The S’No Risk Program

In the mid-eighties, the

  • Toro
  • company launched a promotion in which snowblower purchasers could refund a portion of their purchase if the next winter brought modest snowfalls. The amount of their refund was tied to snowfall amounts and so, the program was prey to certain risks and uncertainties. You will explore those risks and choices from a variety of perspectives.

     

    Review the case study “The Toro Company S’No Risk Program” by David E. Bell (1994) from this module’s assigned readings.

    Click here to download the Toro Excel worksheet

    which contains data exhibits from the article; the exhibit titles match the tabs long the bottom of the worksheet. Use this tool to conduct your data analysis for this assignment.

    Analyze the risks of the program from the following points of view:

      Toro

    1. The insurance company
    2. The consumers

    Write about 6 page analysis paper that addresses the following:

    1. Why did the insurance company raise the rates so much? How would you estimate a fair insurance rate?
    2. From the perspective of the consumer, how were the paybacks structured and how might they be restructured to entice you at an equal or lower cost of insurance? How does the program influence your decision to purchase?
    3. What are the common decision traps which each group in point (2) is susceptible to? Develop a matrix or decision tree in order to compare the groups. How does the program impact the consumer’s “regret”? (Hint: Map the possible outcomes for the consumer)
    4. From either Toro’s or the insurance company’s perspective, how would you frame your argument to achieve your desired objective?
    5. Was the program successful? Why or why not?
    6. If you were Dick Pollick, would you repeat the program? Assume you manage the S’No Risk program and argue your case. To what biases are you susceptible in this case?

    Exhibit

    1

    T

    oro S’No Risk Program

    Exhibit 1

    Product 7

    8

    /

    79 79/

    8

    0 80

    /

    81 81/

    82 82/83 83/84 Power Shovels – 107

    ,213 107,896 56,981 89,114 68,

    141 Single-Stage 426,425 367,253 124

    ,615 111,472 102

    ,718 110,564 Two-Stage 53,700 73,483 17,335 19,683 18,374 31,702 Toro Company S’No Risk Program 9-185-

    017 Copyright 1984 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College

    Exhibit 3

    Toro S’No Risk Program

    Exhibit 3
    1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 Operating Data Net sales $240,966 $203,761 $247,

    049 $399,771 $357,766 $223,853 $153,910 $

    129

    ,978 $131,626 $114,592 Earnings (loss): Earnings (loss) from continuing operations $

    106 $(8,699) $(12,595) $5,679 $17,717 $11,733 $5,669 $3,703 $1,809 $4,572 Percent of sales

    (

    4.3

    )% (

    5.1

    )% 1.4

    % 5.0

    % 5.2

    % 3.7

    %

    2.8

    %

    1.4%

    4.0

    % Per common share

    and common stock equivalent $(.27) $(

    1.8

    6)

    $(

    2.5

    7) $

    0.9

    7

    $

    3.1

    8

    $

    2.1

    8 $

    1.0

    8

    $0

    .72 $

    0.3

    6 $0.92 Net earnings (loss) $572

    $(8,699)

    $(13,

    068

    ) $

    5,272 $17,126 $11,

    085 $5,589 $4,403 $2,480 $5,345

    Per common share and common stock equivalent

    $(.19)

    $(1.86)

    $(

    2.6

    6) $0.90 $

    3.0

    7 $

    2.0

    6 $1.07

    $

    0.8

    6 $

    0.5

    0 $1.07

    Dividends: On common stock outstanding

    $0 $0

    $1,825 $4,861 $3,670 $2,035 $1,497 $1,286 $1,234 $1,

    091 Per common share – –

    $0.33 $0.88 $

    0.6

    8 $0.39 $

    0.2

    9 $0.26 $0.25 $0.22 Return on: Beginning common shareholders’ equity (2.6)% (1

    9.3

    )% (

    2

    1.1

    )% 7.2

    %

    3

    1.5

    %

    2

    4.5

    % 14.0

    % 12.1

    % 7.1

    % 1

    7.3

    % Average

    common shareholders’ equity (

    2.4

    )% (

    21.4

    )% (2

    3.9

    )%

    7.2%

    2

    7.6

    % 22.6% 1

    3.4

    % 1

    1.9

    % 7.0

    % 1

    6.6

    % Summary of Financial Position Current assets $92,662 $89,606 $99,678 $123,180 $

    139

    ,207 $107,189 $73,234 $65,718 $74,516 $61,

    063 Current liabilities $38,925 $43,107 $37,635 $42,676 $68,040 $50,

    022 $26,640 $22,583 $35,692 $20,

    172 Net working capital $53,737 $46,499 $62,

    043 $80,504 $71,167 $57,167 $46,594 $43,

    135 $38,824 $40,891 Non-current assets $58,547 $60,553 $57,353 $60,410 $38,406 $25,817 $21,674 $19,183 $20,061 $11,462 Total

    assets $

    151

    ,209 $150,

    159 $

    157

    ,

    031 $183,590 $177,613 $133,

    006 $94,908 $84,901 $94,577 $72,525 Non-current liabilities $2,167 $1,311 $1,488 $816 $591

    – – – – –
    Capitalization Long-term debt $41,858 $47,414 $49,288 $55,315 $39,250 $28,650 $23,

    100 $22,344 $22,500 $17,210 Redeemable preferred stock $

    14,829

    $14,829

    $14,830

    $14,830 – – – – – –
    Common shareholders’ equity $53,430 $43,498 $53,790 $69,953 $69,732 $54,334 $45,

    168 $39,974 $36,385 $35,

    143 Total capitalization $110,117 $105,741 $117,908 $140,

    098 $

    108

    ,982 $82,984 $68,268 $62,318 $58,885 $52,353 Book value per common share 8.0

    4 7.7

    7 9.6

    4 12.6

    5 12.63 10.2

    6 8.5

    7 7.9

    7 7.37 7.12 Stock Data Number of common shares outstanding (in thousands) 6,649 5,597 5,579 5,

    528 5,521 5,298

    5,272

    5,

    016 4,936

    4,936
    Number of shareholders 4,222 4,528 4,484 4,157 3,345 2,659 2,679 2,188 2,

    127 1,921 Low bid price 5.3

    75 5.6

    25 9.1

    25 12.625 1

    6.2

    50 6.5

    00 5.8

    75 5.250 4.000 3.5

    00 High bid price 1

    3.8

    75 9.2

    50 1

    9.8

    75 24.3

    75 29.

    125 1

    6.1

    25 7.250 8.6

    25

    6.500

    8.2

    50 Toro Company S’No Risk Program 9-185-017

    Copyright 1984 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College

    Exhibit 6

    -augmented

    Exhibit 6
    Toro S’No Risk Program

    Actual

    Snowfall Actual Sales (at retail value) before 12/10 S’no Risk Refund (pro forma) Station

    Average
    Reporting Station Code

    Snowfall

    79/80 80/81 81/82

    82/83

    83/84*

    Michael Grillo:

    Averages

    for ’83 – ’85 beow only include spreadsheet data. 84/85*

    79 80 81 82 79/80 80/81 81/82 82/83
    *selected stations only Hanover, NH 64.0 N/A

    N/A

    68.0 42.5 6

    2.3 60.8 Ithaca, NY 83.4 40.3 52.0 6

    4.9 47.2 7

    4.4 4

    9.5 Blue Canyon, CA 004 2

    4

    1.6 2

    32.5 1

    4

    6.4

    N/A

    38

    5.7 86,

    028 40,257 14,

    071 51,386 Colorado Springs, CO

    006

    40.6 72.6 18.2 34.4 3

    6.3 281,457 110,471 31,900 31,757 55,236 Denver, CO 007 59.1 8

    5.5 45.1 2

    6.7 81.6 2,428,829 1,302,

    086 342,171 24

    2,671 171,085 Grand Junction, CO 009 26.1 21.9 5.9 1

    5.4 1

    4.8 11,157 7,214 3,

    857 2,100 5,

    050 Pueblo, CO 013 30.5 42.6 1

    6.8

    N/A

    22.3 21,028 23,400 3,371 3,471 Bridgeport, CT

    016 26.1 9.6

    11.5 1

    9.7 23.0 571,643 168,700 90,214 288,243 342,986 84,350 Hartford, CT

    017 5

    0.4 16.4 17.7 56.4

    46.4

    608,886 257,400 117,

    957 376,900 365,332 154

    ,440 National Airport, DC 018 17.2

    2

    0.1

    4.5

    22.5

    N/A

    145

    ,171 25,900 16,014 42,543 18,

    130 Pocatello, ID 021 4

    0.7 35.5 29.7 66.4 58.5 149,228 52,143 31,

    429 117,914 Chicago-O’Hare, IL

    022

    40.4

    41.6

    35.0 59.3 26.6 3

    8.4 27.1 39,074,000 3,989,314 1,673,829 3,838,900 Moline, IL 025 30.8 37.0 1

    8.9 45.3 24.8 2,382,

    029 386,

    529 175,

    128 132

    ,857 Peoria, IL 026 25.6 2

    7.5 23.8 4

    6.9 19.1 1,307,529 179,214 62,814 8

    6,757 Rockford, IL

    028 35.0

    33.9 21.1 41.0 28.0 1,967,143 166

    ,414 59,857 169

    ,829 Springfield, IL

    029

    2

    4.7

    30.5

    17.5 50.4 10.4 836,843 190,271 95,186 404,129 202,

    064 Evansville, IN 030 13.9 16.3

    3.4

    15.0 4.1 75,971 8,986 3,886 4,300 6,290 3,010 Fort Wayne, IN

    031

    3

    3.2 2

    8.7 35.7

    8

    1.2 14.9 610,571 225,200 83,900 582,086 291,043 Indianapolis, IN 033

    2

    2.9

    24.8

    17.3 58.2

    7.1

    41.9 2

    7.8 1,360,586 312,171 78,000 783,229 469,937 South Bend, IN 036 72.3

    66.4

    85.0 135.2 35.3 2,654,286 423,557 210,986 499,700 249,850 Des Moines, IA 038 33.8

    2

    3.3 20.4 62.9 51.5 2,243,914 399,671 288,057 285,557 Dubuque, IA 039 43.5 3

    6.0

    2

    1.7

    N/A 21.4

    488,714 70,443 31,400 66,843 33,432 Sioux City, IA

    043

    30.9 21.7 17.1 56.8 59.5 228,600 5

    2,371 51,800 62,329 Waterloo, IA 045 31.4 28.2

    21.9

    3

    9.9 38.9 561,243 146

    ,514 90,228 120,243 Concord, KS 046 21.6 2

    8.3

    6.4

    20.6 3

    4.6 1

    65,343 65,157 14,329 9,386 39,

    094 Dodge City, KS 047 18.9 35.6 11.8 19.2 33.0 38,443 19,557 2,

    729 6,100 Goodland, KS 048 35.9 102.0 41.8 24.4 48.2 2,200

    8

    2,228

    529
    Topeka, KS

    049 21.1

    18.3

    8.9

    13.4 2

    7.4

    62,814

    24,057 15,643 9,743 12,029 Wichita, KS

    050

    15.2 1

    2.7

    3.1 13.9

    25.2 106,600 79,014 16,886 23,057 Lexington, KY 054

    16.4

    20.5

    3.7 12.6 8.0

    10,014

    2,371 –

    1,057 1,660

    528
    Louisville, KY 055

    17.7 18.3 2.9

    11.0

    5.2

    9,728 3,614

    2,100 3,371 3,614

    2,360 Caribou, ME 058 1

    13.1 70.6

    1

    22.9 158

    .8 82.9 261,371 68,729 29,571 106,843 Portland, ME 060 72.9 27.5 3

    8.8 85.3

    45.3

    1,043,600 270,500 130,500 512,657 626,

    160 Baltimore, MD 062

    21.7

    14.6

    4.6

    25.5

    35.6

    41,814 12,200 3,814 1

    8,157 8,540 Boston, MA

    063

    42.0 12.7

    22.3

    61.8 32.7 775,800 258,186 34

    6,457 900,043 465,480 Worcester, MA

    064

    70.4

    26.6

    43.0 73.9 63.4 163

    ,686 89,414 67,000 170

    ,686 98,212 Alpena, MI 065 84.6 78.2 82.1 89.3 73.7 178,900 46,371 9,343 32,057 Detroit, MI 066

    40.7

    26.9

    38.4

    74.0

    2

    0.0 51.8 55.1 5,353,000 1,256,386 1,016,114 4,111,600 Flint, MI 067

    45.3

    39.7 36.4 6

    2.2 3

    3.6 1,128,657 321,429 171,686 224,557 Grand Rapids, MI

    068

    74.1 48.5

    51.5

    74.5

    35.9

    2,951,729 490,286 257,271 477,529 238,764 Houghton Lake, MI 069 81.8

    59.3 74.4

    98.7

    51.5

    91

    4,086 191,629 132,286 297,357 Lansing, MI 070 48.8 34.7 38.7 62.1 33.5 2,821,128 507,529 276,171 999,529 Marquette, MI

    071

    114.0 146.1 176.1 2

    43.8 199.3 230,871 34,214 14,057 14,843 Muskegon, MI 072 98.4 75.4 107.6 173.9

    35.5

    2,88

    8,143 471,800 348,071 600,957 360,574 Sault Ste. Marie, MI 073 1

    13.8 10

    8.1 141.7 168.6 87.0 7

    4,957 19,371 6,000 26,486 Duluth, MN 076 76.7

    55.1

    36.5 95.7 96.5 351,057 106,471 66,386 190,886 53,236 International Falls, MN 077 61.0 6

    4.2 45.8 89.9 46.0 51,943 14,614 5,071 22,586 Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN 078 47.4 53.3

    21.1

    95.0

    74.4

    4,379,943 1,160,014 926,057 982,871 580,007 Rochester, MN 080 45.6 55.2

    25.6

    62.7 62.6 401,957 144

    ,143 115

    ,129 114,514 St. Cloud, MN 081

    43.8

    44.2 16.5 55.4

    53.3

    682,971 208,114 120,442 231,329 124,868 Columbia, MO 083 23.4 31.1 17.6 31.9

    4.0

    20,686 7,371

    857

    3,571

    3,571
    Kansas City, MO 084 20.1 23.5

    10.2

    29.4

    23.4

    1,258,214 437,471 163,500 174,014 883 Springfield, MO

    085

    16.6

    24.7 18.2

    24.6

    5.6

    14,071 11,900

    2,200

    1,471 St. Louis, MO

    086

    20.0

    25.6

    18.1 36.6

    7.4

    1,211,214 269,143 61,771 777,229 466,337 Billings, MT 087 57.3 59.2 65.9 63.1 49.2 125,200 24,171 1

    4,457 9,100 Glasgow, MT 089 27.6

    17.1 17.1 42.0

    30.4 14,629

    4,957

    1,

    142

    4,086
    Great Falls, MT 090 58.3 34.3 39.2 100.3

    45.6

    81,600 13,971 1

    5,086 22,443 Havre, MT

    091 46.0 19.8

    26.2

    N/A

    38.1 9,643 1,529

    429

    1,571 4,822 Helena, MT 092 48.3

    40.3

    16.9 56.7 3

    9.0 178,686 109

    ,300 23,157 103

    ,900 76,510 Kalispell, MT 093 66.7 65.1 50.2 66.2 44.7 98,100 39,043 12,328 1

    6,743 Miles City, MT

    094 31.1

    11.6

    6.9

    21.5 29.6 21,343 1,042

    2,729

    12,100 12,806

    729
    Missoula, MT 095 49.4 54.7 14.4 69.3 24.2

    65,343

    30,271

    6,743

    19,443 21,190 9,722 Grand Island, NE 096 30.0 36.8

    19.2

    36.7 40.2 106,071 50,200 20,886 46,429 Lincoln, NE 097

    28.0

    23.3 13.0 32.3 38.0 177,714 74,071 37,757 85,786 37,036 Norfolk, NE

    098

    29.8 22.2 10.1 47.1 51.6 113,843 31,929 13,457 38,200 19,157 North Platte, NE 099 30.6 66.3

    3.9

    25.1 25.7 65,443 36,043 19,300 15,914

    36,043
    Omaha, NE

    100

    31.0

    20.5 9.1 24.3

    31.5

    39.9

    19.0 1,006,714 506,957 14

    4,814 164

    ,514 354,870 Scottsbluff, NE 101

    38.8

    78.5

    21.5

    15.7 45.2 55,143 24,614

    6,757

    2,014 3,378 Valentine, NE

    102

    31.2

    53.3 16.4

    47.9

    18.9

    16,643 11,685

    957

    2,000 Reno, NV

    103 25.7

    22.0

    6.1

    26.0

    23.8

    49,517 26,114 12,571 27,671 18,280 Concord, NH 104 64.8 27.0

    54.7

    90.0

    38.7

    491,314 189,985 110,486 436,843 245,657 Newark, NJ

    106

    28.1 14.3 19.5

    30.8 31.0

    62,328 7,971

    5,086 8,143
    Albany, NY

    107 65.1

    27.4 44.9 97.1 75.0 1,016,000 405,129 188,243 436,271 508,000 Binghampton, NY

    108

    84.5

    56.8 59.3 81.6

    81.0 413,443 170,643 54,571 53,186 Buffalo, NY

    109

    92.5 68.4 60.9 112

    .4 52.4 4,803,414 1,208,386 533,229 558,443 Laguardia, NY

    112 26.0

    10.3 16.1

    25.6

    30.2 3,002,686 620,871 573,629 885,729 1,801,612 Rochester, NY

    115

    89.7 72.2 94.4 1

    28.4 59.7 1,296,071 232,343 171,500 121

    ,143 Syracuse, NY 116 1

    10.7 93.4 79.0 137

    .1 66.0 1,044,314 247,971 118,757 103,686 Bismarck, ND 119

    39.7 26.6

    11.7 80.3 32.2 145,900 23,000 17,400 51,329 16,100 Fargo, ND

    121

    35.8

    39.9 13.1

    69.5 23.2 599,786

    89,114

    59,286 82,371 53,468 Williston, ND

    124 38.1

    25.4

    19.1 70.4

    42.3 101,314

    14,829

    12,242 31,071 Akron/Canton, OH

    125 48.5

    34.2 52.3 61.7

    38.8

    1,242,429 221,329 193,457 257,300 Cincinnati, OH

    127

    24.5 30.1

    14.0 24.2 66.0

    597,486 312,086 54,100 220,900 154,630 Cleveland, OH

    128 53.3 38.7

    60.5 100.5

    38.0

    2,434,443 669,871 521,814 1,032,214 Columbus, OH

    129 28.4 16.6 30.1

    35.1

    11.5

    1,372,500 255,700 120,842 176,886 88,443 Dayton, OH

    130

    29.0 24.9 19.6 42.9

    5.5

    2,120,229 588,600 191,371 305,414

    305,414
    Mansfield, OH

    132 42.5 27.6

    43.4 66.9

    16.6

    244,286 75,486 35,786 58,314 34,988 Toledo, OH 134

    38.7 17.5

    37.7 68.2 12.2 861,571 302,571 213,743 1,376,143 430,786 825,686 Youngstown, OH

    135

    56.3 32.8 49.1

    62.1

    39.4 856,971 243,286 213,486 121,157 Allentown, PA 136

    32.2 21.9 25.5

    43.9

    45.8

    451,586 83,357 43,829 134,557 Avoca-Wilkes Barre, PA

    137

    49.9

    25.5

    40.5 59.6

    59.1

    228,286 159,600 67,671 137,114 Erie, PA 138 82.4

    55.2

    89.4

    7

    1.3 41.2 793,786 114,329 129,529 49,257 Harrisburg, PA

    139

    35.4

    14.6 24.9 36.0 35.4

    767,800 127,929 68,857 216,943 383,900 Philadelphia, PA

    141 21.7

    20.9 15.4

    25.4

    37.9 818,343 180,886 93,300 129,843 Pittsburgh, PA

    142

    45.0 24.1 48.0

    45.1 30.1

    6,172,600 949,771 434,143 484,043 Williamsport, PA

    143

    43.6

    20.5 41.6

    54.5

    17.6

    97,471 46,843 18,957 96,957 48,736 48,479 Providence, RI

    144

    37.2

    12.2 21.5 47.4

    32.4 115,171 35,529 54,271 223,029 69,103 3,120 Aberdeen, SD

    145

    36.1 28.8

    8.3 N/A 18.9

    21,486

    4,457

    1,271 7,843 9,010 Huron, SD

    146

    38.5

    22.2 10.4 59.7

    27.3 14,857 12,871 10,743

    4,814

    3,272 Rapid City, SD 147

    38.0

    29.2

    16.9

    34.8

    24.9 11,900

    6,543 4,742 5,586 26,830 Sioux Falls, SD 148

    38.8 29.2

    10.8 42.4 70.5 98,371 38,329 21,328 28,957 Salt Lake City, UT

    151

    58.1 61.6

    30.2

    57.8 55.8 5

    13,829 389,157

    529

    434,557 Burlington, VT

    154

    77.6 39.6 64.7 81.5 80.5 147,571 44,271 154,086 100,071 Norfolk, VA 156

    8.2 41.9 0.3 6.1 3.4 – 0

    32,900

    529

    265 Richmond, VA

    157 14.6

    38.6

    1.0

    21.2

    29.4 528

    3,257

    528

    4,929

    3,257
    Roanoke, VA

    158 24.6

    31.8

    11.8 30.9 35.0 8,157

    3,757

    2,000 2,671

    1,879 Spokane, WA

    159 51.6

    38.3 14.2

    47.4 36.6

    732,214 363,029 84,000 164,171 254,120 Walla Walla, WA

    160 20.1

    27.8

    5.4

    13.5

    3.9

    16,443 6,771

    – 529

    4,739

    529
    Yakima, WA 161

    24.8

    47.6 12.0

    28.2 21.9

    11,714 17,786 1,614 10,000 8,893 Green Bay, WI

    163

    44.8

    38.1 30.2

    54.0

    39.7

    769,171 199,543 63,529 118,886 La Crosse, WI

    164

    42.2 32.0 21.8

    36.1

    37.1 777,100 220,071 83,786 185,114 Madison, WI 165

    40.4 31.0

    26.5 50.0 41.4 2,506,143 406,871 242,414 262,643 Milwaukee, WI

    166

    47.0

    47.0 41.9

    67.2

    38.1

    9,253,143 1,703,529 786,300 1,035,286 Casper, WY

    168

    77.9 101.2 56.9 68.7 151.6 108,086 47,671 11,000

    13,829
    Cheyenne, WY

    169

    52.7 121.5

    27.6 26.9

    101.0 98,443 68,043 15,000 16,057 Lander, WY

    170

    104.0 124.4 67.6

    41.8

    165.7 78,214 33,914 12,914 14,086 Sheridan, WY

    172

    70.0 75.8 46.7 58.9

    66.2

    37,100 13,643 7,200 14,700

    6,457
    Averages 47.2

    42.1

    33.5

    57.4 44.6

    51.5 39.9

    135,231,426 27,276,114 14,047,763 30,024,217 Percent Increase over Prior Yr. -20.6% 71.5% -22.3% 15.5

    % -22.5% -79.8% -48.5%

    11

    3.7% Rebates 5,403,592 2,150,357 180,920 5,846,299 Rebates as % of Sales 4.0% 7.9% 1.3% 19.5% Season/

    Year

    79/80 80/81 81/82 82/83 83/84* 84/85* 79 80 81 82

    Toro Company S’No Risk Program 9-185-017
    Copyright 1984 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College

    (other weather data added to Exhibit 6)

    BostonSnow

    Year

    0 0 0 0 T

    3.4

    17.3 0 0 0

    0 0 0 0 0.3

    11.6 8.3 5.2 T T 0 49.1

    0 0 0 0 7.5

    3.9

    0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 5.7 10.4 0.3 27.3 6.3 0 0 50.0

    0 0 0 0 T 1.1 0.5 3.7 T T 0 0 5.3

    0 0 0 0 0.3 9.0 17.5 T 7.9 T 0 0 34.7

    0 0 0 T T 0.8 14.3 12.6 T 0 0 0

    0 0 0 0 0.3 1.2 18.2

    4.7 T 0 0 45.1

    0 0 0 0 6.0

    3.2

    9.6 0 0 0 48.8

    0 0 0 0 0.8 19.2 20.5 9.0 0.1 4.2 0 0

    0 0 0 0 1.5 T 15.4

    5.6 0 0 0 40.5

    0 0 0 0

    6.0 9.6 9.0 4.3 0 0 0 38.9

    0 0 0 0 T 24.4 1.1

    15.0 9.5 0 0

    0 0 0 0.5 4.8 2.3 3.9 3.3 9.5 T 0 0 24.3

    0 0 0 0 0.5 5.5 26.0 4.0 4.5 T 0 0 40.5 0.941

    0 0 0 0 0

    12.0 11.5 15.0 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 6.5 13.1 9.6 12.0 T T 0 41.2

    0 0 0 0 4.8 0 4.5 7.5 2.2 0 0 0 19.0

    0 0 0 0 T 4.0 8.5 6.3 20.3 0 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T

    13.8 16.2 T 0 0 59.3

    0 0 0 T 0 T 12.0 11.5 20.0 0 0 0 43.5

    0 0 0 0 3.0 2.0 14.6 35.3 4.5 7.9 0 0

    0 0 0 0 0.4 18.5 15.0 21.6 T 8.5 0 0 64.0

    0 0 0 0 6.7 13.5 13.9 8.8 3.8 0.5 0 0 47.2

    0 0 0 0 T 5.2 9.5 9.5 14.5 0.2 0 0 38.9 0.904

    0 0 0 0 2.2 8.6 18.2

    3.3 T 0 0

    0 0 0 0 8.1 7.8 16.3 11.5 6.0 2.2 0 0

    0 0 0 0

    7.7 6.1 30.2 9.3 T 0 0

    0 0 0 T 0.1 T 8.3 9.0 7.6 0 T 0

    0 0 0 0 0.1 0.8 7.8 8.8 T 0 0 0 17.5

    0 0 0 0 0 12.6 11.0 13.0 7.5 T 0 0

    0 0 0 T T

    4.2

    0.3 T 0 0 42.0

    1.0

    9999999999998

    0 0 0 0 0

    35.7 16.5 8.9 1.4 0 0

    5048852990114

    0 0 0 T T 12.0

    8.0 3.6 T 0 0 44.9

    1.0

    0 0 0 0 T 3.5 6.1 6.1 21.9 T 0 0

    0 0 0 0 1.1 15.5 16.1 25.5 6.6 3.1 T 0

    0 0 0 0 0 7.0 4.3 9.3 4.8 0.8 0 0 26.2

    Normal 0.09474208473500115

    0 0 0 0 T 3.5

    2.3 3.1 0 0 0 20.1

    0 0 0 T T 12.3

    12.6 0.2 0 0 0 37.0

    0 0 0 0 1.4 8.2 0.7 19.5 3.1 7.7 0 0 40.6

    0 0 0 0 0.3 3.7 17.8 0.2 9.1 0.5 0 0

    0 0 0 0 0.3 9.2 0.3 7.7 0.5 1.4 0 0

    0 0 0 0.4 T 0.9 10.3 20.6 5.2 2.0 0 0 39.4

    0 0 0 T T 4.1 7.0 5.1 T 6.1 0 0 22.3

    0 0 0 0 0.2 6.7 4.8

    33.0 4.2 0 0

    0 0 0 0 0.7 9.5 13.1 8.9

    9.1 T 0

    0 0 0 0 2.2 7.0 13.8 5.7

    4.2 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 8.4 4.1 6.2 2.4 T 0 0 21.1

    0 0 0 0 0.2 2.9 24.8 32.5 11.0 2.0 T 0

    0 0 0 0 1.8 5.5 3.6 23.2 T T 0 0

    0 0 0 0 1.6 4.4 2.7 15.5 10.1 3.3 0 0 37.6 0.874

    0 0 0 0 0.9 14.7 28.0 14.3 10.6 T 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 3.0 8.5 10.4 7.4 3.0 0 0 32.3

    0 0 0 0 0.5 0.2 20.7 T T T 0 0 21.4

    0 0 0 T T 0.5 7.4 27.6 2.8 T 0 0 38.3

    0 0 0 0 T 24.2 16.1 19.2 0.6 0.2 0 0

    0 0 0 0 0.5 T 5.1 8.7 6.5 T 0 0

    0 0 0 T 1.4 4.6 13.5 21.4 4.0 0.6 0 0

    0 0 0 0 3.0 10.6 7.7 9.5 0.6 T 0 0 31.4

    0 0 0 T 0.1 7.7 11.7 14.0 7.3 T 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 1.4 6.2 10.8 5.8 T 0 0 24.2

    0 0 0 0 T 8.6 1.3 20.6 5.1 5.0 0 0 40.6 0.944

    0 0 0 0 2.9

    0.8

    T 0 0 62.7

    0 0 0 T T 1.6

    13.1 2.1 1.9 0 0

    0 0 0 0 1.0 0.3 12.7 12.6 2.9 T 0 0

    0 0 0 0 4.4 0.7 2.0 T 1.9 T 0 0 9.0

    0 0 0 0 0.3 4.6 29.6 10.0 0.3 0.9 0 0 45.7 1.062

    0 0 0 0 10.0 1.3 7.5 4.7 16.5 0.2 0 0 40.2

    0 0 0 0 1.0 6.5 4.6 23.8 0.3 1.5 0 0 37.7

    0 0 0 T 8.5 4.5 20.4 1.3 13.1 0 T 0

    0 0 0 T T 0.2 8.2 6.2 7.9 1.5 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 6.8

    4.5 8.0 T 0 0 45.7 1.062

    0 0 0 0 T 0.3 5.1 9.6 12.7 T 0 0 27.7 0.644

    0 0 0 0 1.2 6.9 24.3

    0.5 0 T 0 59.2

    0 0 0 0 4.9 24.6 9.8 9.8 0.2 1.5 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 4.9 4.0 9.0 0.9 0.6 0 0 19.4 0.451

    0 0 0 0 1.1

    32.5

    11.8 0 0 0

    0 0 0 0 1.1 5.5 13.7 6.9 9.9 0 0 0 37.1

    0 0 0 0 1.4 2.3 7.9 15.2 5.1 T 0 0 31.9

    0 0 0 0 T 2.7 13.9 9.2 3.9 0 0 0 29.7

    0 0 0 0 T 8.4 10.7 19.1 1.4 0 0 0 39.6

    0 0 0 T T 2.4

    11.4 0.2 2.2 T 0 29.8

    0 0 0 0 T T 19.2 1.9 0.4 2.1 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 10.3 0.9 6.5 7.0 0.4 0 0 25.1

    0 0 0 0 2.5 1.8 7.7 14.5 31.2 3.2 0 0 60.9

    0 0 0 0 0.6 15.4 20.6 2.8 11.5 1.1 0 0 52.0

    0 0 0 T 0.1 T 6.6

    12.0 2.1 T 0 44.7

    0 0 0 0 0.1 4.6 4.1 10.7 14.6 T 0 0 34.1 0.793

    0 0 0 0 0.6 5.5 10.2 2.3 22.3 T 0 0

    0 0 0 T T 16.9

    14.9 9.0 2.0 0 0

    0 0 0 T 0.9 11.4 2.5

    1.1 0.1 0 0 44.7 1.039

    0 0 0 T 0.9 5.3 6.5 4.6 13.6 T 0 0 30.9

    0 0 0 T 0 17.7 14.4 23.2 7.7 T 0 0

    0 0 0 T T 12.2 22.2 4.7 9.7 1.6 0 0 50.4

    0 0 0 0 T 2.3 26.4 12.1 3.3 T T 0 44.1 1.025

    0 0 0 0 0 9.9 0.5 23.5 22.9 3.3 T 0

    0 0 0 0 2.2 14.7 17.7 3.4 6.8 0 0 0 44.8

    0 0 0 0 0.4 5.1 0.9

    6.1 T 0 0 53.8 1.250

    0 0 0 T T 12.6 7.4 10.5 18.2 0.1 0 0 48.8 1.134

    0 0 0 T T

    12.0 8.1 7.4 1.9 0 0 57.3

    0 0 0 0 2.8 7.9 7.8 16.5 12.1 0.4 0 0

    0 0 0 T 0.6 3.3 3.6 2.5 0.3 T 0 0 10.3

    0 0 0 0 0 T 16.0 17.8 0.1 3.0 0 0

    0 0 0 0 2.0 3.6 2.2 17.0 1.8 1.0 0 0 27.6

    0 0 0 T 0.1

    15.0 1.4 10.8 T 0 0

    0 0 0 0 1.0 17.2 23.2 5.9 10.7 T 0.5 0 58.5

    0 0 0 0 0.7 5.2 35.9

    16.1 T 0 0

    0 0 0 0 4.2 5.8 10.5 6.6 T 0.4 0 0 27.5

    0 0 0 0.2 T 2.0 0.4 6.5 3.6 T 0 0 12.7

    0 0 0 0 2.4 5.6 11.9 1.9 0.5 0 0 0 22.3 0.518

    0 0 0 0 T 17.6

    7.6 5.3

    0 0 61.8

    0 0 0 0 T 5.5 4.7 22.3 0.2 T 0 0 32.7

    0 0 0 0 T 2.6 21.1 0.3 19.0 T 0 0 43.0 0.999

    0 0 0 0 T 3.7 7.0 10.2 3.7 2.0 0 0 26.6

    0 0 0 0 3.0 1.3 0.8 10.4 2.6 T 0 0 18.1

    0 0 0 0 3.5 3.4 24.3 3.7 3.5 4.1 0 0 42.5

    0 0 0 0 9.0 7.5 17.0

    5.0 T 0 0

    0 0 0 T 0 3.7 1.5 6.7 3.2 0.4 0 0 15.5

    0 0 0 0 4.5 6.2 7.0 16.9 4.1 0.5 0 0 39.2

    0 0 0 0 T 1.2 11.7 2.8 3.4 0 0 0 19.1 0.444

    0 0 0 0 T 5.8 0.4 4.0 10.8 1.0 0 0 22.0

    0 0 0 0 0.6 9.7 12.9 19.6 38.9 2.2 0 0

    0 0 0 0 T 11.6

    14.8 0 0 0

    0 T 0 0 0.1 1.5 4.4 8.5 0.4 T 0 0 14.9

    0 0 0 0 4.1 24.1

    15.5

    7.3 0 0 107.6

    0 0 0 0 1.8 5.0 9.7 4.8 5.2

    0 0

    Boston MA Monthly Snowfall Data
    July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March April May June total RelTotal
    1871-72 12.3 11.3 44.3 1.030
    1872-73 23.7 1.141
    1873-74 13.7 20.3 22.7 28.3 96.4 2.241
    1874-75 1.162
    1875-76 0.123
    1876-77 0.807
    1877-78 27.7 0.644
    1878-79 20.7 1.048
    1879-80 18.6 11.4 1.134
    1880-81 53.8 1.250
    1881-82 17.9 0.941
    1882-83 10.0 0.904
    1883-84 12.5 62.5 1.453
    1884-85 0.565
    1885-86
    1886-87 18.5 16.0 73.0 1.697
    1887-88 0.958
    1888-89 0.442
    1889-90 39.1 0.909
    1890-91 14.5 14.8 1.378
    1891-92 1.011
    1892-93 67.3 1.564
    1893-94 1.487
    1894-95 1.097
    1895-96
    1896-97 10.9 43.2 1.004
    1897-98 51.9 1.206
    1898-99 17.8 71.1 1.653
    1899-00 25.0 0.581
    1900-01 0.407
    1901-02 44.1 1.025
    1902-03 22.8 14.7 0.976 Data Series: mean 0.999
    1903-04 10.6 73.1 1.699 Chi-squared p-value: 0.09474208473500115 std 0.444
    1904-05 21.3 1.044 Distribution:
    1905-06 37.6 0.874 Best fit: Normal
    1906-07 67.9 1.578
    1907-08 0.609
    1908-09 11.2 0.467 Lognormal 0.05798135003028113
    1909-10 11.9 0.860
    1910-11 0.944
    1911-12 31.6 0.734
    1912-13 19.4 0.451
    1913-14 0.916
    1914-15 0.518
    1915-16 30.3 79.2 1.841
    1916-17 12.9 54.2 1.260
    1917-18 12.8 45.7 1.062
    1918-19 0.490
    1919-20 73.4 1.706
    1920-21 34.1 0.793
    1921-22
    1922-23 68.5 1.592
    1923-24 0.751
    1924-25 0.497
    1925-26 0.890
    1926-27 60.3 1.401
    1927-28 20.8 0.483
    1928-29 45.5 1.058
    1929-30 0.730
    1930-31 40.8 0.948
    1931-32 0.562
    1932-33
    1933-34 15.6 32.9 10.5 1.457
    1934-35 26.7 45.4 1.055
    1935-36 29.5 0.686
    1936-37 0.209
    1937-38
    1938-39 0.934
    1939-40 0.876
    1940-41 47.8 1.111
    1941-42 24.0 0.558
    1942-43 26.4
    1943-44
    1944-45 26.3 1.376
    1945-46 50.8 1.181
    1946-47
    1947-48 26.8 17.0 89.2 2.073
    1948-49 0.862
    1949-50 0.741
    1950-51 0.690
    1951-52 0.920
    1952-53 13.6 0.693
    1953-54 23.6 0.549
    1954-55 0.583
    1955-56 1.415
    1956-57 1.209
    1957-58 23.9 1.039
    1958-59
    1959-60 40.9 0.951
    1960-61 18.7 61.5 1.429
    1961-62 28.7
    1962-63 0.718
    1963-64 63.0 1.464
    1964-65 1.171
    1965-66
    1966-67 60.1 1.397
    1967-68 1.041
    1968-69 41.3
    1969-70
    1970-71 27.9 1.332
    1971-72 47.5 1.104
    1972-73 0.239
    1973-74 36.9 0.858
    1974-75 0.641
    1975-76 19.3 46.6 1.083
    1976-77 1.360
    1977-78 27.2 85.1 1.978
    1978-79 0.639
    1979-80 0.295
    1980-81
    1981-82 18.0 13.3 1.436
    1982-83 0.760
    1983-84
    1984-85 0.618
    1985-86 0.421
    1986-87 0.988
    1987-88 14.1 52.6 1.223
    1988-89 0.360
    1989-90 0.911
    1990-91
    1991-92 0.511
    1992-93 83.9 1.950
    1993-94 33.7 36.2 96.3 2.238
    1994-95 0.346
    1995-96 39.8 16.8 2.501
    1996-97 22.4 48.9 1.137
    43.02539682539684

    KansasCitySnow

    Total

    0.0 1.0 0.5 10.9

    0.0 6.5 4.8 0.5 9.8 6.3 0.0 1.3 0.0 29.2

    0.0 0.0 0.7 5.3 11.4

    0.7 1.0 0.0 19.1

    0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 1.3 0.7 2.4 Tr 0.0 6.9

    0.0 0.0 0.5 2.7 1.4 10.3 0.5 2.6 0.0 18.0

    0.0 Tr 4.1 0.8 12.0 15.7 1.1 0.6 0.0 34.3

    0.0 0.0 4.6 0.2 Tr 2.0 0.5 2.8 0.0 10.1

    0.0 0.0 1.7 1.6 12.1 Tr 1.2 Tr 0.0 16.6

    0.0 0.0 Tr 6.8 1.0 2.1 9.6 0.0 0.0 19.5

    0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 6.5 Tr 0.0 0.0 6.9 0.33059340659340664

    0.0 Tr 2.0 11.9 0.9 9.3 2.2 0.0 0.0 26.3

    0.0 Tr 0.6 1.2 10.5 5.0 Tr 0.0 0.0 17.3

    0.0 0.0 3.5 5.4 Tr 4.5 Tr Tr 0.0 13.4

    0.0 0.0 0.4 7.0 11.8 6.9 0.3 0.0 0.0 26.4

    0.0 0.0 0.7

    1.3 0.5 8.7 0.0 0.0 24.4

    0.0 0.0 0.5 0.7 6.3 7.4 1.3 7.2 0.0 23.4

    0.0 0.0 0.1 5.3 6.0 12.7 4.0 1.3 0.0 29.4

    0.0 Tr Tr 3.2 4.0 2.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 10.2

    0.0 0.0 Tr Tr 5.4 12.7 5.4 0.0 0.0 23.5

    0.0 0.0 0.2 11.7 13.3 1.5 4.7 2.0 0.0

    0.0 0.0 Tr 1.2 3.9 11.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.5

    0.0 Tr 0.8 0.2 14.2 0.3 Tr 0.6 0.0 16.1

    0.0 0.0 7.1 2.8 5.2 5.2 1.5 0.0 0.0 21.8

    0.0 0.0 1.4 1.2 5.4 4.6 5.9 2.3 0.0 20.8

    0.0 0.0 Tr 8.0 4.8 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.0 13.9

    0.0 0.0 3.6 3.1 10.9 0.3 0.0 1.3 0.0 19.2

    0.0 0.0 0.2 1.0 3.0 2.9 3.3 Tr 0.0 10.4

    0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6 1.3 8.2 7.4 0.0 0.0 20.5

    0.0 0.0 0.6 3.8 2.5 2.2 1.0 4.6 0.0 14.7

    0.0 0.0 3.2 0.8 6.0 1.6 2.8 0.0 0.0 14.4

    0.0 0.0 0.2 7.0 2.8 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.7

    0.0 0.0 0.0 7.2 7.6 0.9 1.1 0.0 0.0 16.8

    0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 0.0 3.7 3.5 0.0 0.0 9.7

    0.0 0.0 2.1 6.2 4.1 7.7 9.6 0.0 0.0 29.7

    0.0 0.0 0.0 4.3 7.5 8.5 5.3 0.0 0.0 25.6

    Data Series: 1.0

    0.0 0.0 0.0 5.1 5.9 3.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 14.6

    Chi-squared p-value:

    0.0 0.0 0.2 16.6 30.5 6.2 0.4 1.1 0.0

    Distribution:

    mean

    0.0 0.0 0.1 6.1 0.7 1.4 0.7 3.7 0.0 12.7 0.6084835164835165 Best fit: Lognormal

    0.0 0.0 0.9 0.8 5.1 20.7

    1.7 0.0 58.5

    0.0 0.0 4.9 4.7 13.2 0.6 6.1 0.9 0.0 30.4

    Normal

    0.0 0.0 Tr 5.5 16.5 0.9 8.3 0.0 0.0 31.2

    Lognormal 0.4485788405947457

    0.0 0.0 Tr 3.9 6.9 Tr Tr 2.9 0.0 13.7

    0.0 0.0 0.8 3.8 8.2 8.4 4.4 Tr 0.0 25.6 1.2265494505494507

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.7 7.5 7.0 Tr 0.0

    0.0 0.0 1.8 8.8 1.1 0.2 0.0 Tr 0.0 11.9

    0.0 0.0 4.6 4.2 2.7 0.0 10.8 Tr 0.0 22.3

    0.0 0.1 0.3 3.5 4.4 1.8

    Tr 0.0 21.2

    0.0 0.0 0.2 1.0 3.5 3.1 0.2 1.0 0.0 9.0

    0.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 1.4 0.5 0.2 Tr 0.0 5.5

    0.0 0.0 0.0 6.9 13.7 2.2 4.0 Tr 0.0 26.8

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 5.7 4.4 7.4 0.0 0.0 17.7

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 6.6 5.4 8.6 Tr 0.0 20.9

    0.0 0.0 0.5 14.8 0.8 2.7 Tr 0.0 0.0

    0.0 0.0 0.0 7.5 1.0 3.6 3.2 Tr 0.0

    0.0 0.0 1.4 9.7 0.8 8.0 1.5 Tr 0.0 21.4

    0.0 0.0 0.1 10.0 3.4 0.0 6.0 Tr 0.0 19.5 0.9342857142857144

    0.0 0.0 2.0 3.9 0.6 5.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.6

    0.0 0.0 2.6 1.2 11.8 0.5 5.6 0.0 0.0 21.7

    0.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 12.8 4.0 0.6 0.8 0.0 22.3 1.0684395604395607

    0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 6.1 5.8 0.3 0.1 0.0 14.3

    0.0 0.0 3.4 0.5 0.2 4.9 0.1 7.0 0.0 16.1 0.7713846153846156

    0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 3.6 3.9 4.2 Tr 0.0

    0.0 0.0 1.1 1.0 5.9 5.7 0.0 1.1 0.0 14.8

    0.0 0.0 5.0 4.4 0.1 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.0 10.7

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 5.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 7.2

    0.0 0.0 6.4 6.4 2.5 6.6 2.6 2.0 0.0 26.5

    0.0 0.0 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.6 4.7 0.0 0.0 14.1

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 14.1 Tr 0.0 14.6 0.6995164835164837

    0.0 0.0 0.1 2.7 22.2 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 26.2

    0.0 0.0 0.6 6.1 10.2 10.2 0.0 Tr 0.0 27.1

    0.0 0.0 1.0 8.5 1.0 2.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 14.0

    0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 8.7 0.4 3.1 0.0 0.0 13.3

    0.0 0.5 3.0 5.0 4.2 10.8

    6.5 0.0 42.4

    0.0 0.0 0.2 7.1 2.4 1.2 2.2 0.0 0.0 13.1

    0.0 0.0 9.1 0.6 6.4 10.6 10.4 0.0 0.0 37.1

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 1.2 2.7 Tr 0.0 4.5

    0.0 0.0 0.5 4.8 1.4 4.8 1.1 0.0 0.0 12.6

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 4.8 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.0 7.3

    0.0 0.0 2.6 0.5 0.4 0.6 2.0 7.0 0.0 13.1 0.6276483516483518

    0.0 0.0 3.4 16.4 1.0 13.1 0.0 Tr 0.0 33.9

    0.0 0.8 0.1 5.3 10.3 0.1 0.0 2.0 0.0 18.6

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.8 0.8 3.2 2.0 0.0 9.7 0.46474725274725276

    0.0 0.0 0.0 5.2 9.8 6.0 2.7 4.1 0.0 27.8

    0.0 0.0 0.0 11.8 5.5 6.5 13.5 Tr 0.0

    0.0 3.0 0.0 4.0 0.1 14.3 5.1 0.0 0.0 26.5 1.2696703296703298

    0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 8.3 4.2 0.0 0.0 17.6

    0.0 0.0 2.6 3.3 5.9 15.0 40.2 Tr 0.0

    0.0 0.0 0.2 1.3 0.1 12.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 14.1 0.6755604395604397

    0.0 0.0 0.0 8.9 6.1 1.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 16.6 0.7953406593406596

    0.0 3.0 0.5 0.0 5.3 3.4 1.0 Tr 0.0 13.2

    0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6 0.1 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.6

    0.0 0.0 6.0 0.1 2.5 7.1 0.0 0.6 1.7 18.0 0.8624175824175826

    0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 6.3 2.0 13.1 0.0 0.0 23.4 1.1211428571428572

    0.0 0.0 0.0 11.8 4.4 13.6 0.0 1.2 0.0 31.0

    0.0 0.0 0.6 1.8 3.3 0.5 1.8 3.0 0.0 11.0

    0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.6 9.7 3.0 3.6 0.0

    0.0 0.0 0.1 4.3 8.3 6.6 4.8 0.0 0.0 24.1

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.2 13.8 9.3 6.0 0.0 30.0

    0.0 0.0 0.0 3.9 0.0

    0.2 Tr 0.0 22.5

    0.0 5.8 7.4 9.8 0.9 4.6 4.9 5.2 0.0 38.6

    0.0 0.0 0.0 11.3 21.9 1.6 1.5 0.0 0.0

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 15.4 1.2 0.0 0.0

    0.0 0.0 3.8 11.5 6.3 3.1 4.6 0.0 0.0 29.3

    0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 3.3 2.9 5.1 0.4 0.0 13.7 0.6563956043956045

    0.0 0.0 2.5 3.2 1.7 17.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 24.5

    0.0 0.0 3.0 9.7 2.3 10.4 8.0 Tr 0.0 33.4 1.6002637362637364

    0.0 0.0 2.0 3.1 9.8 0.0 5.7 Tr 0.0 20.6

    0.0 0.0 0.0 4.8 4.6 5.1 11.8 0.0 0.0 26.3 1.2600879120879123

    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.3 4.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 13.3 0.6372307692307694

    0.0 0.0 0.4 2.0 1.1 6.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.1 0.48391208791208795

    Kansas City MO Monthly Snowfall Data
    SEP. OCT. NOV. DEC. JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY
    1997/1998
    1996/1997 1.3990329670329673
    1995/1996 Tr 0.9151208791208794
    1994/1995 0.33059340659340664
    1993/1994 0.8624175824175826
    1992/1993 1.6433846153846154
    1991/1992 0.48391208791208795
    1990/1991 0.7953406593406596
    1989/1990 0.9342857142857144
    1988/1989
    1987/1988 1.2600879120879123
    1986/1987 0.8288791208791211
    1985/1986 0.6420219780219781
    1984/1985 1.264879120879121
    1983/1984 13.2 1.1690549450549452
    1982/1983 1.1211428571428572
    1981/1982 1.4086153846153848
    1980/1981 0.48870329670329676
    1979/1980 1.1259340659340662
    1978/1979 33.4 1.6002637362637364
    1977/1978 0.7905494505494507
    1976/1977 0.7713846153846156
    1975/1976 1.0444835164835167
    1974/1975 0.9965714285714288
    1973/1974 0.6659780219780221
    1972/1973 0.919912087912088
    1971/1972 0.4982857142857144
    1970/1971 0.9821978021978024
    1969/1970 0.7043076923076924
    1968/1969 0.689934065934066
    1967/1968 0.6084835164835165
    1966/1967 0.8049230769230771
    1965/1966 0.46474725274725276
    1964/1965 1.422989010989011
    1963/1964 1.2265494505494507
    1962/1963 0.6995164835164837 0.4485788405947457
    1961/1962 55.0 2.6351648351648356 1.00300555025117 0.9999999999999998
    1960/1961 stdev 0.5060203945291236
    1959/1960 29.3 2.8028571428571434
    1958/1959 1.4565274725274726 0.009806001007747396
    1957/1958 1.494857142857143
    1956/1957 0.6563956043956045
    1955/1956
    1954/1955 20.2 0.9678241758241759
    1953/1954 0.5701538461538462
    1952/1953 1.0684395604395607
    1951/1952 11.1 1.015736263736264
    1950/1951 0.4312087912087913
    1949/1950 0.26351648351648355
    1948/1949 1.2840439560439563
    1947/1948 0.8480439560439561
    1946/1947 1.0013626373626374
    1945/1946 18.8 0.9007472527472529
    1944/1945 15.3 0.7330549450549452
    1943/1944 1.0253186813186814
    1942/1943
    1941/1942 0.5557802197802199
    1940/1941 1.039692307692308
    1939/1940
    1938/1939 0.6851428571428573
    1937/1938
    1936/1937 15.9 0.7618021978021979
    1935/1936 0.7090989010989013
    1934/1935 0.5126593406593407
    1933/1934 0.344967032967033
    1932/1933 1.2696703296703298
    1931/1932 0.6755604395604397
    1930/1931
    1929/1930 1.2552967032967035
    1928/1929 1.2984175824175828
    1927/1928 0.6707692307692309
    1926/1927 0.6372307692307694
    1925/1926 12.4 2.031472527472528
    1924/1925 0.6276483516483518
    1923/1924 1.777538461538462
    1922/1923 0.21560439560439565
    1921/1922 0.6036923076923078
    1920/1921 0.34975824175824183
    1919/1920
    1918/1919 1.6242197802197804
    1917/1918 0.8911648351648354
    1916/1917
    1915/1916 1.3319560439560443
    1914/1915 37.3 1.7871208791208792
    1913/1914
    1912/1913 0.8432527472527475
    1911/1912 67.0 3.210109890109891
    1910/1911
    1909/1910
    1908/1909 0.6324395604395605
    1907/1908 0.4120439560439561
    1906/1907
    1905/1906
    1904/1905 1.4852747252747256
    1903/1904 0.5270329670329671
    1902/1903 25.3 1.2121758241758245
    1901/1902 1.154681318681319
    1900/1901 1.4373626373626376
    1899/1900 18.4 1.0780219780219782
    1898/1899 1.8494065934065937
    1897/1898 36.3 1.7392087912087912
    1896/1897 28.9 1.3846593406593408
    1895/1896 1.403824175824176
    1894/1895
    1893/1894 1.173846153846154
    1892/1893
    1891/1892 0.9869890109890113
    1890/1891
    1889/1890
    1888/1889
    20.87155963302752

    0.1
    0.5
    0.9
    1.3
    1.7
    2.1
    2.5
    2.9
    3.3
    1
    0.0
    0.4
    0.8
    1.2

    0.10.50.91.31.72.12.52.93.3

    1
    0.0
    0.4
    0.8
    1.2
    0.1
    0.5
    0.9
    1.3
    1.7
    2.1
    2.5
    2.9
    3.3
    3.7
    4.1
    1
    0.0
    0.5
    1.0
    1.5

    0.10.50.91.31.72.12.52.93.33.74.1

    1
    0.0
    0.5
    1.0
    1.5

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