# The S’No Risk Program

Assignment 2: Required Assignment 1—The S’No Risk Program

In the mid-eighties, the

• Toro
• company launched a promotion in which snow blower purchasers could refund a portion of their purchase if the next winter brought modest snowfalls. The amount of their refund was tied to snowfall amounts and so, the program was prey to certain risks and uncertainties. You will explore those risks and choices from a variety of perspectives.

Review the case study “The Toro Company S’No Risk Program” by David E. Bell (1994) from this module’s assigned readings.

to download the Toro Excel worksheet which contains data exhibits from the article; the exhibit titles match the tabs long the bottom of the worksheet. Use this tool to conduct your data analysis for this assignment.

Analyze the risks of the program from the following points of view:

Toro

1. The insurance company
2. The consumers

Write a 6–8-page analysis paper that addresses the following:

1. Why did the insurance company raise the rates so much? How would you estimate a fair insurance rate?
2. From the perspective of the consumer, how were the paybacks structured and how might they be restructured to entice you at an equal or lower cost of insurance? How does the program influence your decision to purchase?
3. What are the common decision traps which each group in point (2) is susceptible to? Develop a matrix or decision tree in order to compare the groups. How does the program impact the consumer’s “regret”? (Hint: Map the possible outcomes for the consumer.)
4. From either Toro’s or the insurance company’s perspective, how would you frame your argument to achieve your desired objective?
5. Was the program successful? Why or why not?
6. If you were Dick Pollick, would you repeat the program? Assume you manage the S’No Risk program and argue your case. To what biases are you susceptible in this case?

Bell, D. E. (1994). The Toro company s’no risk program. Harvard Business School. Case No. 9-185-017.

32

20

36

32

16

24

24

16

 Assignment 2 Grading Criteria Maximum Points Analyze the risks of the program from the  point of view of Toro, the insurance company, and consumers. Explain why the insurance company raises rates so much. Explain how you would estimate a fair insurance rate. From the perspective of the consumer, explain how the paybacks were structured and how they be might restructured to entice you at an equal or lower cost of insurance. Analyze how the program influences your decision to purchase. Identify the common decision traps to which each group in point is susceptible. Develop a matrix in order to compare the groups. Analyze how the program impacts the consumer’s “regret.” Choose either Toro’s or the insurance company’s perspective and discuss how you would frame your argument to achieve your desired objective. Evaluate the success of the program. Justify your answer. If you were Dick Pollick, explain whether you would or would not repeat the program. Assume you manage the S’No Risk program and argue your case. Explain to what biases you are susceptible in this case. Ensure academic writing, such as grammar, spelling, and attribution of sources, is appropriate. Total: 200

Exhibit

1

T

oro S’No Risk Program

## Exhibit 1

Product 7

8

/

79 79/

8

0 80

/

81 81/

82 82/83 83/84 Power Shovels – 107

,213 107,896 56,981 89,114 68,

141 Single-Stage 426,425 367,253 124

,615 111,472 102

,718 110,564 Two-Stage 53,700 73,483 17,335 19,683 18,374 31,702 Toro Company S’No Risk Program 9-185-

017 Copyright 1984 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College

## Exhibit 3

Toro S’No Risk Program

Exhibit 3
1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 Operating Data Net sales \$240,966 \$203,761 \$247,

049 \$399,771 \$357,766 \$223,853 \$153,910 \$

129

,978 \$131,626 \$114,592 Earnings (loss): Earnings (loss) from continuing operations \$

106 \$(8,699) \$(12,595) \$5,679 \$17,717 \$11,733 \$5,669 \$3,703 \$1,809 \$4,572 Percent of sales

(

4.3

)% (

5.1

)% 1.4

% 5.0

% 5.2

% 3.7

%

2.8

%

1.4%

4.0

% Per common share

and common stock equivalent \$(.27) \$(

1.8

6)

\$(

2.5

7) \$

0.9

7

\$

3.1

8

\$

2.1

8 \$

1.0

8

\$0

.72 \$

0.3

6 \$0.92 Net earnings (loss) \$572

\$(8,699)

\$(13,

068

) \$

5,272 \$17,126 \$11,

085 \$5,589 \$4,403 \$2,480 \$5,345

Per common share and common stock equivalent

\$(.19)

\$(1.86)

\$(

2.6

6) \$0.90 \$

3.0

7 \$

2.0

6 \$1.07

\$

0.8

6 \$

0.5

0 \$1.07

Dividends: On common stock outstanding

\$0 \$0

\$1,825 \$4,861 \$3,670 \$2,035 \$1,497 \$1,286 \$1,234 \$1,

091 Per common share – –

\$0.33 \$0.88 \$

0.6

8 \$0.39 \$

0.2

9 \$0.26 \$0.25 \$0.22 Return on: Beginning common shareholders’ equity (2.6)% (1

9.3

)% (

2

1.1

)% 7.2

%

3

1.5

%

2

4.5

% 14.0

% 12.1

% 7.1

% 1

7.3

% Average

common shareholders’ equity (

2.4

)% (

21.4

)% (2

3.9

)%

7.2%

2

7.6

% 22.6% 1

3.4

% 1

1.9

% 7.0

% 1

6.6

% Summary of Financial Position Current assets \$92,662 \$89,606 \$99,678 \$123,180 \$

139

,207 \$107,189 \$73,234 \$65,718 \$74,516 \$61,

063 Current liabilities \$38,925 \$43,107 \$37,635 \$42,676 \$68,040 \$50,

022 \$26,640 \$22,583 \$35,692 \$20,

172 Net working capital \$53,737 \$46,499 \$62,

043 \$80,504 \$71,167 \$57,167 \$46,594 \$43,

135 \$38,824 \$40,891 Non-current assets \$58,547 \$60,553 \$57,353 \$60,410 \$38,406 \$25,817 \$21,674 \$19,183 \$20,061 \$11,462 Total

assets \$

151

,209 \$150,

159 \$

157

,

031 \$183,590 \$177,613 \$133,

006 \$94,908 \$84,901 \$94,577 \$72,525 Non-current liabilities \$2,167 \$1,311 \$1,488 \$816 \$591

– – – – –
Capitalization Long-term debt \$41,858 \$47,414 \$49,288 \$55,315 \$39,250 \$28,650 \$23,

100 \$22,344 \$22,500 \$17,210 Redeemable preferred stock \$

14,829

\$14,829

\$14,830

\$14,830 – – – – – –
Common shareholders’ equity \$53,430 \$43,498 \$53,790 \$69,953 \$69,732 \$54,334 \$45,

168 \$39,974 \$36,385 \$35,

143 Total capitalization \$110,117 \$105,741 \$117,908 \$140,

098 \$

108

,982 \$82,984 \$68,268 \$62,318 \$58,885 \$52,353 Book value per common share 8.0

4 7.7

7 9.6

4 12.6

5 12.63 10.2

6 8.5

7 7.9

7 7.37 7.12 Stock Data Number of common shares outstanding (in thousands) 6,649 5,597 5,579 5,

528 5,521 5,298

5,272

5,

016 4,936

4,936
Number of shareholders 4,222 4,528 4,484 4,157 3,345 2,659 2,679 2,188 2,

127 1,921 Low bid price 5.3

75 5.6

25 9.1

25 12.625 1

6.2

50 6.5

00 5.8

75 5.250 4.000 3.5

00 High bid price 1

3.8

75 9.2

50 1

9.8

75 24.3

75 29.

125 1

6.1

25 7.250 8.6

25

6.500

8.2

50 Toro Company S’No Risk Program 9-185-017

Copyright 1984 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College

## Exhibit 6 -augmented

Exhibit 6
Toro S’No Risk Program

Actual

Snowfall Actual Sales (at retail value) before 12/10 S’no Risk Refund (pro forma) Station

Average
Reporting Station Code

Snowfall

79/80 80/81 81/82

82/83

83/84* 84/85*

79 80 81 82 79/80 80/81 81/82 82/83
*selected stations only Hanover, NH 64.0 N/A

N/A

68.0 42.5 6

2.3 60.8 Ithaca, NY 83.4 40.3 52.0 6

4.9 47.2 7

4.4 4

9.5 Blue Canyon, CA 004 2

4

1.6 2

32.5 1

4

6.4

N/A

38

5.7 86,

028 40,257 14,

006

40.6 72.6 18.2 34.4 3

6.3 281,457 110,471 31,900 31,757 55,236 Denver, CO 007 59.1 8

5.5 45.1 2

6.7 81.6 2,428,829 1,302,

086 342,171 24

2,671 171,085 Grand Junction, CO 009 26.1 21.9 5.9 1

5.4 1

4.8 11,157 7,214 3,

857 2,100 5,

050 Pueblo, CO 013 30.5 42.6 1

6.8

N/A

22.3 21,028 23,400 3,371 3,471 Bridgeport, CT

016 26.1 9.6

11.5 1

9.7 23.0 571,643 168,700 90,214 288,243 342,986 84,350 Hartford, CT

017 5

0.4 16.4 17.7 56.4

46.4

608,886 257,400 117,

957 376,900 365,332 154

,440 National Airport, DC 018 17.2

2

0.1

4.5

22.5

N/A

145

,171 25,900 16,014 42,543 18,

130 Pocatello, ID 021 4

0.7 35.5 29.7 66.4 58.5 149,228 52,143 31,

429 117,914 Chicago-O’Hare, IL

022

40.4

41.6

35.0 59.3 26.6 3

8.4 27.1 39,074,000 3,989,314 1,673,829 3,838,900 Moline, IL 025 30.8 37.0 1

8.9 45.3 24.8 2,382,

029 386,

529 175,

128 132

,857 Peoria, IL 026 25.6 2

7.5 23.8 4

6.9 19.1 1,307,529 179,214 62,814 8

6,757 Rockford, IL

028 35.0

33.9 21.1 41.0 28.0 1,967,143 166

,414 59,857 169

,829 Springfield, IL

029

2

4.7

30.5

17.5 50.4 10.4 836,843 190,271 95,186 404,129 202,

064 Evansville, IN 030 13.9 16.3

3.4

15.0 4.1 75,971 8,986 3,886 4,300 6,290 3,010 Fort Wayne, IN

031

3

3.2 2

8.7 35.7

8

1.2 14.9 610,571 225,200 83,900 582,086 291,043 Indianapolis, IN 033

2

2.9

24.8

17.3 58.2

7.1

41.9 2

7.8 1,360,586 312,171 78,000 783,229 469,937 South Bend, IN 036 72.3

66.4

85.0 135.2 35.3 2,654,286 423,557 210,986 499,700 249,850 Des Moines, IA 038 33.8

2

3.3 20.4 62.9 51.5 2,243,914 399,671 288,057 285,557 Dubuque, IA 039 43.5 3

6.0

2

1.7

N/A 21.4

488,714 70,443 31,400 66,843 33,432 Sioux City, IA

043

30.9 21.7 17.1 56.8 59.5 228,600 5

2,371 51,800 62,329 Waterloo, IA 045 31.4 28.2

21.9

3

9.9 38.9 561,243 146

,514 90,228 120,243 Concord, KS 046 21.6 2

8.3

6.4

20.6 3

4.6 1

65,343 65,157 14,329 9,386 39,

094 Dodge City, KS 047 18.9 35.6 11.8 19.2 33.0 38,443 19,557 2,

729 6,100 Goodland, KS 048 35.9 102.0 41.8 24.4 48.2 2,200

8

2,228

529
Topeka, KS

049 21.1

18.3

8.9

13.4 2

7.4

62,814

24,057 15,643 9,743 12,029 Wichita, KS

050

15.2 1

2.7

3.1 13.9

25.2 106,600 79,014 16,886 23,057 Lexington, KY 054

16.4

20.5

3.7 12.6 8.0

10,014

2,371 –

1,057 1,660

528
Louisville, KY 055

17.7 18.3 2.9

11.0

5.2

9,728 3,614

2,100 3,371 3,614

2,360 Caribou, ME 058 1

13.1 70.6

1

22.9 158

.8 82.9 261,371 68,729 29,571 106,843 Portland, ME 060 72.9 27.5 3

8.8 85.3

45.3

1,043,600 270,500 130,500 512,657 626,

160 Baltimore, MD 062

21.7

14.6

4.6

25.5

35.6

41,814 12,200 3,814 1

8,157 8,540 Boston, MA

063

42.0 12.7

22.3

61.8 32.7 775,800 258,186 34

6,457 900,043 465,480 Worcester, MA

064

70.4

26.6

43.0 73.9 63.4 163

,686 89,414 67,000 170

,686 98,212 Alpena, MI 065 84.6 78.2 82.1 89.3 73.7 178,900 46,371 9,343 32,057 Detroit, MI 066

40.7

26.9

38.4

74.0

2

0.0 51.8 55.1 5,353,000 1,256,386 1,016,114 4,111,600 Flint, MI 067

45.3

39.7 36.4 6

2.2 3

3.6 1,128,657 321,429 171,686 224,557 Grand Rapids, MI

068

74.1 48.5

51.5

74.5

35.9

2,951,729 490,286 257,271 477,529 238,764 Houghton Lake, MI 069 81.8

59.3 74.4

98.7

51.5

91

4,086 191,629 132,286 297,357 Lansing, MI 070 48.8 34.7 38.7 62.1 33.5 2,821,128 507,529 276,171 999,529 Marquette, MI

071

114.0 146.1 176.1 2

43.8 199.3 230,871 34,214 14,057 14,843 Muskegon, MI 072 98.4 75.4 107.6 173.9

35.5

2,88

8,143 471,800 348,071 600,957 360,574 Sault Ste. Marie, MI 073 1

13.8 10

8.1 141.7 168.6 87.0 7

4,957 19,371 6,000 26,486 Duluth, MN 076 76.7

55.1

36.5 95.7 96.5 351,057 106,471 66,386 190,886 53,236 International Falls, MN 077 61.0 6

4.2 45.8 89.9 46.0 51,943 14,614 5,071 22,586 Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN 078 47.4 53.3

21.1

95.0

74.4

4,379,943 1,160,014 926,057 982,871 580,007 Rochester, MN 080 45.6 55.2

25.6

62.7 62.6 401,957 144

,143 115

,129 114,514 St. Cloud, MN 081

43.8

44.2 16.5 55.4

53.3

682,971 208,114 120,442 231,329 124,868 Columbia, MO 083 23.4 31.1 17.6 31.9

4.0

20,686 7,371

857

3,571

3,571
Kansas City, MO 084 20.1 23.5

10.2

29.4

23.4

1,258,214 437,471 163,500 174,014 883 Springfield, MO

085

16.6

24.7 18.2

24.6

5.6

14,071 11,900

2,200

1,471 St. Louis, MO

086

20.0

25.6

18.1 36.6

7.4

1,211,214 269,143 61,771 777,229 466,337 Billings, MT 087 57.3 59.2 65.9 63.1 49.2 125,200 24,171 1

4,457 9,100 Glasgow, MT 089 27.6

17.1 17.1 42.0

30.4 14,629

4,957

1,

142

4,086
Great Falls, MT 090 58.3 34.3 39.2 100.3

45.6

81,600 13,971 1

5,086 22,443 Havre, MT

091 46.0 19.8

26.2

N/A

38.1 9,643 1,529

429

1,571 4,822 Helena, MT 092 48.3

40.3

16.9 56.7 3

9.0 178,686 109

,300 23,157 103

,900 76,510 Kalispell, MT 093 66.7 65.1 50.2 66.2 44.7 98,100 39,043 12,328 1

6,743 Miles City, MT

094 31.1

11.6

6.9

21.5 29.6 21,343 1,042

2,729

12,100 12,806

729
Missoula, MT 095 49.4 54.7 14.4 69.3 24.2

65,343

30,271

6,743

19,443 21,190 9,722 Grand Island, NE 096 30.0 36.8

19.2

36.7 40.2 106,071 50,200 20,886 46,429 Lincoln, NE 097

28.0

23.3 13.0 32.3 38.0 177,714 74,071 37,757 85,786 37,036 Norfolk, NE

098

29.8 22.2 10.1 47.1 51.6 113,843 31,929 13,457 38,200 19,157 North Platte, NE 099 30.6 66.3

3.9

25.1 25.7 65,443 36,043 19,300 15,914

36,043
Omaha, NE

100

31.0

20.5 9.1 24.3

31.5

39.9

19.0 1,006,714 506,957 14

4,814 164

,514 354,870 Scottsbluff, NE 101

38.8

78.5

21.5

15.7 45.2 55,143 24,614

6,757

2,014 3,378 Valentine, NE

102

31.2

53.3 16.4

47.9

18.9

16,643 11,685

957

2,000 Reno, NV

103 25.7

22.0

6.1

26.0

23.8

49,517 26,114 12,571 27,671 18,280 Concord, NH 104 64.8 27.0

54.7

90.0

38.7

491,314 189,985 110,486 436,843 245,657 Newark, NJ

106

28.1 14.3 19.5

30.8 31.0

62,328 7,971

5,086 8,143
Albany, NY

107 65.1

27.4 44.9 97.1 75.0 1,016,000 405,129 188,243 436,271 508,000 Binghampton, NY

108

84.5

56.8 59.3 81.6

81.0 413,443 170,643 54,571 53,186 Buffalo, NY

109

92.5 68.4 60.9 112

.4 52.4 4,803,414 1,208,386 533,229 558,443 Laguardia, NY

112 26.0

10.3 16.1

25.6

30.2 3,002,686 620,871 573,629 885,729 1,801,612 Rochester, NY

115

89.7 72.2 94.4 1

28.4 59.7 1,296,071 232,343 171,500 121

,143 Syracuse, NY 116 1

10.7 93.4 79.0 137

.1 66.0 1,044,314 247,971 118,757 103,686 Bismarck, ND 119

39.7 26.6

11.7 80.3 32.2 145,900 23,000 17,400 51,329 16,100 Fargo, ND

121

35.8

39.9 13.1

69.5 23.2 599,786

89,114

59,286 82,371 53,468 Williston, ND

124 38.1

25.4

19.1 70.4

42.3 101,314

14,829

12,242 31,071 Akron/Canton, OH

125 48.5

34.2 52.3 61.7

38.8

1,242,429 221,329 193,457 257,300 Cincinnati, OH

127

24.5 30.1

14.0 24.2 66.0

597,486 312,086 54,100 220,900 154,630 Cleveland, OH

128 53.3 38.7

60.5 100.5

38.0

2,434,443 669,871 521,814 1,032,214 Columbus, OH

129 28.4 16.6 30.1

35.1

11.5

1,372,500 255,700 120,842 176,886 88,443 Dayton, OH

130

29.0 24.9 19.6 42.9

5.5

2,120,229 588,600 191,371 305,414

305,414
Mansfield, OH

132 42.5 27.6

43.4 66.9

16.6

244,286 75,486 35,786 58,314 34,988 Toledo, OH 134

38.7 17.5

37.7 68.2 12.2 861,571 302,571 213,743 1,376,143 430,786 825,686 Youngstown, OH

135

56.3 32.8 49.1

62.1

39.4 856,971 243,286 213,486 121,157 Allentown, PA 136

32.2 21.9 25.5

43.9

45.8

451,586 83,357 43,829 134,557 Avoca-Wilkes Barre, PA

137

49.9

25.5

40.5 59.6

59.1

228,286 159,600 67,671 137,114 Erie, PA 138 82.4

55.2

89.4

7

1.3 41.2 793,786 114,329 129,529 49,257 Harrisburg, PA

139

35.4

14.6 24.9 36.0 35.4

767,800 127,929 68,857 216,943 383,900 Philadelphia, PA

141 21.7

20.9 15.4

25.4

37.9 818,343 180,886 93,300 129,843 Pittsburgh, PA

142

45.0 24.1 48.0

45.1 30.1

6,172,600 949,771 434,143 484,043 Williamsport, PA

143

43.6

20.5 41.6

54.5

17.6

97,471 46,843 18,957 96,957 48,736 48,479 Providence, RI

144

37.2

12.2 21.5 47.4

32.4 115,171 35,529 54,271 223,029 69,103 3,120 Aberdeen, SD

145

36.1 28.8

8.3 N/A 18.9

21,486

4,457

1,271 7,843 9,010 Huron, SD

146

38.5

22.2 10.4 59.7

27.3 14,857 12,871 10,743

4,814

3,272 Rapid City, SD 147

38.0

29.2

16.9

34.8

24.9 11,900

6,543 4,742 5,586 26,830 Sioux Falls, SD 148

38.8 29.2

10.8 42.4 70.5 98,371 38,329 21,328 28,957 Salt Lake City, UT

151

58.1 61.6

30.2

57.8 55.8 5

13,829 389,157

529

434,557 Burlington, VT

154

77.6 39.6 64.7 81.5 80.5 147,571 44,271 154,086 100,071 Norfolk, VA 156

8.2 41.9 0.3 6.1 3.4 – 0

32,900

529

265 Richmond, VA

157 14.6

38.6

1.0

21.2

29.4 528

3,257

528

4,929

3,257
Roanoke, VA

158 24.6

31.8

11.8 30.9 35.0 8,157

3,757

2,000 2,671

1,879 Spokane, WA

159 51.6

38.3 14.2

47.4 36.6

732,214 363,029 84,000 164,171 254,120 Walla Walla, WA

160 20.1

27.8

5.4

13.5

3.9

16,443 6,771

– 529

4,739

529
Yakima, WA 161

24.8

47.6 12.0

28.2 21.9

11,714 17,786 1,614 10,000 8,893 Green Bay, WI

163

44.8

38.1 30.2

54.0

39.7

769,171 199,543 63,529 118,886 La Crosse, WI

164

42.2 32.0 21.8

36.1

37.1 777,100 220,071 83,786 185,114 Madison, WI 165

40.4 31.0

26.5 50.0 41.4 2,506,143 406,871 242,414 262,643 Milwaukee, WI

166

47.0

47.0 41.9

67.2

38.1

9,253,143 1,703,529 786,300 1,035,286 Casper, WY

168

77.9 101.2 56.9 68.7 151.6 108,086 47,671 11,000

13,829
Cheyenne, WY

169

52.7 121.5

27.6 26.9

101.0 98,443 68,043 15,000 16,057 Lander, WY

170

104.0 124.4 67.6

41.8

165.7 78,214 33,914 12,914 14,086 Sheridan, WY

172

70.0 75.8 46.7 58.9

66.2

37,100 13,643 7,200 14,700

6,457
Averages

47.2

42.1

33.5

57.4 44.6

51.5 39.9

135,231,426 27,276,114 14,047,763 30,024,217 Percent Increase over Prior Yr. -20.6% 71.5% -22.3% 15.5

% -22.5% -79.8% -48.5%

11

3.7% Rebates 5,403,592 2,150,357 180,920 5,846,299 Rebates as % of Sales 4.0% 7.9% 1.3% 19.5% Season/

Year

79/80 80/81 81/82 82/83 83/84* 84/85* 79 80 81 82

Toro Company S’No Risk Program 9-185-017
Copyright 1984 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College

(other weather data added to Exhibit 6)

Averages for ’83 – ’85 beow only include spreadsheet data.

## BostonSnow

Year

0 0 0 0 T

3.4

17.3 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0.3

11.6 8.3 5.2 T T 0 49.1

0 0 0 0 7.5

3.9

0 0

0 0 0 0 T 5.7 10.4 0.3 27.3 6.3 0 0 50.0

0 0 0 0 T 1.1 0.5 3.7 T T 0 0 5.3

0 0 0 0 0.3 9.0 17.5 T 7.9 T 0 0 34.7

0 0 0 T T 0.8 14.3 12.6 T 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0.3 1.2 18.2

4.7 T 0 0 45.1

0 0 0 0 6.0

3.2

9.6 0 0 0 48.8

0 0 0 0 0.8 19.2 20.5 9.0 0.1 4.2 0 0

0 0 0 0 1.5 T 15.4

5.6 0 0 0 40.5

0 0 0 0

6.0 9.6 9.0 4.3 0 0 0 38.9

0 0 0 0 T 24.4 1.1

15.0 9.5 0 0

0 0 0 0.5 4.8 2.3 3.9 3.3 9.5 T 0 0 24.3

0 0 0 0 0.5 5.5 26.0 4.0 4.5 T 0 0 40.5 0.941

0 0 0 0 0

12.0 11.5 15.0 0 0

0 0 0 0 T 6.5 13.1 9.6 12.0 T T 0 41.2

0 0 0 0 4.8 0 4.5 7.5 2.2 0 0 0 19.0

0 0 0 0 T 4.0 8.5 6.3 20.3 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 T

13.8 16.2 T 0 0 59.3

0 0 0 T 0 T 12.0 11.5 20.0 0 0 0 43.5

0 0 0 0 3.0 2.0 14.6 35.3 4.5 7.9 0 0

0 0 0 0 0.4 18.5 15.0 21.6 T 8.5 0 0 64.0

0 0 0 0 6.7 13.5 13.9 8.8 3.8 0.5 0 0 47.2

0 0 0 0 T 5.2 9.5 9.5 14.5 0.2 0 0 38.9 0.904

0 0 0 0 2.2 8.6 18.2

3.3 T 0 0

0 0 0 0 8.1 7.8 16.3 11.5 6.0 2.2 0 0

0 0 0 0

7.7 6.1 30.2 9.3 T 0 0

0 0 0 T 0.1 T 8.3 9.0 7.6 0 T 0

0 0 0 0 0.1 0.8 7.8 8.8 T 0 0 0 17.5

0 0 0 0 0 12.6 11.0 13.0 7.5 T 0 0

0 0 0 T T

4.2

0.3 T 0 0 42.0

1.0

9999999999998

0 0 0 0 0

35.7 16.5 8.9 1.4 0 0

5048852990114

0 0 0 T T 12.0

8.0 3.6 T 0 0 44.9

1.0

0 0 0 0 T 3.5 6.1 6.1 21.9 T 0 0

0 0 0 0 1.1 15.5 16.1 25.5 6.6 3.1 T 0

0 0 0 0 0 7.0 4.3 9.3 4.8 0.8 0 0 26.2

Normal 0.09474208473500115

0 0 0 0 T 3.5

2.3 3.1 0 0 0 20.1

0 0 0 T T 12.3

12.6 0.2 0 0 0 37.0

0 0 0 0 1.4 8.2 0.7 19.5 3.1 7.7 0 0 40.6

0 0 0 0 0.3 3.7 17.8 0.2 9.1 0.5 0 0

0 0 0 0 0.3 9.2 0.3 7.7 0.5 1.4 0 0

0 0 0 0.4 T 0.9 10.3 20.6 5.2 2.0 0 0 39.4

0 0 0 T T 4.1 7.0 5.1 T 6.1 0 0 22.3

0 0 0 0 0.2 6.7 4.8

33.0 4.2 0 0

0 0 0 0 0.7 9.5 13.1 8.9

9.1 T 0

0 0 0 0 2.2 7.0 13.8 5.7

4.2 0 0

0 0 0 0 T 8.4 4.1 6.2 2.4 T 0 0 21.1

0 0 0 0 0.2 2.9 24.8 32.5 11.0 2.0 T 0

0 0 0 0 1.8 5.5 3.6 23.2 T T 0 0

0 0 0 0 1.6 4.4 2.7 15.5 10.1 3.3 0 0 37.6 0.874

0 0 0 0 0.9 14.7 28.0 14.3 10.6 T 0 0

0 0 0 0 T 3.0 8.5 10.4 7.4 3.0 0 0 32.3

0 0 0 0 0.5 0.2 20.7 T T T 0 0 21.4

0 0 0 T T 0.5 7.4 27.6 2.8 T 0 0 38.3

0 0 0 0 T 24.2 16.1 19.2 0.6 0.2 0 0

0 0 0 0 0.5 T 5.1 8.7 6.5 T 0 0

0 0 0 T 1.4 4.6 13.5 21.4 4.0 0.6 0 0

0 0 0 0 3.0 10.6 7.7 9.5 0.6 T 0 0 31.4

0 0 0 T 0.1 7.7 11.7 14.0 7.3 T 0 0

0 0 0 0 T 1.4 6.2 10.8 5.8 T 0 0 24.2

0 0 0 0 T 8.6 1.3 20.6 5.1 5.0 0 0 40.6 0.944

0 0 0 0 2.9

0.8

T 0 0 62.7

0 0 0 T T 1.6

13.1 2.1 1.9 0 0

0 0 0 0 1.0 0.3 12.7 12.6 2.9 T 0 0

0 0 0 0 4.4 0.7 2.0 T 1.9 T 0 0 9.0

0 0 0 0 0.3 4.6 29.6 10.0 0.3 0.9 0 0 45.7 1.062

0 0 0 0 10.0 1.3 7.5 4.7 16.5 0.2 0 0 40.2

0 0 0 0 1.0 6.5 4.6 23.8 0.3 1.5 0 0 37.7

0 0 0 T 8.5 4.5 20.4 1.3 13.1 0 T 0

0 0 0 T T 0.2 8.2 6.2 7.9 1.5 0 0

0 0 0 0 T 6.8

4.5 8.0 T 0 0 45.7 1.062

0 0 0 0 T 0.3 5.1 9.6 12.7 T 0 0 27.7 0.644

0 0 0 0 1.2 6.9 24.3

0.5 0 T 0 59.2

0 0 0 0 4.9 24.6 9.8 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0

0 0 0 0 T 4.9 4.0 9.0 0.9 0.6 0 0 19.4 0.451

0 0 0 0 1.1

32.5

11.8 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1.1 5.5 13.7 6.9 9.9 0 0 0 37.1

0 0 0 0 1.4 2.3 7.9 15.2 5.1 T 0 0 31.9

0 0 0 0 T 2.7 13.9 9.2 3.9 0 0 0 29.7

0 0 0 0 T 8.4 10.7 19.1 1.4 0 0 0 39.6

0 0 0 T T 2.4

11.4 0.2 2.2 T 0 29.8

0 0 0 0 T T 19.2 1.9 0.4 2.1 0 0

0 0 0 0 T 10.3 0.9 6.5 7.0 0.4 0 0 25.1

0 0 0 0 2.5 1.8 7.7 14.5 31.2 3.2 0 0 60.9

0 0 0 0 0.6 15.4 20.6 2.8 11.5 1.1 0 0 52.0

0 0 0 T 0.1 T 6.6

12.0 2.1 T 0 44.7

0 0 0 0 0.1 4.6 4.1 10.7 14.6 T 0 0 34.1 0.793

0 0 0 0 0.6 5.5 10.2 2.3 22.3 T 0 0

0 0 0 T T 16.9

14.9 9.0 2.0 0 0

0 0 0 T 0.9 11.4 2.5

1.1 0.1 0 0 44.7 1.039

0 0 0 T 0.9 5.3 6.5 4.6 13.6 T 0 0 30.9

0 0 0 T 0 17.7 14.4 23.2 7.7 T 0 0

0 0 0 T T 12.2 22.2 4.7 9.7 1.6 0 0 50.4

0 0 0 0 T 2.3 26.4 12.1 3.3 T T 0 44.1 1.025

0 0 0 0 0 9.9 0.5 23.5 22.9 3.3 T 0

0 0 0 0 2.2 14.7 17.7 3.4 6.8 0 0 0 44.8

0 0 0 0 0.4 5.1 0.9

6.1 T 0 0 53.8 1.250

0 0 0 T T 12.6 7.4 10.5 18.2 0.1 0 0 48.8 1.134

0 0 0 T T

12.0 8.1 7.4 1.9 0 0 57.3

0 0 0 0 2.8 7.9 7.8 16.5 12.1 0.4 0 0

0 0 0 T 0.6 3.3 3.6 2.5 0.3 T 0 0 10.3

0 0 0 0 0 T 16.0 17.8 0.1 3.0 0 0

0 0 0 0 2.0 3.6 2.2 17.0 1.8 1.0 0 0 27.6

0 0 0 T 0.1

15.0 1.4 10.8 T 0 0

0 0 0 0 1.0 17.2 23.2 5.9 10.7 T 0.5 0 58.5

0 0 0 0 0.7 5.2 35.9

16.1 T 0 0

0 0 0 0 4.2 5.8 10.5 6.6 T 0.4 0 0 27.5

0 0 0 0.2 T 2.0 0.4 6.5 3.6 T 0 0 12.7

0 0 0 0 2.4 5.6 11.9 1.9 0.5 0 0 0 22.3 0.518

0 0 0 0 T 17.6

7.6 5.3

0 0 61.8

0 0 0 0 T 5.5 4.7 22.3 0.2 T 0 0 32.7

0 0 0 0 T 2.6 21.1 0.3 19.0 T 0 0 43.0 0.999

0 0 0 0 T 3.7 7.0 10.2 3.7 2.0 0 0 26.6

0 0 0 0 3.0 1.3 0.8 10.4 2.6 T 0 0 18.1

0 0 0 0 3.5 3.4 24.3 3.7 3.5 4.1 0 0 42.5

0 0 0 0 9.0 7.5 17.0

5.0 T 0 0

0 0 0 T 0 3.7 1.5 6.7 3.2 0.4 0 0 15.5

0 0 0 0 4.5 6.2 7.0 16.9 4.1 0.5 0 0 39.2

0 0 0 0 T 1.2 11.7 2.8 3.4 0 0 0 19.1 0.444

0 0 0 0 T 5.8 0.4 4.0 10.8 1.0 0 0 22.0

0 0 0 0 0.6 9.7 12.9 19.6 38.9 2.2 0 0

0 0 0 0 T 11.6

14.8 0 0 0

0 T 0 0 0.1 1.5 4.4 8.5 0.4 T 0 0 14.9

0 0 0 0 4.1 24.1

15.5

7.3 0 0 107.6

0 0 0 0 1.8 5.0 9.7 4.8 5.2

0 0

 Boston MA Monthly Snowfall Data July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May June total RelTotal 1871-72 12.3 11.3 44.3 1.030 1872-73 23.7 1.141 1873-74 13.7 20.3 22.7 28.3 96.4 2.241 1874-75 1.162 1875-76 0.123 1876-77 0.807 1877-78 27.7 0.644 1878-79 20.7 1.048 1879-80 18.6 11.4 1.134 1880-81 53.8 1.250 1881-82 17.9 0.941 1882-83 10.0 0.904 1883-84 12.5 62.5 1.453 1884-85 0.565 1885-86 1886-87 18.5 16.0 73.0 1.697 1887-88 0.958 1888-89 0.442 1889-90 39.1 0.909 1890-91 14.5 14.8 1.378 1891-92 1.011 1892-93 67.3 1.564 1893-94 1.487 1894-95 1.097 1895-96 1896-97 10.9 43.2 1.004 1897-98 51.9 1.206 1898-99 17.8 71.1 1.653 1899-00 25.0 0.581 1900-01 0.407 1901-02 44.1 1.025 1902-03 22.8 14.7 0.976 Data Series: mean 0.999 1903-04 10.6 73.1 1.699 Chi-squared p-value: 0.09474208473500115 std 0.444 1904-05 21.3 1.044 Distribution: 1905-06 37.6 0.874 Best fit: Normal 1906-07 67.9 1.578 1907-08 0.609 1908-09 11.2 0.467 Lognormal 0.05798135003028113 1909-10 11.9 0.860 1910-11 0.944 1911-12 31.6 0.734 1912-13 19.4 0.451 1913-14 0.916 1914-15 0.518 1915-16 30.3 79.2 1.841 1916-17 12.9 54.2 1.260 1917-18 12.8 45.7 1.062 1918-19 0.490 1919-20 73.4 1.706 1920-21 34.1 0.793 1921-22 1922-23 68.5 1.592 1923-24 0.751 1924-25 0.497 1925-26 0.890 1926-27 60.3 1.401 1927-28 20.8 0.483 1928-29 45.5 1.058 1929-30 0.730 1930-31 40.8 0.948 1931-32 0.562 1932-33 1933-34 15.6 32.9 10.5 1.457 1934-35 26.7 45.4 1.055 1935-36 29.5 0.686 1936-37 0.209 1937-38 1938-39 0.934 1939-40 0.876 1940-41 47.8 1.111 1941-42 24.0 0.558 1942-43 26.4 1943-44 1944-45 26.3 1.376 1945-46 50.8 1.181 1946-47 1947-48 26.8 17.0 89.2 2.073 1948-49 0.862 1949-50 0.741 1950-51 0.690 1951-52 0.920 1952-53 13.6 0.693 1953-54 23.6 0.549 1954-55 0.583 1955-56 1.415 1956-57 1.209 1957-58 23.9 1.039 1958-59 1959-60 40.9 0.951 1960-61 18.7 61.5 1.429 1961-62 28.7 1962-63 0.718 1963-64 63.0 1.464 1964-65 1.171 1965-66 1966-67 60.1 1.397 1967-68 1.041 1968-69 41.3 1969-70 1970-71 27.9 1.332 1971-72 47.5 1.104 1972-73 0.239 1973-74 36.9 0.858 1974-75 0.641 1975-76 19.3 46.6 1.083 1976-77 1.360 1977-78 27.2 85.1 1.978 1978-79 0.639 1979-80 0.295 1980-81 1981-82 18.0 13.3 1.436 1982-83 0.760 1983-84 1984-85 0.618 1985-86 0.421 1986-87 0.988 1987-88 14.1 52.6 1.223 1988-89 0.360 1989-90 0.911 1990-91 1991-92 0.511 1992-93 83.9 1.950 1993-94 33.7 36.2 96.3 2.238 1994-95 0.346 1995-96 39.8 16.8 2.501 1996-97 22.4 48.9 1.137 43.02539682539684

## KansasCitySnow

Total

0.0 1.0 0.5 10.9

0.0 6.5 4.8 0.5 9.8 6.3 0.0 1.3 0.0 29.2

0.0 0.0 0.7 5.3 11.4

0.7 1.0 0.0 19.1

0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 1.3 0.7 2.4 Tr 0.0 6.9

0.0 0.0 0.5 2.7 1.4 10.3 0.5 2.6 0.0 18.0

0.0 Tr 4.1 0.8 12.0 15.7 1.1 0.6 0.0 34.3

0.0 0.0 4.6 0.2 Tr 2.0 0.5 2.8 0.0 10.1

0.0 0.0 1.7 1.6 12.1 Tr 1.2 Tr 0.0 16.6

0.0 0.0 Tr 6.8 1.0 2.1 9.6 0.0 0.0 19.5

0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 6.5 Tr 0.0 0.0 6.9 0.33059340659340664

0.0 Tr 2.0 11.9 0.9 9.3 2.2 0.0 0.0 26.3

0.0 Tr 0.6 1.2 10.5 5.0 Tr 0.0 0.0 17.3

0.0 0.0 3.5 5.4 Tr 4.5 Tr Tr 0.0 13.4

0.0 0.0 0.4 7.0 11.8 6.9 0.3 0.0 0.0 26.4

0.0 0.0 0.7

1.3 0.5 8.7 0.0 0.0 24.4

0.0 0.0 0.5 0.7 6.3 7.4 1.3 7.2 0.0 23.4

0.0 0.0 0.1 5.3 6.0 12.7 4.0 1.3 0.0 29.4

0.0 Tr Tr 3.2 4.0 2.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 10.2

0.0 0.0 Tr Tr 5.4 12.7 5.4 0.0 0.0 23.5

0.0 0.0 0.2 11.7 13.3 1.5 4.7 2.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 Tr 1.2 3.9 11.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.5

0.0 Tr 0.8 0.2 14.2 0.3 Tr 0.6 0.0 16.1

0.0 0.0 7.1 2.8 5.2 5.2 1.5 0.0 0.0 21.8

0.0 0.0 1.4 1.2 5.4 4.6 5.9 2.3 0.0 20.8

0.0 0.0 Tr 8.0 4.8 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.0 13.9

0.0 0.0 3.6 3.1 10.9 0.3 0.0 1.3 0.0 19.2

0.0 0.0 0.2 1.0 3.0 2.9 3.3 Tr 0.0 10.4

0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6 1.3 8.2 7.4 0.0 0.0 20.5

0.0 0.0 0.6 3.8 2.5 2.2 1.0 4.6 0.0 14.7

0.0 0.0 3.2 0.8 6.0 1.6 2.8 0.0 0.0 14.4

0.0 0.0 0.2 7.0 2.8 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.7

0.0 0.0 0.0 7.2 7.6 0.9 1.1 0.0 0.0 16.8

0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 0.0 3.7 3.5 0.0 0.0 9.7

0.0 0.0 2.1 6.2 4.1 7.7 9.6 0.0 0.0 29.7

0.0 0.0 0.0 4.3 7.5 8.5 5.3 0.0 0.0 25.6

Data Series: 1.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 5.1 5.9 3.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 14.6

Chi-squared p-value:

0.0 0.0 0.2 16.6 30.5 6.2 0.4 1.1 0.0

Distribution:

mean

0.0 0.0 0.1 6.1 0.7 1.4 0.7 3.7 0.0 12.7 0.6084835164835165 Best fit: Lognormal

0.0 0.0 0.9 0.8 5.1 20.7

1.7 0.0 58.5

0.0 0.0 4.9 4.7 13.2 0.6 6.1 0.9 0.0 30.4

Normal

0.0 0.0 Tr 5.5 16.5 0.9 8.3 0.0 0.0 31.2

Lognormal 0.4485788405947457

0.0 0.0 Tr 3.9 6.9 Tr Tr 2.9 0.0 13.7

0.0 0.0 0.8 3.8 8.2 8.4 4.4 Tr 0.0 25.6 1.2265494505494507

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.7 7.5 7.0 Tr 0.0

0.0 0.0 1.8 8.8 1.1 0.2 0.0 Tr 0.0 11.9

0.0 0.0 4.6 4.2 2.7 0.0 10.8 Tr 0.0 22.3

0.0 0.1 0.3 3.5 4.4 1.8

Tr 0.0 21.2

0.0 0.0 0.2 1.0 3.5 3.1 0.2 1.0 0.0 9.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 1.4 0.5 0.2 Tr 0.0 5.5

0.0 0.0 0.0 6.9 13.7 2.2 4.0 Tr 0.0 26.8

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 5.7 4.4 7.4 0.0 0.0 17.7

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 6.6 5.4 8.6 Tr 0.0 20.9

0.0 0.0 0.5 14.8 0.8 2.7 Tr 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 7.5 1.0 3.6 3.2 Tr 0.0

0.0 0.0 1.4 9.7 0.8 8.0 1.5 Tr 0.0 21.4

0.0 0.0 0.1 10.0 3.4 0.0 6.0 Tr 0.0 19.5 0.9342857142857144

0.0 0.0 2.0 3.9 0.6 5.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.6

0.0 0.0 2.6 1.2 11.8 0.5 5.6 0.0 0.0 21.7

0.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 12.8 4.0 0.6 0.8 0.0 22.3 1.0684395604395607

0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 6.1 5.8 0.3 0.1 0.0 14.3

0.0 0.0 3.4 0.5 0.2 4.9 0.1 7.0 0.0 16.1 0.7713846153846156

0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 3.6 3.9 4.2 Tr 0.0

0.0 0.0 1.1 1.0 5.9 5.7 0.0 1.1 0.0 14.8

0.0 0.0 5.0 4.4 0.1 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.0 10.7

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 5.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 7.2

0.0 0.0 6.4 6.4 2.5 6.6 2.6 2.0 0.0 26.5

0.0 0.0 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.6 4.7 0.0 0.0 14.1

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 14.1 Tr 0.0 14.6 0.6995164835164837

0.0 0.0 0.1 2.7 22.2 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.2

0.0 0.0 0.6 6.1 10.2 10.2 0.0 Tr 0.0 27.1

0.0 0.0 1.0 8.5 1.0 2.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 14.0

0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 8.7 0.4 3.1 0.0 0.0 13.3

0.0 0.5 3.0 5.0 4.2 10.8

6.5 0.0 42.4

0.0 0.0 0.2 7.1 2.4 1.2 2.2 0.0 0.0 13.1

0.0 0.0 9.1 0.6 6.4 10.6 10.4 0.0 0.0 37.1

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 1.2 2.7 Tr 0.0 4.5

0.0 0.0 0.5 4.8 1.4 4.8 1.1 0.0 0.0 12.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 4.8 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.0 7.3

0.0 0.0 2.6 0.5 0.4 0.6 2.0 7.0 0.0 13.1 0.6276483516483518

0.0 0.0 3.4 16.4 1.0 13.1 0.0 Tr 0.0 33.9

0.0 0.8 0.1 5.3 10.3 0.1 0.0 2.0 0.0 18.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.8 0.8 3.2 2.0 0.0 9.7 0.46474725274725276

0.0 0.0 0.0 5.2 9.8 6.0 2.7 4.1 0.0 27.8

0.0 0.0 0.0 11.8 5.5 6.5 13.5 Tr 0.0

0.0 3.0 0.0 4.0 0.1 14.3 5.1 0.0 0.0 26.5 1.2696703296703298

0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 8.3 4.2 0.0 0.0 17.6

0.0 0.0 2.6 3.3 5.9 15.0 40.2 Tr 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.2 1.3 0.1 12.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 14.1 0.6755604395604397

0.0 0.0 0.0 8.9 6.1 1.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 16.6 0.7953406593406596

0.0 3.0 0.5 0.0 5.3 3.4 1.0 Tr 0.0 13.2

0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6 0.1 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.6

0.0 0.0 6.0 0.1 2.5 7.1 0.0 0.6 1.7 18.0 0.8624175824175826

0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 6.3 2.0 13.1 0.0 0.0 23.4 1.1211428571428572

0.0 0.0 0.0 11.8 4.4 13.6 0.0 1.2 0.0 31.0

0.0 0.0 0.6 1.8 3.3 0.5 1.8 3.0 0.0 11.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.6 9.7 3.0 3.6 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.1 4.3 8.3 6.6 4.8 0.0 0.0 24.1

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.2 13.8 9.3 6.0 0.0 30.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 3.9 0.0

0.2 Tr 0.0 22.5

0.0 5.8 7.4 9.8 0.9 4.6 4.9 5.2 0.0 38.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 11.3 21.9 1.6 1.5 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 15.4 1.2 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 3.8 11.5 6.3 3.1 4.6 0.0 0.0 29.3

0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 3.3 2.9 5.1 0.4 0.0 13.7 0.6563956043956045

0.0 0.0 2.5 3.2 1.7 17.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 24.5

0.0 0.0 3.0 9.7 2.3 10.4 8.0 Tr 0.0 33.4 1.6002637362637364

0.0 0.0 2.0 3.1 9.8 0.0 5.7 Tr 0.0 20.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 4.8 4.6 5.1 11.8 0.0 0.0 26.3 1.2600879120879123

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.3 4.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 13.3 0.6372307692307694

0.0 0.0 0.4 2.0 1.1 6.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.1 0.48391208791208795

 Kansas City MO Monthly Snowfall Data SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY 1997/1998 1996/1997 1.3990329670329673 1995/1996 Tr 0.9151208791208794 1994/1995 0.33059340659340664 1993/1994 0.8624175824175826 1992/1993 1.6433846153846154 1991/1992 0.48391208791208795 1990/1991 0.7953406593406596 1989/1990 0.9342857142857144 1988/1989 1987/1988 1.2600879120879123 1986/1987 0.8288791208791211 1985/1986 0.6420219780219781 1984/1985 1.264879120879121 1983/1984 13.2 1.1690549450549452 1982/1983 1.1211428571428572 1981/1982 1.4086153846153848 1980/1981 0.48870329670329676 1979/1980 1.1259340659340662 1978/1979 33.4 1.6002637362637364 1977/1978 0.7905494505494507 1976/1977 0.7713846153846156 1975/1976 1.0444835164835167 1974/1975 0.9965714285714288 1973/1974 0.6659780219780221 1972/1973 0.919912087912088 1971/1972 0.4982857142857144 1970/1971 0.9821978021978024 1969/1970 0.7043076923076924 1968/1969 0.689934065934066 1967/1968 0.6084835164835165 1966/1967 0.8049230769230771 1965/1966 0.46474725274725276 1964/1965 1.422989010989011 1963/1964 1.2265494505494507 1962/1963 0.6995164835164837 0.4485788405947457 1961/1962 55.0 2.6351648351648356 1.00300555025117 0.9999999999999998 1960/1961 stdev 0.5060203945291236 1959/1960 29.3 2.8028571428571434 1958/1959 1.4565274725274726 0.009806001007747396 1957/1958 1.494857142857143 1956/1957 0.6563956043956045 1955/1956 1954/1955 20.2 0.9678241758241759 1953/1954 0.5701538461538462 1952/1953 1.0684395604395607 1951/1952 11.1 1.015736263736264 1950/1951 0.4312087912087913 1949/1950 0.26351648351648355 1948/1949 1.2840439560439563 1947/1948 0.8480439560439561 1946/1947 1.0013626373626374 1945/1946 18.8 0.9007472527472529 1944/1945 15.3 0.7330549450549452 1943/1944 1.0253186813186814 1942/1943 1941/1942 0.5557802197802199 1940/1941 1.039692307692308 1939/1940 1938/1939 0.6851428571428573 1937/1938 1936/1937 15.9 0.7618021978021979 1935/1936 0.7090989010989013 1934/1935 0.5126593406593407 1933/1934 0.344967032967033 1932/1933 1.2696703296703298 1931/1932 0.6755604395604397 1930/1931 1929/1930 1.2552967032967035 1928/1929 1.2984175824175828 1927/1928 0.6707692307692309 1926/1927 0.6372307692307694 1925/1926 12.4 2.031472527472528 1924/1925 0.6276483516483518 1923/1924 1.777538461538462 1922/1923 0.21560439560439565 1921/1922 0.6036923076923078 1920/1921 0.34975824175824183 1919/1920 1918/1919 1.6242197802197804 1917/1918 0.8911648351648354 1916/1917 1915/1916 1.3319560439560443 1914/1915 37.3 1.7871208791208792 1913/1914 1912/1913 0.8432527472527475 1911/1912 67.0 3.210109890109891 1910/1911 1909/1910 1908/1909 0.6324395604395605 1907/1908 0.4120439560439561 1906/1907 1905/1906 1904/1905 1.4852747252747256 1903/1904 0.5270329670329671 1902/1903 25.3 1.2121758241758245 1901/1902 1.154681318681319 1900/1901 1.4373626373626376 1899/1900 18.4 1.0780219780219782 1898/1899 1.8494065934065937 1897/1898 36.3 1.7392087912087912 1896/1897 28.9 1.3846593406593408 1895/1896 1.403824175824176 1894/1895 1893/1894 1.173846153846154 1892/1893 1891/1892 0.9869890109890113 1890/1891 1889/1890 1888/1889 20.87155963302752

0.1

0.5

0.9

1.3

1.7

2.1

2.5

2.9

3.3

1

0.0

0.4

0.8

1.2

0.10.50.91.31.72.12.52.93.3

1
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2

0.1

0.5

0.9

1.3

1.7

2.1

2.5

2.9

3.3

3.7

4.1

1

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.10.50.91.31.72.12.52.93.33.74.1

1
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5