‘are one of the rare island people in the world who turn their eyes not outwards

to the waters, but upward to the mountain tops’. In their cosmology, the mountains are

for the gods, the middle world for humans, and the depths for evil spirits (Covarrubias

1974, p. 10).

The climate of Bali is one of its attractions for people who live in cooler parts of the

world. Because Bali is so close to the equator it is warm throughout the year (Black and

Hanna 1989, p. 292). Rainfall is spread throughout the year, most of it occurring from

October to April. The months from December to March are the most unpleasant months,

a factor that tourists should consider when choosing the time for their Balinese holidays.

Volcanic soil and the moist tropical climate assist plant growth in Bali. Among the trees

of Bali is the Indian fig tree or banyan tree that the Balinese consider sacred. Palm

trees are also a major feature of the Balinese landscape. For the Balinese, palms have

many uses. The fermented sap of the sugar palm provides a potent drink. The leaves of

the palms are used to make temple offerings. The coconut palm provides building

materials and cooking oils. Bamboo also has important uses although it is considered

the hiding place of evil spirits.

Major features of Balinese society

The origins of the Balinese people are in mainland Southeast Asia (Black and Hanna

1989, p. 41). The people who developed Balinese civilisation were an animistic,

agricultural people who were strongly influenced by Hindu culture brought to the region

from India. Indianised Java had considerable influence on Bali and close political

connections existed between the two islands. Sometimes the connection involved

conflict. The Balinese have ‘mixed Hindu beliefs with Buddhism and elements from local

rituals to create [their] own unique style of worship and ceremony’ (Vickers 1989, p. 8).

The Hindu Balinese believe in the Hindu god, Siva, and have adopted ‘a version of

Indian caste’ (Vickers 1989, p. 8). They honour their ancestors (Vickers 1989, p. 8).

24

Although the majority of the population is Hindu, some Balinese have been converted to

Christianity and Islam (Hitchcock and Putra 2005, p. 65).

As well as the national language, Bahasa Indonesia, the Balinese have their own

language. People from other islands of Indonesia have been attracted to Bali by the

chance of employment in the tourism industry (Hitchcock and Putra 2005, p. 65).

Employment in managerial positions in international hotels has added expatriate

Europeans and Australians to the population (Hitchcock and Putra 2005, p. 65). The

Chinese, descendants of migrants, who came from South China in the 19th and 20th

centuries, are a significant minority in the population (Hitchcock and Putra 2005, p. 66).

‘Good relations between the Balinese and Chinese are often expressed in terms of a

shared outlook in the spiritual world and the incorporation of selected Chinese elements

(e.g. Chinese coins) into Balinese religious observance’ (Hitchcock and Putra 2005, p.

66). In some of their temples, the Balinese have set aside spaces where Chinese

Buddhists may worship (Hitchcock and Putra 2005, p. 66). The Chinese play an

important part in the Balinese tourism industry (Hitchcock and Putra 2005, p. 66). Non-

Balinese beach boys, an important element of the Balinese tourism industry, are likely to

come from Java, Sumatra, Madura and Lombok (Hitchcock and Putra 2005, p. 66).

In the nineteenth century Bali came under the control of the Dutch. In the mid-twentieth

century Bali joined the Indonesian fight for freedom from the Dutch. The practice known

as puputan has played an important part in Balinese history. In times of conflict,

Balinese leaders sought liberation of their souls by death in battle (Vickers 1989, p. 34).

Like the leaders of old, the modern Balinese freedom fighter, Ngurah Rai, and his

supporters were surrounded in battle ‘and rather than surrender they invoked the

traditional stance of the puputan, which meant they were all massacred’ (Vickers 1989,

p. 157). Another bloody period in Balinese history occurred in 1965 when the Indonesian

army killed 100,000 communists and suspected communists. The chaos of this period

was ‘a kind of ritual cleansing’; ‘those cleansed were the Communists and other leftists’

(Vickers 1989, p. 168).

Because Bali has always been densely populated it was necessary for the people to

develop an intensive method of food production. This resulted in the setting up of a

complex wet-rice growing system that used the rivers coming from the mountains to

water the rice planted in terraced fields. Rice cultivation is a major activity of the

Balinese people who diligently make offerings to Dewi Sri, the goddess of rice and

fertility (Covarrubias 1974, p. 71). The agricultural activities of the Balinese are a major

attraction for cultural tourists seeking to learn about the local lifestyle.

Through the ages there have been several images of Balinese society. These include

images of conflict and eroticism. A very important image for the tourists is Bali as an

artistic centre ‘where everyone is an artist’ (Vickers 1989, p. 78) Tourists who are

interested in art are likely to go to the town of Ubud which is regarded as a centre of

artistic lifestyle. They do not have to go to Ubud, however, to be aware of Balinese

artistic culture. The signs of the artistic achievements of the Balinese are everywhere.

Balinese temples with their elaborately carved and decorated split gateways are a work

of art (Covarrubias 1974, p. 266). The Balinese also demonstrate their artistry in their

stylised dances in which each gesture and each step has a name and a meaning (Black

and Stuart-Fox 1977, p. 123). From the moment of arrival of the tourists at the

international airport, Balinese carving immediately captures the attention. The sound of

25

the gamelan orchestra reminds the tourists that Balinese artistic achievement is not

confined to the visual (Witton et al. 2003, p. 319)

Bali’s heritage resources

Heritage is property that can be handed down from one generation to the next. The

word also refers to ‘customs, traditions, languages and intangible cultural elements’

(Trotter 2001, p. 141). To experience the heritage of a destination, tourists view

historical monuments, visit museums, art galleries, historic houses and theme parks,

and attend re-enactments of historical events (Trotter 2001, p. 147). The Lonely Planet

Guide (2003) highlights the following heritage attractions. In the Bali Provincial State

Museum, tourists can view stone and bronze tools and artefacts from prehistoric times

(Witton et al. 2003, p. 329). In addition to exhibiting archaeological pieces, another

museum, Museum Semarajaya, displays a 1908 puputan (p. 381). Various monuments

and temples draw attention to particular periods in Balinese history. The Navel of the

World Temple, dating from the 14th century, is said to be the centre of an early Balinese

kingdom (p. 377). Bali’s more recent history, the period of the Balinese struggle against

the Dutch for Indonesian independence, is commemorated in the Margarana memorial,

a small museum displaying photographs, weapons and artefacts of the conflict (p. 401).

The Balinese method of irrigating rice fields is renowned. At the Subak Museum, the

irrigation and cultivation of rice is on display combined with explanation of the complex

social systems underpinning rice growing (p. 402).

The Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, depicting the struggle between good

and evil, are important components of Bali’s heritage (Black and Hanna 1989, p. 227).

In woodcarvings, stone reliefs and other artistic forms, these epics are reinterpreted.

The wayang kulit or shadow plays, the Ramayana ballet and the kecak or monkey

dance enable tourists to tap into the cultural riches of the Balinese (Black and Hanna

1989, p. 227). Artistic forms are also sometimes used to draw attention to a more recent

contribution to Balinese heritage. Carved into the stone walls of a temple Balinese

artists focus on a scene from the period of Dutch colonialism in which the relief shows

‘Hollanders drinking beer and cranking a motor car’ (Covarrubias 1974, no page number

given). In their cremation ceremonies, the Balinese display their ancient belief in the

idea that, through the destruction of the body, the soul is freed from attachment to the

world in order to be re-united with the Supreme Being (Black and Hanna 1989, p. 85).

The history of tourism in Bali

Although visitors came to Bali in the early twentieth century, it was not really until the

1960s that the island began its career as a major tourist destination. In the 1960s,

Indonesia’s first President, Sukarno, promoted Balinese culture as the mother culture of

Indonesia and wished the island to be a showplace for international tourists (Vickers

1989, p. 181). Tourist publications began to feature Bali. In 1963, the luxurious Bali

Beach Hotel was built (Vickers

1989, p. 185).

In the same year an international

conference of travel agents was planned to coincide with the great Balinese ritual, the

Ekadasa Rudra, a ritual designed to rid the world of evil and to bring about an age of

harmony (Vickers 1989, p. 185). Plans for the conference, however, were disrupted by

the eruption of the volcano of Mt Agung, an event causing great destruction (Vickers

1989, p. 185).

26

In the 1970s, Bali became a favoured place for the ‘nomads from affluence’ (Cohen

1973), young drifter tourists who were escaping the ‘evils’ of the developed world in

order to find culture and wisdom in the East. The drifters, however, did not spend much,

preferring to stay in homestays and to avoid the more luxurious facilities provided for the

tourists (Vickers 1989, p. 186). These nomadic ‘hippies’ were followed by the ‘surfies’

who were attracted by the advertisements in surfing magazines (Vickers 1989, p. 187).

In the 1980s, Bali was promoted as a paradise inhabited by ‘a serene, harmonious

people’ (Vickers 1989, p. 192). This was the period of mass tourism. Because mass

tourism reached its highest level in this period, the tourism authorities attempted to

change Bali’s image by promoting it as an elite destination for famous people.

Advertisements featured personalities such as Ronald Reagan, Mick Jagger and King

Hussein of Jordan (Vickers 1989, p. 192). Despite these efforts, Bali continued to be a

mass tourism destination. By 1995 the attractions of Bali had helped to make Indonesia

‘one of the world’s top 20 tourist destinations’ (Hall 1997, p. 104).

In 2002, Balinese prosperity based on tourism fell apart with terrorist bombings of the

Sari Club and Paddy’s Bar, places frequented by young foreign tourists. For the

Balinese the bombings meant loss of livelihood as well as loss of life and injury (Picard

2008, p. 167). Until this time, Bali had been seen as a peaceful island in the midst of

political and economic instability following the overthrow of Indonesian President,

Suharto, and the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s (Picard 2008, p. 166). The

bombings, however, exposed its weaknesses. Its lack of medical facilities at the time of

the tragedy revealed that, despite the glitz of tourist facilities, Bali is in fact a poor island.

‘Push’ factors

‘Push’ factors are ‘economic, social, demographic, technological and political forces that

stimulate a demand for tourism activity by “pushing” consumers away from their usual

place of residence’ (Weaver and Lawton 2006, p. 470). By the 1990s, Bali had become

particularly popular with Koreans, Taiwanese, Japanese, Australians and New

Zealanders who come from generating regions where people have discretionary time,

discretionary income and access to modern transport and communications technology

to enable them to travel (Weaver and Lawton 2006, pp. 70, 79). The freedom to travel is

another important factors enabling them to come to Bali (Weaver and Lawton 2006, p.

81).

‘Pull’ factors

‘Pull’ factors are ‘forces that help stimulate a tourism product by ‘pulling’ consumers

towards particular destinations’ (Weaver & Lawton 2002, p. 468). These forces include

attractions, proximity, accessibility, services, stability, affordability, and image. Until the

recent Bali bombings marred its image as a haven of tranquillity, all of these forces

‘pulled’ tourists to Bali. It is close and accessible to its major markets. It provides

services that are attractive and affordable. Its friendly people and relaxed lifestyle

ensure that it provides the appropriate image

Bali is an island of ritual and ceremony. The Balinese cremation ceremony is a major

event in Bali’s ritual life. Hullett (1984, p. 25) describes it as ‘a time of joy and

celebration’ because ‘only by cremation can the soul be liberated from the flesh and

reunited with the Supreme Being in heaven’. Since the advent of tourism in Bali, many

tourists have joined in the cremation ceremonies with the local people. In doing so, they

27

are engaging in cultural tourism through which they relate ‘to people and places that

have a strong sense of their own identity’ (Lips cited in Wood 1992, p. 4).

Bali is also a place of exotic artistic achievement. This attracts tourists to the artistic

town of Ubud, the meeting place of foreign and local artists. Particularly distinctive are

Balinese paintings and works of architecture and sculpture. One particular example is

the Elephant Cave. The entrance to the cave is through a gaping witch’s mouth

surrounded by carvings of humans, animals and monsters. A long flight of stairs leads

down to the cave, inside of which is a statue of Ganesha, the elephant-headed Hindu

god (Witton 2003, pp. 376-377). Near to the cave are souvenir stalls selling leather

goods and snacks to tourists.

The beauty and grace of the Balinese dancers also engage the tourists’ attention.

Although the Balinese present a variety of dances, for many tourists, the kecak dance is

the great drawcard (Witton et al. 2003, p. 317). Seated in a circle, chanting men make a

chak-a-chak sound like chattering monkeys. This performance that evolved from a

trance ceremony is derived for the Hindu Ramayana story in which good, represented

by Prince Rama, triumphs over evil with the assistance of monkey armies.

(Please note: Students in the past have spent many pages describing tourist attractions.

It is preferable to choose a few attractions and to provide some meaningful information

about them. Remember that you are not writing a guidebook.)

Likely motivational factors

Because motives or wants, needs and desires are internal factors, it is difficult to know

with any degree of certainty what motivates people to do the things they do and to

choose the kinds of holidays they choose (Dann 1981, pp. 209-211). Through the

behaviour of tourists at a destination, it is possible, however, to determine what their

motivations are likely to be. The desire for recreation no doubt motivates large numbers

of people to choose Bali as their holiday destination. These people seek a holiday in a

place like Bali in order to ‘recharge their batteries’ to be ready for another year’s work

(Cohen 1979, p. 185). Other tourists, disillusioned by the artificiality of their own society,

hope to find authenticity in the ‘purer, simpler lifestyles’ of others (MacCannell 1976, p.

3). They intend to spend their time watching the Balinese perform their daily duties. At a

tourist destination such as Bali, however, the daily duties most tourists see are likely to

be associated with the tourist industry.

For many young tourists, Bali is illicit space where they seek ‘ritual inversion’ when the

restrictions that apply to their lives at home will be ‘held in abeyance or even reversed’

(Graburn 1983, p. 21). For the duration of their holiday they ignore the clock in a way

that is not possible in their busy lives in Sydney or Tokyo. Instead, they spend time

intensely absorbed in play, forgetting temporarily the many challenging tasks awaiting

them in the office in their home country (Lett 1983). Many of them wear sarongs,

believing that by doing so they are living like the Balinese. For these tourists, a holiday

in Bali is a time of temporary separation from the structures of life, an escape to a world

free from structures (Turner, cited in Cohen 1979). For some tourists, their Balinese

experience provides good dinner table conversation on return to their home country.

They are able to enhance their status (Dann 1977) among their friends with stories of

their activities in Bali.

28

For the cultural tourists in particular, Bali helps to satisfy their curiosity about the

unfamiliar and the extraordinary. According to McKean (1989, p. 133), tourism should be

seen ‘as a profound, widely shared human desire to know “others” with the reciprocal

possibility that we come to know ourselves’. Through their observations of Balinese

culture in its various forms, the cultural tourists become aware of differences between

cultures but, if the encounter between tourists and their hosts is meaningful, they may

also appreciate their shared common humanity.

Activities of tourists in Bali

In Study Period 2, 2013, you have not been asked to write a separate section about

activities of tourists in Bali. There are, however, sections of the assignment where you

are asked to write about different kinds of attractions in Bali. When you write about

these attractions you may also refer to the kinds of things tourists do when they see

these attractions, for example, what do they do when they go to Mardi Gras or the

Carnival of Venice.

The tourism literature refers to two general sets of activities in which tourists engage –

gazing and performing (Perkins & Thorns 2001, p. 185). The idea of gazing is

associated with the work of John Urry (2002) who wrote about tourists seeking

experiences outside of the ordinary experiences of everyday life. The use of the word

‘gaze’ puts the emphasis on the visual. Perkins and Thorns argue that bodily

involvement and physical activity are also an important part of the tourist experience

(2001). In Bali the natural surroundings, the cultural performances and the sightseeing

(natural environment, works of art and architecture and lifestyle) attract the tourist gaze.

For non-Balinese these kinds of visual experiences are outside of everyday experience.

There are, however, other experiences in Bali that are active rather than passive. The

kinds of experiences, already referred to, that are offered to members of Club 18-30s

require various levels of active participation. Tourists may also rely on their interaction

with a local guide to learn more about the destination. As a sea, sand and sun

destination, Bali also invites tourists to engage in relaxing activities lazing by a

swimming-pool or on the beach. Shopping, including the search for souvenirs, also is a

major tourist activity in Bali. Shopping activities provide the opportunity for the tourists to

negotiate a good price through vigorous bargaining with the vendor. Photography also

is an essential tourist activity.

Merchandise

At a tourist destination there are many objects that tourists can buy to remind them of

their holiday when they return home. The website for Bali Souvenir- Unique Balinese

Souvenirs (2013, pp. 1-2) suggests that tourism may wish to buy silverware, t-shirts or

jackets made from a parachute. Ubud in Bali is famous as a centre of art where tourists

can buy different kinds of works of art. One particular Balinese object for sale,

advertised by Balihand (n.d. p. 1), is known as Bali Fountain. It makes the sound of

falling water.

The impact of tourism on Balinese society

(This section shows how tourism has affected the lives of the people at the destination.)

Tourism has had a variety of impacts, both negative and positive, on Balinese society.

McKean (1989, p. 132) argues that tourism has ensured the preservation of Balinese

29

culture and has made the Balinese people more aware of their own culture than they

might otherwise have been. McKean also points out that the money the Balinese have

earned through displaying their culture to the tourists has helped finance modernisation

on the island (McKean 1989, p. 125). In addition, Bali’s economic success through

tourism has given the island a respected place in the Indonesian archipelago as an

export earner.

The coming of tourism to Bali ‘created a new middle class of hoteliers, artshop owners

and tour guides – a group with access to the consumer symbols of success, such as

Mercedes Benzes and video recorders’ (Vickers 1989, pp. 199-200). The tour guides, for

example, by gaining fluency in one of the languages spoken by the tourists (such as

English or Japanese), acquired considerable prosperity (Vickers 1989, pp. 200-201).

This prosperity, however, was denied to poor subsistence farmers in the mountain

villages without access to tourist dollars.

The impact of tourism on Balinese culture and society has alarmed some Balinese.

Critics of tourism in Bali have seen tourism’s impact as ‘a violent current that is flooding

Bali and undermining its foundations’ (Picard cited in Long and Wall 1995, p. 237). For

those Balinese who value the spiritual dimension of Balinese life, tourism development

threatens its sacred sites. Plans to build a luxury resort near Tanah Lot, one of Bali’s

holiest temples, resulted in demonstrations and heated debates (Cohen 1994, May 26).

Regardless of these protests, however, the government gave its approval to the

development.

Although tourism brought a new source of wealth to Bali, it threatened the traditional

lifestyle. For some Balinese, tourism resulted in engagement in disreputable activities

involving drugs, sex and alcohol (McCarthy 1994). Such behaviour, combined with the

hedonistic pursuits of the tourists, prepared the way for the terrorist attacks of 2002. For

people working in the tourism industry, time for participation in traditional ceremonies

became limited (Long & Wall 1995, p. 248) and rituals had to be shortened to

accommodate workers’ needs. Tourism in Bali for those people offering their homes as

homestays for tourists has tended to increase the workload for women and children

(Long & Wall 1995, p. 250). Within the banjar (community) in Bali, under the impact of

tourism, the system of mutual aid began to disappear to be replaced by wage labour, a

development that threatened social cohesion provided by the banjar.

Balinese environmentalists have also expressed concern over the way tourism has

impacted on Bali. Journalist Keith Loveard expressed this concern in an article in

Asiaweek in October 1997 in which he asked the question whether Bali was becoming a

giant theme park. The matter of immediate concern to Loveard and environmentalists

was a giant statue of the Garuda bird near to the international airport. Balinese

environmentalists saw the statue ‘as a crass tourist attraction that will cheapen Bali’s

heritage and send the message that anything goes’ (Loveard 1997, p. 42).

Environmentalists also have had other causes of concern. For example, they questioned

whether the elite resort, Nusa Dua, was getting more than its fair share of water, thus

causing a shortage of drinking water in Denpasar. They complained of environmental

impact statements that were written but not implemented. There were also complaints

that homes were being demolished to make way for facilities for tourists. Rice fields

were ‘swallowed up by hotels, lodges, restaurants, bars and shops’ (Loveard 1997, p.

49).

30

Balinese tourism also displays the vulnerability of this kind of economic activity to world

events. For example, following the Bali bombings of 2002, the beach vendors were

particularly hard hit. Because potential tourists cancelled their holiday plans, thus

forcing tour operators to cancel their programs, the vendors lost income and were

obliged to reduce their spending on clothes, food and their children’s schooling (Baker

and Coulter, 2007, p. 256). Stress, depression, crime and alcohol abuse, low self-

esteem and feelings of helplessness were other responses to their dire economic

situation (Baker and Coulter, 2007, p. 262). The bombings did, however, prompt many

Balinese to re-think their way of life. At the time of the bombings they believed that they

must ‘cleanse and restore the spiritual balance of the island’ (Robinson and Meaton

2005, p. 72). This seemed to be even more important than the financial consequences

of the bombings. Many people thought that their failure to hold the correct rituals had

contributed to the bombings. Some Balinese expressed discontent about Sari Club

behaviour involving drugs and prostitution (Robinson and Meaton 2005, p. 72).

Accommodation in Bali

Tourists in Bali can find a variety of styles of accommodation that enable them to enjoy

luxury, to meet the requirements of their budget and to experience the local ambience.

In Bali five-star hotels and resorts built by outside investors enable tourists to have a

luxury accommodation experience including hot water, satellite television, air

conditioning, swimming pools and spacious grounds (Witton 2003, p. 342). The

exclusive Nusa Dua resort with its ‘collection of sumptuous five-star hotels successfully

isolated from the realities of everyday life in Bali’ is the height of luxury (Witton et al.

2003, pp. 356, 358). For tourists unable to afford such luxury, resident Balinese make

available cheaper accommodation in homestays, providing a large room, a bathroom

and breakfast (Witton et al. 2003, p. 339-340). Homestays are family-owned and

operated and allow closer interaction with the local people. They are popular with

surfers (Witton et al. 2003, p. 356). Free-standing bungalow or cottage style units are

also available. In accordance with the tropical climatic conditions on the island, a feature

of the accommodation is the open pavilion. Tropical gardens in which the

accommodation is situated also allow tourists to appreciate the beauty of the Balinese

experience.

Gastronomic experiences

According to Black and Hanna (1989, p. 301), ‘[c]enturies of contact with other great

civilizations have left their mark on the wonderfully varied cuisine of Indonesia,

particularly in Bali’. Indian and Arab traders, the Chinese and the Dutch ‘added their own

distinctive touch to the cooking pot’ to create ‘a happy blend of the best of each culinary

tradition’ (Black & Hanna 1989, p. 301). The Balinese love to add spices and coconut

milk to the cooking and ‘are fond of using sugar as well as fragrant roots and leaves’

(Black & Hanna 1989, p. 302). As in other Asian societies, rice forms the basis of

Balinese meals.

Besides needing food and drink for nutrition and survival, tourists in Bali can also

engage in cultural tourism through their gastronomic experiences on the island. As a

cosmopolitan tourist resort, Bali has restaurants that provide a variety of international

food styles. For the allocentrics (Plog cited in McIntosh et al. 1995, p. 443), however, the

warungs or roadside stalls offer local dishes that are cooked on the spot and are also

useful for tourists on a budget (Witton et al. 2003, p.343). Tourists also eat in air-

31

conditioned restaurants and at food outlets in shopping centres (Witton et al. 2003,

p.331). Various kinds of meat and seafood are fundamental components of the local

cuisine. A variety of sauces enhance their flavour. Turtle meat is very popular but has

also been the cause of considerable controversy because the turtles are an endangered

species. Bali is also rich in tropical fruits including durian. In describing durian, Black and

Hanna (1989, p. 30) write that the durian has ‘a revolting smell, but its buttery-rich fruit is

adored by local people and a few adventurous visitors’. Often gastronomic tourists like

to try the local alcohol. In Bali this is arak (palm whisky), tuah (palm toddy) and rice

wine.

Cooking courses are an added attraction for gastronomic tourists. They start with a visit

to the market and end with the preparation of a dinner at which the cooking students eat

what they have prepared (Witton et al. 2003, p. 359)

Transportation

People come to Bali from other places by a wide variety of means. International flights

and flights from other Indonesian cities arrive in Bali regularly (Witton et al. 2003, p.

323). At Ngurah Rai, named after a Balinese independence hero, hotel bookings

services, a tourist information counter, money changing, duty free shops, souvenirs and

automatic teller machines are also available (Witton et al. 2003, p. 323). Sometimes,

tourists travel by train from Jakarta and other Javanese cities and then take the ferry to

Bali followed by a coach ride to Denpasar (Witton et al.2003, p. 323). Cruise ships also

include Bali in their journey. Within Bali, air-conditioned minibuses provide transport for

tourists who like to travel in comfort. Taxis are also available and are particularly

favoured by tourists who wish to escape from the tourist enclaves and to explore the

Balinese countryside. Tourists can hire cars and motor-bikes to do their sightseeing and

to go from one place to another (Witton et al. 2003, p. 325). Minibuses and charter

buses are also available (Witton et al. 2003, p. 324).

Promotion

Bali as a destination is promoted in a number of ways. Travel agencies provide

brochures illustrating the kind of lifestyle tourists will enjoy on the island. Key features of

brochures are the natural environment and the facilities such as accommodation.

Sometimes travel agencies have large, colourful posters showing the attractive features

of Bali. Websites also promote Bali to potential tourists. These promotions create certain

images of Bali. For example, pictures of white water rafting are designed to attract

tourists who are interested in adventure tourism. Others pictures, designed to attract

cultural tourists, link landscape with religion. For example, the caption under the picture

of Gunung Agung describes the mountain as Bali’s holiest mountain. Websites also

provide useful information about Bali such as information about the climate. Newspaper

and television advertisements create certain images of Bali designed to attract tourists

seeking various benefits from a holiday on the island. On March7-8, 2009, for example,

The Weekend Australian (p. 6) advertised the Bali Villas Opening Special and offered a

bonus of two free nights’ accommodation, breakfast, afternoon tea, butler service and

private car transfers. The advertisement was illustrated with a small picture of the

accommodation and another small picture of a tourist being massaged. In the same

newspaper, a column with the heading Great Escapes, invited potential tourists to join

Club 18-30s and to join in activities ‘from surfing lessons and beach volleyball to tennis

and bungy jumping, at discounted prices’ (p. 6). After a day of such activities club

32

members would then have ‘sunset cocktails on the beach before sampling Bali’s bar and

club scene’ (p. 6).

Interpretation

Interpretation refers to learning more about the attractions of a destination from tour

guides, guidebooks, visitor centres, posters, signs and other sources of information. In

Bali, the kecak dance provides a good example of this. A knowledgeable guide or a

well-written guidebook should be able to provide tourists with the following kinds of

information about the dance. In this attraction a group of men are seated in circles and

chanting. They represent monkeys. They wear black and white check loincloths and

they move from left to right as they chant. Tourists may think that this represents an

aspect of Balinese culture.

In fact, it was created by a German artist, Walter Spies, in the 1920s. He was interested

in Balinese folklore and he based the attraction on Balinese trance dances and linked it

with a story from the Ramayana, an important Hindu story, in which the monkey,

Hanuman, helps to rescue Sita who had been abducted and taken to Sri Lanka (Vickers

1989, pp. 107-108). Hullett (1984, p. 41) also links the monkey or kecak dance with an

ancient exorcism ceremony used to drive out evil spirits ((1984, p. 41). Just by looking

at the attraction, the tourists would not have any of this information. The interpretations

of guides and guidebooks help them to understand what the kecak dance is really about.

Conclusion

The island of Bali provides a rich collection of experiences for cultural tourists. In the

pleasant atmosphere of a relaxed tropical island, cultural tourists have for many years

explored Bali’s cultural heritage and participated in aspects of its contemporary lifestyle.

The chance to enjoy a hedonistic lifestyle and relaxing physical conditions has also

attracted large numbers of young people. While tourism has provided the reason for the

preservation of Balinese culture, it has also exposed the people to tourism’s negative

consequences. In 2002, the Balinese faced the greatest challenge to an economy

dominated by tourism. The tragic bombing of Paddy’s Bar and the Sari Club has

prompted some people to reflect on the nature of tourism in Bali. It remains to be seen

how these reflections will influence future developments in the island paradise.

REFERENCES

Baker, K & Coulter, A 2007, ‘Terrorism and tourism: the vulnerability of beach vendors’

livelihoods in Bali’, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 249-266.

Balihand n.d., viewed 22 April 2013, http://www.balihand.com/

Bali Souvenir – Unique Balinese Souvenirs 2013, viewed 22 April 2013,

http://ppc2010bali.com/baliu-souvenir.html

Black, S & Hanna, WA 1989, Insight Guides: Bali, 14th edn, APA Publications, Singapore.

Black, S & Stuart-Fox, D 1977, Bali 5
th
edn. APA Productions, Singapore.

Brokensha, P & Guldberg, H 1992, Cultural tourism in Australia: a report on cultural tourism,

Australian Government Printing Service, Canberra.

http://www.balihand.com/

http://ppc2010bali.com/baliu-souvenir.html

33

Cohen, E 1973, ‘Nomads from affluence: notes on the phenomenon of drifter-tourism’,

International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. XIV, nos. 1-2, pp. 87-103.

Cohen, E 1979, ‘A phenomenology of tourist experiences’, Scoiology, vol. 13, no 2, pp. 180-201.

Cohen, M 1994, ‘God and Mammon: Luxury resort triggers outcry over Bali’s future’. Far Eastern

Economic Review.

Covarrubias, M 1974, Island of Bali, Oxford University Press/Indira, Kuala Lumpur.

Dann, GMS 1977, ‘Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. IV,

no 4, pp. 184-194.

Graburn, NHH 1983, ‘The anthropology of tourism’, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 10, no. 1,

pp. 9-33.

Hall, CM 1997, Tourism in the Pacific Rim. 2nd edn, Addison Wesley Longman, South

Melbourne.

Hullett, A 1984, Papineau’s Guide to Bali, MHP Magazines, Singapore.

Lett, JW 1983 ‘Ludic and liminoid aspects of charter yacht tourism in the Caribbean’. Annals of

Tourism Research, vol. 10, pp. 35-56.

Long, VH & Wall, G 1995, ‘Small-scale tourism development in Bali’, in MV Conlin & T Baum

(eds), Island tourism: management principles and practice, John Wiley and Sons,

Chichester.

Loveard, K 1997, ‘The Paradise Paradox’, Asiaweek, October.

MacCannell, D 1976, The tourist: a new theory of the leisure class, Schocken Books, New York.

McCarthy, J 1994, Are Sweet Dreams Made of This? Tourism in Bali and Eastern Indonesia,

Indonesia Resources and Information Program, Northcote, Australia.

McIntosh, RW, Goeldner, CR, Ritchie, J & Brent R 1995, Tourism: principles, practices,

philosophies, 7th edn, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

McKean, PF 1989, ‘Towards a theoretical analysis of tourism: economic dualism and cultural

involution in Bali’,in V Smith (ed.), Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism, 2nd edn,

University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 119-138.

Picard, M 2008, ‘Balinese identity as tourist attraction’, Tourist studies, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 155-173.

Robinson, AJ & Meaton, J 2005, ‘Bali beyond the bomb: disparate discourses and implications

for sustainability’, Sustainable Development, vol. 13, pp. 69-78.

Trotter, R 2001, ‘Heritage tourism’ in N Douglas, N Douglas & R Derrett, (eds.), Special Interest

Tourism, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Queensland, pp. 140-164.

Urry, J 2002, The tourist gaze, SAGE Publications, London.

Vickers, A 1989, Bali: a paradise created, Penguin Books, Ringwood, Victoria.

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Weaver, D & Lawton, L 2002, Tourism management, 2nd edn, John Wiley and Sons, Milton,

Queensland.

Witton, P, Elliott, M, Greenway, P, Jealous, V, O’Carroll, E, Ray, Tarbell, A & Warren, M, 2003,

Indonesia 7
th
edn, Lonely Planet Publications, Melbourne.

Wood, C 1992, Framework for travellers, Australians Studying Abroad, Melbourne.

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ASSIGNMENT 3 CHECKLIST

PRESENTATION

1. Did the title page show

a. the student’s name?
b. the student’s ID?
c. The student’s username?
d. The title ASSIGNMENT 3?
e. the name of the destination the student chose?
f. the date of submission?

SIDE HEADINGS (See the Bali example in this Study Guide.)

2. Were the side headings concise?

INTRODUCTION

3. Did the assignment have an introduction containing
a. general background information about the chosen topic?
b. the main themes of the assignment?

4. Did the introduction avoid brochure/advertisement/guidebook style?
5. Did the introduction avoid such statements as ‘I have chosen/selected’?
6. Did the introduction avoid the personal pronouns ‘I’ or ‘you’?

MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

7. Did the assignment have a political map of the

destination?

8. Was the map referenced?
9. Were pictures used to illustrate the assignment content?
10. If pictures were used, were they referenced?

THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

11. Did the assignment discuss two features of the natural environment interesting to
tourists?

SOCIETY AT THE DESTINATION

12. Did the assignment describe the cultural characteristics of the society?
13. Did the assignment describe the economic activities of the host society?

HISTORY AND HERITAGE

14. Did the assignment describe two major heritage resources of the destination?
15. Did the assignment link heritage resources with the destination’s history?

HISTORY OF TOURISM AT THE DESTINATION

16. Did the assignment explain why/how the destination became a tourist destination?

LIKELY MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS

17. Did the assignment explain motivation?
18. Did the assignment discuss motivations relevant to tourists at the destination?

‘PUSH’ FACTORS

19. Did the assignment explain ‘push’ factors?
20. Did the assignment discuss the ‘push’ factors enabling tourists to visit the destination?

‘PULL’ FACTORS

21. Did the assignment explain ‘pull’ factors?
22. Did the assignment discuss factors that attract tourists to the destination?
23. Did the assignment discuss the variety of tourist activities at the destination?

MERCHANDISE

36

24. Did the assignment discuss four examples of merchandise available at the
destination?

IMPACTS (EFFECTS) OF TOURISM ON THE HOST SOCIETY

25. Did the assignment discuss various kinds of impacts of tourism on the host society?
26. Did the assignment use at least two of the following kinds of theoretical terms?

a. preservation of culture
b. commodification of culture
c. authenticity
d. multiplier effect
e. backward linkages
f. leakage effect
g. direct revenue
h. demonstration effect
i. sense of place

ACCOMMODATION

27. Did the assignment describe the variety of accommodation at the destination?

TRANSPORTATION

28. Did the assignment explain how tourists come to the destination?
29. Did the assignment describe the kinds of transport available to tourists at the

destination?

GASTRONOMIC EXPERIENCES

30. Did the assignment describe the kinds of food and drink available to tourists at the
destination?

PROMOTION AND BROCHURE

31. Did the assignment explain the purpose of promotion?
32. Did the assignment contain the outline of the content of an original brochure?
33. Did the outline of the content include the following:

a. visual material?
b. brochure-style promotional words and sentences?
c. practical information such as the address of a travel agency?

34. Did the assignment provide the web addresses for pictures used in the brochure?

INTERPRETATION

35. Did the assignment explain the meaning of interpretation?
36. Did the assignment explain the meanings of the pictures used in the brochure?

CONCLUSION

37. Did the conclusion summarise the assignment concisely?
REFERENCES

38. Did the assignment have a list of references?
39. Was the list of references headed REFERENCES?
40. Was the list of references in alphabetical order according to the surname/family name

of the first author?
41. Were book and journal titles in the list of references in italics?
42. Were article titles in the list of references in plain print?
43. Did book and journal article references include the publication date?
44. Did book and journal article references give the name of the author or authors?
45. Did journal references provide the volume and issue numbers?
46. Did journal references provide the numbers of the pages on which the article begins

and finishes?
47. Were websites, brochures and encyclopaedias referenced according to university

guidelines?
48. Did book references include publisher and town or city of publication?

IN-TEXT REFERENCING
49. Did the assignment reference ideas that were not the student’s own ideas?
50. Did the assignment reference quotations?
51. Did the assignment use quotation marks around single sentence quotations?
52. Did the assignment use an introductory sentence, where necessary, to explain the

source of a paragraph?

37

53. Did the in-text references contain page numbers where necessary and available?
54. Were quotations used sparingly?
55. Were in-text references in the format prescribed in university guidelines?

RESOURCES USED

56. Was the Assignment 2 article used appropriately?
57. Did the assignment make appropriate reference to 4 journal articles?
58. Did the assignment show that the student had followed the instructions given in Study

Guide Part 3?

OVERALL IMPRESSION

59. Was the assignment interesting to read?
60. Was the assignment easy to understand?
61. Did the assignment avoid examples of plagiarism?

THE RUBRIC FOR ASSIGNMENT 3

The Rubric for this Assignment is on the website. Below I have shown the criteria for

Fail 2 and High Distinction to indicate to you the important aspects of the assessment.

This will give you an idea of what to avoid and what to strive for.

1. Tourism Theory and Destination Knowledge – 60%
a. Fail 2

i. Failure to understand assignment requirements
ii. Failure to apply tourism theory to analysis of the destination

iii. Total reliance on non-scholarly sources*
iv. Only basic knowledge of destination
v. Insufficient research

2. Written Communication Skills – 20%
a. Fail 2

i. Most of the assignment is incomprehensible**
ii. Many spelling and/or grammar errors and incomplete sentences

3. Referencing Skills – 20%
a. Fail 2

i. Failure to acknowledge sources of information
ii. No in-text referencing

iii. No list of references
iv. No quotation marks for quotations used in assignments

4. Tourism Theory and Destination Knowledge – 60%
a. High Distinction

i. Thorough knowledge of chosen destination
ii. Appropriate application of relevant tourism theory

iii. Imaginative literature search ***
iv. Substantial and well-integrated use of scholarly literature****
v. Creativity shown in selection of examples of tourism experiences*****

vi. Excellent conclusion and suggestion for future research
5. Written Communication Skills – 20%

a. High Distinction
i. Presented in well-constructed paragraphs and clear, concise sentences
ii. Well-chosen vocabulary (words)

iii. Error-free in grammar and spelling
6. Referencing Skills – 20%

a. High Distinction
i. Thorough understanding and application of Harvard system
ii. Error-free

*This means that you have used only advertising websites. You have not used books and journal

articles.

** This means that it is difficult to understand your assignment.

*** This means that you have looked for interesting readings.

38

**** This means that you have used books and journal articles. It also means that you have not

taken only a few sentences from these sources so that you can put them in your reference list. It

means that you have read quite a lot from the books and journal articles.

***** This means that you have chosen interesting examples that an intelligent tourist would

choose.

Assessment feedback

TOUR 1001 Understanding Travel and Tourism Assignment 3- Analysis of a destination

Length – 2500 plus or minus 10% Due date – Assignment 3, Monday 3
rd

June 2013 by 11p.m.

Up to 2% of the marks will be deducted from the final mark for failure to follow guidelines for title page. Late assignments will receive a penalty of 10% per day late.
Plagiarism warning: Application of the computer software Turnitin to this assignment reveals whether students have plagiarised in their assignments.

Fail 2 Fail 1 Pass 2 Pass 1 Credit Distinction High Distinction

Tourism Theory
and destination
knowledge (60%)

Failure to
understand
assignment
requirements.

Failure to apply
tourism theory to
analysis of the
destination.

Total reliance on
non-scholarly
sources.

Only basic
knowledge of
destination.
Insufficient research.

Some attempt to
explain relevant
tourism theory but
failure to apply theory
to destination
analysis.

Minimal reference to
scholarly sources,
including required
article.

Destination
knowledge mainly
from non-scholarly
sources.

Conclusion does not
follow guidelines
provided in Writing a
conclusion.

Correct explanation
of relevant tourism
theory with some
attempt at
application of theory
to destination
analysis.

Appropriate use of
required article.

Two additional
journal articles
referred to but
references do not
show adequate
knowledge of these
articles.

Adequate
knowledge of
destination.

Conclusion does not
follow guidelines
provided in Writing
a conclusion.

Substantial appropriate
application of tourism
theory to destination
analysis.

Appropriate use of required
article. Some use of two
additional journal articles
showing some relevant
knowledge.

Substantial reliance on non-
scholarly sources of
information.

More discrimination needed
in choosing examples
interesting to tourists.

Minimal attention to the
guidelines provided in
Writing a conclusion.

Thorough knowledge of
chosen destination.

Appropriate application
of relevant tourism
theory.

Appropriate use of the
recommended scholarly
articles.

Some attempt to see
the destination through
the eyes of a tourist.

Conclusion summarises
but recommendation
made is inadequate.

No reference to future
research.

Thorough knowledge of
chosen destination and
appropriate application of
relevant tourism theory.

Appropriate use of
recommended scholarly
literature, including article
summarised for
Assignment 2.

Examples selected would
be interesting to tourists.

Conclusion summarises
using generalisations.

One or more
recommendations made
for the benefit of the
tourism industry at the
chosen destination.

Thorough knowledge of
chosen destination.

Appropriate application of
relevant tourism theory.

Imaginative literature
search.

Substantial and well-
integrated use of scholarly
literature.

Creativity shown in
selection of examples of
tourism experiences.

Excellent conclusion and
suggestion for future
research.

Written
communication
skills (20%)

Most of the
assignment is
incomprehensible.

Many spelling and/or

grammar errors and
incomplete
sentences.

Incomprehensible in
some places.

Too much reliance on
the style of trade
documents such as
brochures.

Many spelling and/or

Comprehensible but
with too much
reliance on the style
of trade documents.

Paragraphs often
not well-
constructed.

Mostly written in formal,
academic style.

A few examples of the style
of trade documents such as
brochures.

Several spelling and/or
grammar errors.

Written in clear, concise
full sentences in formal
academic style.

Paragraphs mostly well-
constructed.

A few spelling and/or
grammar errors.

Written in clear, concise
full sentences in formal
academic style.

Well-constructed
paragraphs.

Grammar and spelling
error-free.

Presented in well-
constructed paragraphs
and clear, concise
sentences.

Well-chosen vocabulary.

Error-free in grammar and
spelling.

No attempt at
paragraph
construction.

grammar errors and
incomplete
sentences.

Many spelling
and/or grammar
errors.

Paragraphs mostly well-
constructed.

Style sustains reader’s
interest in the topic.

Referencing skills
(20%)

Failure to
acknowledge
sources of
information.

No in-text
referencing.

No list of references.

No quotation marks
for quotations used
in the assignment.

Inconsistent use of
Harvard system.

Failure to use
quotation marks for
direct quotations.

Some required
references missing in-
text and in reference
lists.

Places for providing
in-text references
correctly identified
and matched in lists
of references.

Many errors in
reference
formatting, for
example, failure to
use italics where
required.

Places for providing in-text
references correctly
identified and matched in
list of references.

A few errors in reference
formatting, for example,
omission of page numbers
where required in-text.

Several editorial errors such
as misplaced commas or
incorrect spacing.

Thorough
understanding and
application of Harvard
system.

Several editorial errors
such as misplaced
commas or incorrect
spacing.

Thorough understanding
and application of Harvard
system.

One or two editorial
errors such as misplaced
commas in reference list.

Thorough understanding
and application of Harvard
system.

Error-free.

Summary comment:

The Graduate qualities being assessed by this assignment are indicated by an X:

x GQ1: operate effectively with and upon a body of knowledge GQ5: are committed to ethical action and social responsibility

GQ2: are prepared for lifelong learning x GQ6: communicate effectively

GQ3: are effective problem solvers GQ7: demonstrate an international perspective

GQ4:can work both autonomously and collaboratively

Grade

Understanding

Travel and

Tourism

Lecture 4

The Mass Consumption of

Tourism

The emerging environment

The Industrial Revolution created the

conditions for the democratisation of

travel:

• Enhanced mobility

• Structured work/leisure patterns

• Increased wealth

In 2010 which country attracted the most tourist arrivals?

Global Tourist Arrivals 2010

Rank Country

Arrivals

(million)

Change on

2009

(%)

Share of

global

arrivals

(%)

1 France 76.8 0.0 8.2

2 USA 59.7 8.7 6.4

3 China 55.7 9.4 5.9

4 Spain 52.7 1.0 5.6

5 Italy 43.6 0.9 4.6

6
United

Kingdom
28.1 -0.2 3.0

7 Turkey 27.0 5.9 2.9

8 Germany 26.9 10.9 2.9

9 Malaysia 24.6 3.9 2.6

10 Mexico 22.4 4.4 2.4

11 Austria 22.0 3.0 2.3

12 Ukraine 21.2 1.9 2.3

13 Hong Kong 20.1 18.7 2.1

14 Russiaa n.a. n.a. n.a.

15 Canada 16.1 2.3 1.7

Australia was ranked

41st with 5.9 million

arrivals. This was

0.6% of global

arrivals

International Visitor Arrivals to Australia

1990 -2010

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 20

10

A
rr

iv
al

s
(m

ill
io

n

)

-5

0
5
10

15

20

C
h

an
g

e
(%

)

Change (RHS) Arrivals (LHS)

Asian financial crisis

Sydney

Olympics

SARS

GFC
Sept 11

Inbound Tourism to Australia
2011 to date

000 Change (%)

New Zealand 531 4.2

UK 299 – 4.6

China 273 20.2

USA 227 – 2.8

Singapore 149 5.2

Japan 146 – 18.8

Malaysia 116 6.2

South Korea 96 – 8.8

Hong Kong 83 7.2

Germany 71 – 1.3

Average Annual Growth in Total Inbound

Economic Value 2001 – 2010

-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

Germany

India

Malaysia

Singapore

South Korea

Japan

United States

New Zealand

United Kingdom

China

AAGR (%)

Factors influencing demand

Discretionary Time

Time free from work and other commitments:

• Amount

• Structure – during:
– Day

– Week

– Year

– Life-span
• Time poor families

• Early retirement

Mass Consumption of Tourism

Leisure Time – opportunity to have the

freedom to choose activities:

• Leisure interests – golf

• Activity involvement – golf equipment, golf

books

• Recreation – member of golf club

• Travel – golf tours

Mass Consumption of Tourism

Disposable Income

• What is left after paying tax, housing and the
basics of life

• Tourism participation as a sign of affluence

Economic models of tourism demand are sensitive
to currency changes, interest rate increases.

Demand

Tourism demand is –

“the number of persons who travel, or who

wish to travel, to use tourist facilities and

services at places away from their places

of work and residence”

Mathieson and Wall, 1982.

International Demand

Potential demand to visit Australia:

• Australia is consistently ranked first or

second in international surveys of

destination preference

International Demand

In 2010, 5.9 million international visitors came to Australia.

It is difficult for Tourism Australia to convert interest into
arrivals.

Reasons:

• Distance

• Time

• Cost

• Intervening opportunities

Domestic demand

Domestic tourism has shown no growth for twenty
years.

Reasons:

• Expensive (compared to overseas holidays)

• Difficult to find time (coordinate holiday time for
couple)

• Difficult to escape work (mobile phones, laptops
etc.)

• Job insecurity

• Too much work to catch up, upon return

Domestic demand

Domestic Tourism

Domestic overnight leisure trips, 2006

Mass Consumption of Tourism

Size and scope of the tourism industry.

• Creators of demand:

– Advertisements

– Visibility

– Choice

Public Sector promotion:

• Tourism as a tool of economic
development

Mass Consumption of Tourism

Tourism and Popular Culture:

• Television shows

• Magazine stories

• Newspaper articles

• Celebrity behaviour (aspirational)

Mass Consumption of Tourism

• “501 must visit destinations”

• “The 25 wonders of the world” (Rough Gide)
– 1. Salt Flats of Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

– 2. Uluru

– 3. Pyramids of Giza

– 4. Drifting down the Amazon

– 5. “Fairy chimneys” and caves of Cappafocia, Turkey

– 6. Grand Canyon, Arizona

– 7. Petra, Jordan

– 8. Mach Picchu, Peru

– 9. Sagrada Familia, Barcelona

– 10. Perito Moreno glacier, Patagonia

Mass Consumption of Tourism

“To be a tourist is one of the characteristics

of the ‘modern’ experience. Not to ‘go

away’ is like not possessing a car or a nice

house. It is a marker of status in modern

societies”

Urry, 1990.

Mass Consumption of Tourism

But what offers status?

• Going “away”

• Going to Paris

• Going to Disney World

• Skiing at St Moritz

• Visiting the pyramids

• Volunteering in Africa

Mass Consumption of Tourism

Status will be determined by social values

and what is regarded as significant by

reference groups (myspace and

facebook).

Mass Consumption of Tourism

Other changes:

• Environmental impacts:

– Carbon footprint

– Global warming

An impact of the Industrial revolution may be

the destruction of travel and tourism

Understanding

Travel and Tourism

Lecture 5

Tourism Destinations

Destinations

Concepts

Planning

Management

• Marketing

Concepts

Destination appeal is fundamental to tourism

But, destination management is problematic

and complex:

• Destinations are difficult to define

– Defies political boundaries

– Subject to tourist behaviour

• Varies between tourist segments

Concepts

Destinations exist at a wide range of
geographical scales:

– resort (enclave)

– town

– local area

– region = a series of destinations?

– State

– nation

Management responsibilities overlap

Concepts

Elements of a destination:

Attractions
– Natural

• Climate

• Beach

• Mountain

– Cultural
• Organic

• Planned (authentic?)

• Local residents

Concepts
Elements of a destination:

• Services
– Accommodation

– Food and Beverage

– Safety

– Atmosphere/Sense of place/Lifestyle

Concepts
Elements of a destination:

• Information

– Tourist information

– Signage

– Marketing

Concepts
Elements of a destination:

• Access

– Travel from generating region to destination
• Distance decay function

– Travel within destination region
• Appeal of urban areas

• Critical issues for regions where attractions are
dispersed (eg. ski areas)

Concepts
Elements of a destination:

• Infrastructure
– Roads, car parks

– Airports

– Parks

– Electricity, water

– Health care

Public sector investment

Used by tourists and host community

Concepts
Elements of a destination:

• Superstructure

– Hotels

– Attractions

– Shops

Private sector investment

Public sector support?

Concepts

Destination “success” is a function of:

• Visitor satisfaction

• Business success

• Community support

• Resource protection

Destination Planning

Clare Gunn.

Zones of activity:

– Urban zone

• Tourist services, historic centre, sport arenas

– Suburban zone

• Cinemas/indoor recreation, industry, VFR

– Rural zone

• Camping, hiking, water-based recreation, farm stays

– Remote zone

• National parks, hiking, hunting

Destination Planning

Implications = zones of competition:

• Resident land uses

• Cultural heritage

• Industrial activities

• Nature preservation

Destination Management

Coordination of tourism supply

• Quantity

• Quality

• Type

• Consistency with image

Destination Management

Influence on demand

• Number

• Type

• Consistent with market position?

Impact of fluctuations in demand

Destination Management

Management of capacity

• Physical

• Psychological

Sustainability

• Ecological

• Social

Destination Management

Destination life cycle

• Exploration

• Involvement

• Development

• Consolidation

• Stagnation

• Rejuvenation or Decline

Destination Marketing

Market knowledge:

• Level of awareness

• Destination image

Market Communication:

• Information

• Persuasive messages

– Image

– Position

Destination Marketing

Destination Marketing Organisations (DMOs)

• Local

• Regional

• State/Province

• National

Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

Survey results

Most enjoyable part of the trip to the Sydney Olympics:

Experience Mention by (%)

Named Olympic event 35

Friendliness of local people 28

Beauty of the city 22

Service by sponsor staff 16

Meeting people 16

Olympic Atmosphere 15

Summary

“Land use issues are critical to this process. Policies are

needed to guide new tourism development where it can be

most successful and yet retain the basic community values

that are important to residents” (Gunn, 1997, p.63).

Hence:

Planning
Management

Marketing:

• Consumer

• Internal

– to inform and to manage behaviour

Understanding

Travel and Tourism

Lecture 6

Tourism Attractions

Attractions

Can be iconic symbols that capture the

essence of a destination – recognised

around the world.

They can be:

• Natural areas

• Sites of cultural heritage

• Entertainment venues

Destination Branding

Iconic attractions serve as symbols which express

the ideas and values associated with the place.

They often feature as the key visual representation

of the destination.

They may create a sense of place

Place attachment

Place dependence:

• The event could not have been held at a better

location

• The venue delivered an excellent spectator

experience

Place identity

• I can really be myself at the opera house

• I feel I belong at the opera house

Psychological Continuum Model

1. Awareness
Realisation of opportunities

2. Attraction

Affective association, behaviour

3. Attachment

Emotional meaning

4. Allegiance
Attitudinal and behavioural loyalty

Attractions

Natural areas often provide the setting for

other forms of attractions.

They support activities that may appeal to

particular market segments.

If managed sustainably, natural resources

can serve as, seemingly, timeless

attractions – of value across generations.

Attractions

Some cultural attractions are considered to be of
significance to mankind.

They may attract large numbers of

tourists.

Their protection and management is of
international concern and subject to the policies
of international agencies.

World Heritage Sites

Attractions

Attractions also exist at a smaller scale as

the features that give enjoyment to

tourists.

Attractions

The duration of market interest

• Concert

• Festival/Event

– Media coverage

• Theme Park

Is the attraction consistent with the

destination’s position?

Attractions

Market segments that are attracted

• Children

• Sport tourists

– Participants

– Spectators

Attractions may repel some segments

(displacement).

Attraction elements

Leiper (1995).

• Tourists who engage with the attraction

• Nucleus the feature that captures tourist

attention

– In decision-making

– In situ (during visit)

– In reflection

Attraction elements

Markers give information about the

attraction.

They create expectations and influence

behaviour:

• Advertisements

• Guidebooks

• The internet

• Signage

Markers

Tourist engagement with markers is affected

by:

• Perceptions of risk and reward

• Level of personal interest

• Mindfulness of surroundings

It can be an active process to enhance

experiential outcomes

Attractions hierarchy

The status of attractions in tourist decision-

making.

Primary attractions influence decision to

travel

Secondary attractions are known prior to

travel but not major influence

Tertiary attractions become known when

at the destination

Attractions hierarchy

Adelaide Crows v Port Adelaide

Primary attraction

• Flight from Melbourne to Adelaide

• Go to stadium, watch game

• Night in hotel

• Flight from Adelaide to Melbourne

Attractions hierarchy
Adelaide Crows v Port Adelaide

Secondary attraction

• Flight from Melbourne to Adelaide for

family visit

• Arrange timing to coincide with game

• Attend game after meeting family

commitments

Attractions hierarchy
Adelaide Crows v Port Adelaide

Tertiary attraction

• Visit from Melbourne to South Australia for

walking holiday

• While in Adelaide, wife wants to go shopping

• Learn about game

• Attend game

• Return to Melbourne

Attraction nuclei

Primary attractions serve as pull
motivations.

Behaviour at destination is complex:

• Many nuclei may feature in itineraries

• A range of attractions form part of the
overall experience

• Recollections may be about a significant
nucleus or a mix of nuclei

Attractions Management

Planning and tourist expectations vary at different
types of attractions.

• Wilderness area – map

• Outback trails – entry markers

• Suburban trails – detailed signage

• Urban parks – facilities and services

Attractions Management

Implications for services:

• Historic area – authentic interpretation

• Modern precinct – staged entertainment

• Theme Park:

– programme of events
– tickets

– extensive services

– merchandising

Servicescapes

Most attractions form part of “Servicescapes”.

Management of the environmental variables that
affect tourist experiences.

The physical setting including:

• Smells

• Sounds

• Atmosphere

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