Virtual Lab 1: Virtual Microscopy

Virtual Lab 1: Virtual Microscopy
A. Estimate the size (length and width) of these microscopic objects in micrometers (microns):
1. An E. Coli cell. ________________
2 A mitochondrion. _______________
3. A Red blood cell. _______________
4. A virus. _______________________
5. A water molecule. _______________
1 Describe three differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
2. Describe three differences and three similarities between plant and animal cells.
C. Form a hypothesis
1. Hypothesize about how you might be able to sort a mixed population of cells into prokaryotes
and eukaryotes. Try to be practical, build on your understanding of the differences between the two cell classes.
2. Hypothesize about a means to separate out plant cells from a mixed sample of eukaryotic cells.

Virtual Lab 2: Cellular Processes

A. Bacterial Growth.
1. Estimate how long it takes for this population of bacteria to double. Hint- this population
doubles multiple times during the duration of this recording.
B. Cellular reproduction
1. Estimate the percentage of time that a constantly developing cell spends in interphase. Use the cell cycle links.
2. In a random selection of 100 such cells, estimate the number that would be undergoing mitosis at any given time. (Use your answer from part 1.)
3. Understand the basic differences between mitosis, meiosis, and binary fission. Is mitosis
more similar to meiosis or to binary fission? Explain your reasoning.
C. Cellular metabolism
1. In a paragraph or two compare and contrast photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
2. Describe the ecological relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
3. Consider the balance between cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Hypothesize about what might happen if a large number of producers were suddenly removed from the biosphere. Where might carbon accumulate if the ratio of number of producers to consumers was markedly reduced? Be explicit.

Virtual Lab 3: Genetics I
A Phenotype and Genotype of Dragons. You do not have to be able to access the Dragon website to answer these questions. Please type your solutions in bold faced font.
1. Define genotype and phenotype.
2. What is an allele?

B. Drosophila Lab. Enter the lab as a guest. You need to purchase a breeding pair of flies. Purchase a female mutant that has a small (vestigial) wing size and a male wild type fly. Wild types are genetically normal and are denoted with a +. Breed them and notice the resulting distribution of phenotypes.
1.Describe and explain the characteristic of the first generation (F1) of flies. Is the vestigial wing characteristic dominant or recessive?
2. Assume that the vestigial winged female’s genotype is vv and the wild type male’s genotype to be ++ and fill in the following Punnet square.

3. What percentage of the F1 generation would show the recessive characteristic phenotypically according to your table? Are your experimental breeding results consistent with what you expect from this assumption and the logic of the Punnet square?
4. Breed two of these F1 flies. To do this select a male and a female from the results of your first cross and put them in the breeding jar. Describe and explain the characteristics of the second generation (F2) flies.
5. Use a Punnet square to predict the ratios of a cross between two +v individuals. Is this consistent with your experimental observations?

C. Genetic Disorders Library. Describe the three main classes of genetic disorders and give an example of each.

Virtual Lab 4: Genetics II
1. On what basis is electrophoresis able to separate molecules?
2. What are the lengths of the three DNA bands that you produce in this lab?
B. Electrophoresis.
1. Select the pBR322 plasmid (a circular piece of DNA used as a cloning vector) to analyze (menu in upper left hand corner of the simulator). You will then see a diagram of the circular plasmid DNA along with the points along the length of the plasmid where the various restriction enzymes (EcoR I, Ple I, Hinc II, and Bgl I) will cut the DNA. For instance notice that the enzyme EcoR 1 only cuts the plasmid at one location at the top of the diagram, whereas the other enzymes cut the plasmid at other places. To analyzes the DNA we cut it up with different enzymes and slowly piece together an understanding of the entire sequence.
2. Load each lane as follows: lane 1 with Bgl 1; lane 2 with EcoR 1; lane 3 with Hinc II; lane 4 with Ple I; lane 5 with predetermined molecular weight markers.
3. Run the gel and describe and explain the number of bands in lanes 2 and 4.

C. Human Blood Types and Immune System
Complete the following Table
Blood Type
Antibodies present
(A, B, Rh) Can receive blood from type(s) Can donate blood to type(s)
O +

O –

A +

A –

B +

B –

AB +

AB –

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