# PROTEACH INFO

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U2 IP SPSS Help

Rules for Forming Hypotheses

A (alternative) hypothesis is a statement of what you believe based on deductive
reasoning. The null hypothesis, which is the opposite of the hypothesis, is tested in hopes
that it can be REJECTED, thereby implying the other hypothesis can be supported (NOTICE
we do not say true, false or proven).

In journal articles, if only one hypothesis is shown, it is usually the HYPOTHESIS. We are
really interested in the hypothesis, but the rules of statistics dictate that we test the null
hypothesis.

You only test concepts that are measured by your Surveys (the FACTORS**)

A survey is made up of questions. The questions will either measure a demographic (a label
describing a person, thing). Examples would be gender, education, age, tenure, etc.
OR
They are questions that when put together (either averaged or summed) measure an
abstract concept…we call this a scale or factor score (The individual portion of the U4 Group
Assignment).

When writing hypotheses, you do not compare on a single question, but rather a concept or
factor/scale. If you measure a single question in a hypothesis for the project, you will get
the whole question wrong. Each hypothesis must contain a comparison of one of the factors
in your scale. You can compare two different factors or a factor plus a demographic (for
example).

Wording for ANOVAs & T-Tests:
NULL: Males are the same as females with regard to ____________________.
HYPO: Males are not the same as females with regard to ____________________.

Three Possible Statements of Hypotheses

HYPOTHESIS NULL HYPOTHESIS

LOWER TAIL Less than < Greater than or equal to >/=

UPPER TAIL Greater than > Less than or equal to Wal-

M

art is a company that was established in the 1960’s and has been a dominant force in the retail industry for a great while. This company is a global giant and has a great appeal with consumers in many demographic levels. The group of people that I selected was between the ages of

22

and

30

years of age(Wal-Mart,2013). The income levels were the lowest being

12,000

to 30, 00 per year. The races were white, black and Latino. I also interviewed one female and two males. I also questioned them about why they selected this Wal-Mart to shop at. Out of three one did for bran appeal and the other two did not. When asked about the pricing they all selected yes for the pricing. This shows that each consumer has a concern when it comes to shopping they want to find was to save money and still have products they find value in.

Sears was at one time was a retail giant in America but has had a tough time in the recent years passing. One reason for this is because other retail stores have come into the market and cut out niche markets that are appealing and have gained dominant portions of the market. The age range for this people that I interviewed was between the ages of

37

and

50

(Sears,2013). The income level was from

30,000

to

65,000

per year. The race of all three was white. When asked about brand appeal they all answered yes to this question. When asked about pricing two answered no and one answered yes. This shows that brand loyalty is something that Sears has gained in the market.

When looking at both demographic groups I can see that Wal-Mart has made a connection with younger adults and Sears has a strong rapport with older adults. I also noticed that those who had a higher earning income shopped at Sears as well showing that because of the higher pricing they are willing to pay more for products that they find value in and a connection to. Brand appeal was also in the favor of Sears while pricing was a one-sided victory in favor of Wal-Mart. Both chains have areas that they should find room to target new audiences as well as improving on meeting the needs of consumers in this market.

The demographic makeup of this city is that the population is 92,757. The media age is 28.5 years of age. When it comes to race the city is a mixture of different races which include Whites 61.3% Blacks 23.06 and the rest is a blend of Asians, Hispanics and other(connection,2013).

Population and Demographics Resources

retrieved April 6th 2013

Y

Y

M

N

Y

AGES

SEX

INCOME LEVEL

BRAND APPEAL

PRICING

RACE

M

Y

Y

WHITE

F

Y

N

WHITE

F

30,000

Y

N

WHITE

 WALMART AGES SEX I N COME LEVEL BRAND APPEAL PRICING RACE 25 F 25,000 Y WHITE 22 M 12,000 N BLACK 30 30,000 LATIN SEARS 50 65,000 48 40,000 37