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Assignment 1:

1. THE AGE OF DISCOVERY

Mesoamerica the Bering Strait Clovis blades

mammoth mastodon The Ice Age

Archaic Period Poverty Point the Anasazi

Cahokia Mississippian Culture Tenochtitlan

Leif Eriksson Prince Henry the Navigator Martin Luther

Christopher Columbus San Salvador conquistadores Ferdinand Magellan John Cabot encomienda

Henry VIII Giovanni da Verrazano the Incas

John Calvin Hernan Cortes the Aztecs

Francisco Pizarro Sir Francis Drake La Salle

Vasco Nunez de Balboa Henry Hudson Adena Culture

Juan Ponce de Leon Francisco de Coronado Hernando de Soto the Spice Trade Paleolithic revolution Jacques Cartier Columbian Exchange Treaty of Tordesillas maize

Neolithic revolution The Hohokam Brazil

Hopewell Culture Requerimiento Aztalan

How and when did the first humans arrive in the Americas? How did they survive in a very hostile environment?

What role did the cultivation of corn play in the cultural development of the original Americans?

What impact did the arrival of Europeans have on the Native Americans in the New World?

Where there differences in the attitudes and policies of the Spanish, French, and English towards the Native Americans?

What were the factors that contributed to the discovery and exploration of America?

Which European has the strongest claim for reaching America prior to Christopher Columbus? Why didn’t this earlier explorer’s discovery lead to a permanent European presence in America while Columbus’s discovery did?

What was the purpose of Christopher Columbus’ voyage, and what miscalculations did he make in his theory for traveling to the Far East?

How did America get its name?

1. COLONIZATION

Sir Walter Raleigh Sir Humphrey Gilbert John Smith

Jamestown London Company Separatists Mayflower Compact George Calvert Harvard

William Penn St. Augustine Puritans

Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson Pocahontas William Bradford Opechancanough Squanto

Plymouth Company James Oglethorpe Quakers

Proprietary Colony New Amsterdam Pilgrims

Act of Toleration headright tobacco

John Winthrop Salem Witch Trials rice

Indenture System House of Burgesses indigo

Elizabeth I Sir Francis Drake The Armada

Martin Frobisher Richard Hakluyt Philip II

Royal Colonies New Sweden John Rolfe

James I The Protestant Reformation Powhatan

Peter Minuit The Anglican Church Charles I Joint Stock Companies predestination Roanoke The Triangular Trade

How did the Protestant Reformation influence the English effort to

establish colonies in America?

How did the English colonial system differ from those of France and Spain?

What were the differences in the founding, development, and characteristics of the Southern, New England, and Middle Colonies that constituted the thirteen English colonies along the Atlantic seaboard?

Why was Jamestown the first successful English colony in North America?

How did Massachusetts serve as the mother colony for the other New England colonies?

What were the methods employed by the colonists to obtain laborers to work in America?

How and why was slavery introduced in England’s North American colonies?

Why did the Salem Witch Trials occur, and what were their results?

What were the unique factors that led to the founding of Georgia, the last of the English colonies to be established?

How did the English colonies deal with the issue of religious freedom?

What were the functions of the colonial assemblies during the colonial era?

Assignment 2:

1. COMPETITION FOR EMPIRE

King Philip’s War Dominion of New England Port Royal

George Washington Nathaniel Bacon William & Mary

Sir William Berkeley The Glorious Revolution mercantilism

Iroquois Confederation Queen Anne’s War James Wolfe

King William’s War William Pitt (the Elder) Louisbourg

King George’s War Edward Braddock Fort Necessity

Lord Jeffrey Amherst Albany Plan Fort Duquesne

Edmund Andros Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle Pequot War

Peace of Paris (1763) Louis Joseph de Montcalm James II

Charles II Great War for the Empire Oliver Cromwell

The Great Awakening Leisler’s Rebellion Seven Years’ War

Quebec Montreal

What were the causes and results of the Pequot War, King Philip’s War, and Bacon’s Rebellion?

What impact did the Glorious Revolution in England have on the English colonies in America?

What role did colonies play in the mercantilist economic system?

What were the causes and results of the four colonial wars in North America between Great Britain and France?

Why is the term French and Indian War a misnomer for the last of those conflicts?

Although the English colonists vastly outnumbered their French opponents, the former was still hard-pressed to defeat the latter. Why?

How did the origin of the last war differ from its three predecessors?

What role did the British Army play in defeating the French in North America? How effective and reliable was the colonial militia in that effort?

What was William Pitt’s successful strategy for defeating the French during the Great War for the Empire (AKA-The French & Indian War)?

What did Great Britain gain from the Great War for the Empire?

1. THE ROAD TO REBELLION

“virtual” representation Patrick Henry James Otis

Proclamation of 1763 Thomas Hutchinson Lord North

The Navigation Acts The Declaratory Act John Adams

The Sugar Act Thomas Gage George III

Townshend Duties The Stamp Act Benjamin Franklin

Samuel Adams The Sons of Liberty The Boston Massacre

The Boston Tea Party The Coercive Acts The Quartering Act

Intolerable Acts Paul Revere 1st Continental Congress

Stamp Act Congress The Sons of Liberty John Hancock

Pontiac’s Rebellion Lexington & Concord The Enlightenment

“Taxation without representation is tyranny!”

How did British colonial policy change after the Great War for the Empire?

What new policies did the British government introduce immediately after the Great War for the Empire that disturbed many of their American colonists?

What grievances did the American colonists have against the British government, and were their complaints valid?

What were the causes and consequences of Pontiac’s Rebellion?

What were the causes and results of the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party?

What was the 1st Continental Congress convened, and what were its results?

Describe the events which led to the outbreak of fighting between the British and Americans in April of 1775.

Assignment 3:

1. FORGING A NEW NATION


Common Sense Thomas Paine Bunker Hill

Thomas Jefferson Valley Forge Saratoga

Trenton & Princeton Benedict Arnold William Howe

Nathaniel Greene King’s Mountain Cowpens

Horatio Gates Lexington & Concord Henry Clinton

Lord Charles Cornwallis George Rogers Clark Yorktown

John Burgoyne Declaration of Independence Daniel Morgan

Treaty of Paris (1783) 2nd Continental Congress Loyalists/Tories

Marquis de Lafayette Francois de Grasse Comte de Vergennes

Guilford Courthouse Comte de Rochambeau Long Island

The Continental Army The Hessians

Why was George Washington chosen as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, what military strategy did he employ to fight the Revolutionary War, and how much credit does he deserve for winning that conflict?

How did Washington recover from his disastrous defeats in New York during the summer and fall of 1776?

What role did Benedict Arnold play in winning the revolution, and why did he defect to the British?

How and why did British strategy change after 1778?

Why did the French form an alliance with the American rebels, and how significant was French aid in winning the struggle?

Nathaniel Greene never won a battle, yet he is considered a brilliant general. Why?

Why did the British finally give up and go home?

1. THE STRUGGLE FOR POLITICAL STABILITY

Articles of Confederation Northwest Ordnance James Madison

Land Ordnance of 1785 The Constitution The Bill of Rights

Shay’s Rebellion Virginia Plan Fallen Timbers

Philadelphia Convention Alexander Hamilton The XYZ Affair

The Great Compromise The 3/5ths Compromise Jay’s Treaty

The Tariff Whiskey Rebellion Anti-federalists

The Federalist Papers Quasi-War with France New Jersey Plan

Alien & Sedition Acts The 1st Bank of the U.S. Federalist Party

Jeffersonian Republicans Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions

The French Revolution Pinckney’s Treaty “checks & balances” “separation of powers” The Farewell Address

Why were the Articles of Confederation fatally flawed as our nation’s first constitution, and why did the efforts to amend them fail?

Describe the events that led to the convening of the Constitutional Convention in 1787. How did the delegates to it exceed their authority?

What were the key issues at the Constitutional Convention, and how were they settled?

Describe the process by which the Constitution was ratified. How was the process weighted in favor of ratification?

What were the political principles embodied in the Constitution, and how did it strengthen the powers of the national government?

What were the provisions of Alexander Hamilton’s financial program for the national government, what opposition did it encounter, and how was it adopted?

What political tradition did Washington establish by not running for a third term as President?

What advice did George Washington give to the nation in his Farewell Address?

What was the first truly contested Presidential election in our history, and what were its results?

What were the general differences in political philosophy between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson?

How did the United States respond to the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe between Britain and France, and what impact did their conflict have on our nation?

What were the causes and results of our undeclared war with France at the end of the 18th century?

What was the cause of the Whiskey Rebellion? How did the government’s handling of it differ from its earlier response to Shay’s Rebellion?

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