How do Apple and Microsoft make money



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Accounting Principles

Our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).

We have recast certain prior period amounts to conform to the current period presentation. The recast of these prior period amounts had no impact on our consolidated balance sheets, consolidated income statements, or net cash from or used in operating, financing, or investing on our consolidated cash flows statements.

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Microsoft Corporation and its subsidiaries. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.

Estimates and Assumptions

Preparing financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses. Examples of estimates and assumptions include: for revenue recognition, determining the nature and timing of satisfaction of performance obligations, and determining the standalone selling price (“SSP”) of performance obligations, variable consideration, and other obligations such as product returns and refunds; loss contingencies; product warranties; the fair value of and/or potential impairment of goodwill and intangible assets for our reporting units; product life cycles; useful lives of our tangible and intangible assets; allowances for doubtful accounts; the market value of, and demand for, our inventory; stock-based compensation forfeiture rates; when technological feasibility is achieved for our products; the potential outcome of uncertain tax positions that have been recognized in our consolidated financial statements or tax returns; and determining the timing and amount of impairments for investments. Actual results and outcomes may differ from management’s estimates and assumptions due to risks and uncertainties, including uncertainty in the current economic environment due to the recent outbreak of a novel strain of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”).

In July 2020, we completed an assessment of the useful lives of our server and network equipment and determined we should increase the estimated useful life of server equipment from three years to four years and increase the estimated useful life of network equipment from two years to four years. This change in accounting estimate will be effective beginning fiscal year 2021.

Foreign Currencies

Assets and liabilities recorded in foreign currencies are translated at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date. Revenue and expenses are translated at average rates of exchange prevailing during the year. Translation adjustments resulting from this process are recorded to other comprehensive income.


Product Revenue and Service and Other Revenue

Product revenue includes sales from operating systems; cross-device productivity applications; server applications; business solution applications; desktop and server management tools; software development tools; video games; and hardware such as PCs, tablets, gaming and entertainment consoles, other intelligent devices, and related accessories.

Service and other revenue includes sales from cloud-based solutions that provide customers with software, services, platforms, and content such as Office 365, Azure, Dynamics 365, and Xbox Live; solution support; and consulting services. Service and other revenue also includes sales from online advertising and LinkedIn.

Revenue Recognition

Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services. We enter into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which are generally capable of being distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. Revenue is recognized net of allowances for returns and any taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental authorities.

Nature of Products and Services

Licenses for on-premises software provide the customer with a right to use the software as it exists when made available to the customer. Customers may purchase perpetual licenses or subscribe to licenses, which provide customers with the same functionality and differ mainly in the duration over which the customer benefits from the software. Revenue from distinct on-premises licenses is recognized upfront at the point in time when the software is made available to the customer. In cases where we allocate revenue to software updates, primarily because the updates are provided at no additional charge, revenue is recognized as the updates are provided, which is generally ratably over the estimated life of the related device or license.

Certain volume licensing programs, including Enterprise Agreements, include on-premises licenses combined with Software Assurance (“SA”). SA conveys rights to new software and upgrades released over the contract period and provides support, tools, and training to help customers deploy and use products more efficiently. On-premises licenses are considered distinct performance obligations when sold with SA. Revenue allocated to SA is generally recognized ratably over the contract period as customers simultaneously consume and receive benefits, given that SA comprises distinct performance obligations that are satisfied over time.

Cloud services, which allow customers to use hosted software over the contract period without taking possession of the software, are provided on either a subscription or consumption basis. Revenue related to cloud services provided on a subscription basis is recognized ratably over the contract period. Revenue related to cloud services provided on a consumption basis, such as the amount of storage used in a period, is recognized based on the customer utilization of such resources. When cloud services require a significant level of integration and interdependency with software and the individual components are not considered distinct, all revenue is recognized over the period in which the cloud services are provided.

Revenue from search advertising is recognized when the advertisement appears in the search results or when the action necessary to earn the revenue has been completed. Revenue from consulting services is recognized as services are provided.

Our hardware is generally highly dependent on, and interrelated with, the underlying operating system and cannot function without the operating system. In these cases, the hardware and software license are accounted for as a single performance obligation and revenue is recognized at the point in time when ownership is transferred to resellers or directly to end customers through retail stores and online marketplaces.

Refer to Note 19 – Segment Information and Geographic Data for further information, including revenue by significant product and service offering.

Significant Judgments

Our contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be

accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment. When a cloud-based service includes both on-premises software licenses and cloud services, judgment is required to determine whether the software license is considered distinct and accounted for separately, or not distinct and accounted for together with the cloud service and recognized over time. Certain cloud services, primarily Office 365, depend on a significant level of integration, interdependency, and interrelation between the desktop applications and cloud services, and are accounted for together as one performance obligation. Revenue from Office 365 is recognized ratably over the period in which the cloud services are provided.

Judgment is required to determine the SSP for each distinct performance obligation. We use a single amount to estimate SSP for items that are not sold separately, including on-premises licenses sold with SA or software updates provided at no additional charge. We use a range of amounts to estimate SSP when we sell each of the products and services separately and need to determine whether there is a discount to be allocated based on the relative SSP of the various products and services.

In instances where SSP is not directly observable, such as when we do not sell the product or service separately, we determine the SSP using information that may include market conditions and other observable inputs. We typically have more than one SSP for individual products and services due to the stratification of those products and services by customers and circumstances. In these instances, we may use information such as the size of the customer and geographic region in determining the SSP.

Due to the various benefits from and the nature of our SA program, judgment is required to assess the pattern of delivery, including the exercise pattern of certain benefits across our portfolio of customers.

Our products are generally sold with a right of return, we may provide other credits or incentives, and in certain instances we estimate customer usage of our products and services, which are accounted for as variable consideration when determining the amount of revenue to recognize. Returns and credits are estimated at contract inception and updated at the end of each reporting period if additional information becomes available. Changes to our estimated variable consideration were not material for the periods presented.

Contract Balances

Timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing to customers. We record a receivable when revenue is recognized prior to invoicing, or unearned revenue when revenue is recognized subsequent to invoicing. For multi-year agreements, we generally invoice customers annually at the beginning of each annual coverage period. We record a receivable related to revenue recognized for multi-year on-premises licenses as we have an unconditional right to invoice and receive payment in the future related to those licenses.

As of June 30, 2020 and 2019, long-term accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts, was $2.7 billion and $2.2 billion, respectively, and is included in other long-term assets in our consolidated balance sheets.

The allowance for doubtful accounts reflects our best estimate of probable losses inherent in the accounts receivable balance. We determine the allowance based on known troubled accounts, historical experience, and other currently available evidence.

Activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts was as follows:

(In millions)   
Year Ended June 30,202020192018
Balance, beginning of period$ 434$ 397$   361
Charged to costs and other   560   153   134
Write-offs(178 )(116 )(98 )
Balance, end of period$ 816$ 434$  397

Allowance for doubtful accounts included in our consolidated balance sheets:

(In millions)   
June 30,202020192018
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts$   788$   411  $   377  
Other long-term assets   28   23   20
Total$  816$  434$  397

Unearned revenue comprises mainly unearned revenue related to volume licensing programs, which may include SA and cloud services. Unearned revenue is generally invoiced annually at the beginning of each contract period for multi-year agreements and recognized ratably over the coverage period. Unearned revenue also includes payments for consulting services to be performed in the future; LinkedIn subscriptions; Office 365 subscriptions; Xbox Live subscriptions; Windows 10 post-delivery support; Dynamics business solutions; Skype prepaid credits and subscriptions; and other offerings for which we have been paid in advance and earn the revenue when we transfer control of the product or service.

Refer to Note 13 – Unearned Revenue for further information, including unearned revenue by segment and changes in unearned revenue during the period.

Payment terms and conditions vary by contract type, although terms generally include a requirement of payment within 30 to 60 days. In instances where the timing of revenue recognition differs from the timing of invoicing, we have determined our contracts generally do not include a significant financing component. The primary purpose of our invoicing terms is to provide customers with simplified and predictable ways of purchasing our products and services, not to receive financing from our customers or to provide customers with financing. Examples include invoicing at the beginning of a subscription term with revenue recognized ratably over the contract period, and multi-year on-premises licenses that are invoiced annually with revenue recognized upfront.

We record financing receivables when we offer certain of our customers the option to acquire our software products and services offerings through a financing program in a limited number of countries. As of June 30, 2020 and 2019, our financing receivables, net were $5.2 billion and $4.3 billion, respectively, for short-term and long-term financing receivables, which are included in other current assets and other long-term assets in our consolidated balance sheets. We record an allowance to cover expected losses based on troubled accounts, historical experience, and other currently available evidence.

Assets Recognized from Costs to Obtain a Contract with a Customer

We recognize an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if we expect the benefit of those costs to be longer than one year. We have determined that certain sales incentive programs meet the requirements to be capitalized. Total capitalized costs to obtain a contract were immaterial during the periods presented and are included in other current and long-term assets in our consolidated balance sheets.

We apply a practical expedient to expense costs as incurred for costs to obtain a contract with a customer when the amortization period would have been one year or less. These costs include our internal sales force compensation program and certain partner sales incentive programs as we have determined annual compensation is commensurate with annual sales activities.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue includes: manufacturing and distribution costs for products sold and programs licensed; operating costs related to product support service centers and product distribution centers; costs incurred to include software on PCs sold by original equipment manufacturers (“OEM”), to drive traffic to our websites, and to acquire online advertising space; costs incurred to support and maintain online products and services, including datacenter costs and royalties; warranty costs; inventory valuation adjustments; costs associated with the delivery of consulting services; and the amortization of capitalized software development costs. Capitalized software development costs are amortized over the estimated lives of the products.

Product Warranty

We provide for the estimated costs of fulfilling our obligations under hardware and software warranties at the time the related revenue is recognized. For hardware warranties, we estimate the costs based on historical and projected product failure rates, historical and projected repair costs, and knowledge of specific product failures (if any). The specific hardware warranty terms and conditions vary depending upon the product sold and the country in which we do business, but generally include parts and labor over a period generally ranging from 90 days to three years. For software warranties, we estimate the costs to provide bug fixes, such as security patches, over the estimated life of the software. We regularly reevaluate our estimates to assess the adequacy of the recorded warranty liabilities and adjust the amounts as necessary.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with product development. Research and development expenses also include third-party development and programming costs, localization costs incurred to translate software for international markets, and the amortization of purchased software code and services content. Such costs related to software development are included in research and development expense until the point that technological feasibility is reached, which for our software products, is generally shortly before the products are released to production. Once technological feasibility is reached, such costs are capitalized and amortized to cost of revenue over the estimated lives of the products.

Sales and Marketing

Sales and marketing expenses include payroll, employee benefits, stock-based compensation expense, and other headcount-related expenses associated with sales and marketing personnel, and the costs of advertising, promotions, trade shows, seminars, and other programs. Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expense was $1.6 billion in fiscal years 2020, 2019, and 2018.

Stock-Based Compensation

Compensation cost for stock awards, which include restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance stock units (“PSUs”), is measured at the fair value on the grant date and recognized as expense, net of estimated forfeitures, over the related service or performance period. The fair value of stock awards is based on the quoted price of our common stock on the grant date less the present value of expected dividends not received during the vesting period. We measure the fair value of PSUs using a Monte Carlo valuation model. Compensation cost for RSUs is recognized using the straight-line method and for PSUs is recognized using the accelerated method.

Compensation expense for the employee stock purchase plan (“ESPP”) is measured as the discount the employee is entitled to upon purchase and is recognized in the period of purchase.

Income Taxes

Income tax expense includes U.S. and international income taxes, and interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions. Certain income and expenses are not reported in tax returns and financial statements in the same year. The tax effect of such temporary differences is reported as deferred income taxes. Deferred tax assets are reported net of a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will not be realized. All deferred income taxes are classified as long-term in our consolidated balance sheets.

Financial Instruments


We consider all highly liquid interest-earning investments with a maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The fair values of these investments approximate their carrying values. In general, investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short-term investments. Investments with maturities beyond one year may be classified as short-term based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations.

Debt investments are classified as available-for-sale and realized gains and losses are recorded using the specific identification method. Changes in fair value, excluding other-than-temporary impairments, are recorded in other comprehensive income. Debt investments are impaired when a decline in fair value is judged to be other-than-temporary. Fair value is calculated based on publicly available market information or other estimates determined by management. We employ a systematic methodology on a quarterly basis that considers available quantitative and qualitative evidence in evaluating potential impairment of our investments. If the cost of an investment exceeds its fair value, we evaluate, among other factors, general market conditions, credit quality of debt instrument issuers, and the duration and extent to which the fair value is less than cost. We also evaluate whether we have plans to sell the security or it is more likely than not that we will be required to sell the security before recovery. In addition, we consider specific adverse conditions related to the financial health of, and business outlook, for the investee, including industry and sector performance, changes in technology, and operational and financing cash flow factors. Once a decline in fair value is determined to be other-than-temporary, an impairment charge is recorded in other income (expense), net and a new cost basis in the investment is established.

Equity investments with readily determinable fair values are measured at fair value. Equity investments without readily determinable fair values are measured using the equity method or measured at cost with adjustments for observable changes in price or impairments (referred to as the measurement alternative). We perform a qualitative assessment on a quarterly basis and recognize an impairment if there are sufficient indicators that the fair value of the investment is less than carrying value. Changes in value are recorded in other income (expense), net.


Derivative instruments are recognized as either assets or liabilities and measured at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of a derivative depends on the intended use of the derivative and the resulting designation.

For derivative instruments designated as fair value hedges, gains and losses are recognized in other income (expense), net with offsetting gains and losses on the hedged items. Gains and losses representing hedge components excluded from the assessment of effectiveness are recognized in other income (expense), net.

For derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges, gains and losses are initially reported as a component of other comprehensive income and subsequently recognized in earnings with the corresponding hedged item. Gains and losses representing hedge components excluded from the assessment of effectiveness are recognized in earnings.

For derivative instruments that are not designated as hedges, gains and losses from changes in fair values are primarily recognized in other income (expense), net.

Fair Value Measurements

We account for certain assets and liabilities at fair value. The hierarchy below lists three levels of fair value based on the extent to which inputs used in measuring fair value are observable in the market. We categorize each of our fair

value measurements in one of these three levels based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. These levels are:

• Level 1 – inputs are based upon unadjusted quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets. Our Level 1 investments include U.S. government securities, common and preferred stock, and mutual funds. Our Level 1 derivative assets and liabilities include those actively traded on exchanges.

• Level 2 – inputs are based upon quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, and model-based valuation techniques (e.g. the Black-Scholes model) for which all significant inputs are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities. Where applicable, these models project future cash flows and discount the future amounts to a present value using market-based observable inputs including interest rate curves, credit spreads, foreign exchange rates, and forward and spot prices for currencies. Our Level 2 investments include commercial paper, certificates of deposit, U.S. agency securities, foreign government bonds, mortgage- and asset-backed securities, corporate notes and bonds, and municipal securities. Our Level 2 derivative assets and liabilities primarily include certain over-the-counter option and swap contracts.

• Level 3 – inputs are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimates of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. The fair values are therefore determined using model-based techniques, including option pricing models and discounted cash flow models. Our Level 3 assets and liabilities include investments in corporate notes and bonds, municipal securities, and goodwill and intangible assets, when they are recorded at fair value due to an impairment charge. Unobservable inputs used in the models are significant to the fair values of the assets and liabilities.

We measure equity investments without readily determinable fair values on a nonrecurring basis. The fair values of these investments are determined based on valuation techniques using the best information available, and may include quoted market prices, market comparables, and discounted cash flow projections.

Our other current financial assets and current financial liabilities have fair values that approximate their carrying values.


Inventories are stated at average cost, subject to the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost includes materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead related to the purchase and production of inventories. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price less estimated costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. We regularly review inventory quantities on hand, future purchase commitments with our suppliers, and the estimated utility of our inventory. If our review indicates a reduction in utility below carrying value, we reduce our inventory to a new cost basis through a charge to cost of revenue.

Property and Equipment

Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation, and depreciated using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful life of the asset or the lease term. The estimated useful lives of our property and equipment are generally as follows: computer software developed or acquired for internal use, three to seven years; computer equipment, two to three years; buildings and improvements, five to 15 years; leasehold improvements, three to 20 years; and furniture and equipment, one to 10 years. Land is not depreciated.


We determine if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, other current liabilities, and operating lease liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment, other current liabilities, and other long-term liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets.

ROU assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent our obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. As most of our leases do not provide an implicit rate, we generally use our incremental borrowing rate based on the estimated rate of interest for collateralized borrowing over a similar term of the lease payments at commencement date. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives. Our lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise that option. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

We have lease agreements with lease and non-lease components, which are generally accounted for separately. For certain equipment leases, such as vehicles, we account for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component. Additionally, for certain equipment leases, we apply a portfolio approach to effectively account for the operating lease ROU assets and liabilities.


Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level (operating segment or one level below an operating segment) on an annual basis (May 1 for us) and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value.

Intangible Assets

Our intangible assets are subject to amortization and are amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated period of benefit, ranging from one to 20 years. We evaluate the recoverability of intangible assets periodically by taking into account events or circumstances that may warrant revised estimates of useful lives or that indicate the asset may be impaired.

Recent Accounting Guidance

Recently Adopted Accounting Guidance

Financial Instruments – Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities

In August 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued new guidance related to accounting for hedging activities. This guidance expands strategies that qualify for hedge accounting, changes how many hedging relationships are presented in the financial statements, and simplifies the application of hedge accounting in certain situations. We adopted the standard effective July 1, 2019. As we did not hold derivative instruments requiring an adjustment upon adoption, there was no impact in our consolidated financial statements. Adoption of the standard enhanced the presentation of the effects of our hedging instruments and the hedged items in our consolidated financial statements to increase the understandability of the results of our hedging strategies.

Recent Accounting Guidance Not Yet Adopted

Financial Instruments – Credit Losses

In June 2016, the FASB issued a new standard to replace the incurred loss impairment methodology under current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. We will be required to use a forward-looking expected credit loss model for accounts receivable, loans, and other financial instruments. Credit losses relating to available-for-sale debt securities will also be recorded through an allowance for credit losses rather than as a reduction in the amortized cost basis of the securities. The standard will be adopted upon the effective date for us beginning July 1, 2020. Adoption of the standard will be applied using a modified retrospective approach through

a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the effective date to align our credit loss methodology with the new standard. We have evaluated the impact of this standard in our consolidated financial statements, including accounting policies, processes, and systems. We continue to monitor economic implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on current market conditions, adoption of the standard will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Accounting for Income Taxes

In December 2019, the FASB issued a new standard to simplify the accounting for income taxes. The guidance eliminates certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period, and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences related to changes in ownership of equity method investments and foreign subsidiaries. The guidance also simplifies aspects of accounting for franchise taxes and enacted changes in tax laws or rates, and clarifies the accounting for transactions that result in a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill. The standard will be effective for us beginning July 1, 2021, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of this standard in our consolidated financial statements, including accounting policies, processes, and systems.


Basic earnings per share (“EPS”) is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is computed based on the weighted average number of shares of common stock plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. Dilutive potential common shares include outstanding stock options and stock awards.

The components of basic and diluted EPS were as follows:

(In millions, except earnings per share)   
Year Ended June 30,202020192018
Net income available for common shareholders (A)$   44,281$   39,240$   16,571
Weighted average outstanding shares of common stock (B)7,6107,6737,700
Dilutive effect of stock-based awards738094
Common stock and common stock equivalents (C)7,6837,7537,794
Earnings Per Share
Basic (A/B)$ 5.82$ 5.11$ 2.15
Diluted (A/C)$ 5.76$ 5.06$ 2.13

Anti-dilutive stock-based awards excluded from the calculations of diluted EPS were immaterial during the periods presented.


The components of other income (expense), net were as follows:

(In millions)   
Year Ended June 30,202020192018
Interest and dividends income$ 2,680$ 2,762$ 2,214
Interest expense(2,591 )(2,686 )(2,733 )
Net recognized gains on investments   32   648   2,399
Net gains (losses) on derivatives   187   144(187 )
Net losses on foreign currency remeasurements(191 )(82 )(218 )
Other, net(40 )(57 )(59 )
Total$ 77$ 729$ 1,416

Net Recognized Gains (Losses) on Investments

Net recognized gains (losses) on debt investments were as follows:

(In millions)   
Year Ended June 30,202020192018
Realized gains from sales of available-for-sale securities$    50$    12$      27
Realized losses from sales of available-for-sale securities(37 )(93 )(987 )
Other-than-temporary impairments of investments(17 )(16 )(6 )
Total$ (4 )$ (97 )$  (966 )

Net recognized gains (losses) on equity investments were as follows:

(In millions)   
Year Ended June 30,202020192018
Net realized gains on investments sold$ 83$   276$   3,406
Net unrealized gains on investments still held   69   479   0
Impairments of investments(116 )(10 )(41 )
Total$  36$  745$  3,365


Investment Components

The components of investments were as follows:

(In millions)Fair Value
Cost BasisUnrealizedGainsUnrealizedLossesRecordedBasisCashand CashEquivalentsShort-termInvestmentsEquityInvestments
June 30, 2020        
Changes in Fair Value Recorded in Other Comprehensive Income        
Commercial paperLevel 2$ 4,687$ 1$ 0$ 4,688$ 1,618$ 3,070$ 0
Certificates of depositLevel 2   2,898   0   0   2,898   1,646   1,252   0
U.S. government securitiesLevel 1   92,067   6,495(1 )   98,561   3,168   95,393   0
U.S. agency securitiesLevel 2   2,439   2   0   2,441   449   1,992   0
Foreign government bondsLevel 2   6,982   6(3 )   6,985   1   6,984   0
Mortgage- and asset-backed securitiesLevel 2   4,865   41(6 )   4,900   0   4,900   0
Corporate notes and bondsLevel 2   8,500   327(17 )   8,810   0   8,810   0
Corporate notes and bondsLevel 3   58   0   0   58   0   58   0
Municipal securitiesLevel 2   313   57(4 )   366   0   366   0
Municipal securitiesLevel 3   91   0   0   91   0   91   0
Total debt investments $   122,900$   6,929$   (31 )$   129,798$   6,882$   122,916$ 0
Changes in Fair Value
Recorded in Net Income
Equity investmentsLevel 1   $ 1,198$ 784$ 0$ 414
Equity investmentsOther      2,551   0   0   2,551
Total equity investments    $ 3,749$ 784$ 0$ 2,965
Cash    $ 5,910$ 5,910$ 0$ 0
Derivatives, net (a)       35   0   35   0
Total    $ 139,492$   13,576$ 122,951$   2,965
(In millions)Fair Value
Cost BasisUnrealizedGainsUnrealizedLossesRecordedBasisCashand CashEquivalentsShort-termInvestmentsEquityInvestments
June 30, 2019        
Changes in Fair Value Recorded in Other Comprehensive Income        
Commercial paperLevel 2$ 2,211$ 0$ 0$ 2,211$ 1,773$ 438$ 0
Certificates of depositLevel 2   2,018   0   0   2,018   1,430   588   0
U.S. government securitiesLevel 1   104,925   1,854(104 )   106,675   769   105,906   0
U.S. agency securitiesLevel 2   988   0   0   988   698   290   0
Foreign government bondsLevel 2   6,350   4(8 )   6,346   2,506   3,840   0
Mortgage- and asset-backed securitiesLevel 2   3,554   10(3 )   3,561   0   3,561   0
Corporate notes and bondsLevel 2   7,437   111(7 )   7,541   0   7,541   0
Corporate notes and bondsLevel 3   15   0   0   15   0   15   0
Municipal securitiesLevel 2   242   48   0   290   0   290   0
Municipal securitiesLevel 3   7   0   0   7   0   7   0
Total debt investments $   127,747$   2,027$   (122 )$   129,652$   7,176$   122,476$ 0
Changes in Fair Value
Recorded in Net Income
Equity investmentsLevel 1   $ 973$ 409$ 0$ 564
Equity investmentsOther      2,085   0   0   2,085
Total equity investments    $ 3,058$ 409$ 0$ 2,649
Cash    $ 3,771$ 3,771$ 0$ 0
Derivatives, net (a)    (13 )   0(13 )   0
Total    $ 136,468$  11,356$ 122,463$ 2,649

(a) Refer to Note 5 – Derivatives for further information on the fair value of our derivative instruments.

Equity investments presented as “Other” in the tables above include investments without readily determinable fair values measured using the equity method or measured at cost with adjustments for observable changes in price or impairments, and investments measured at fair value using net asset value as a practical expedient which are not categorized in the fair value hierarchy. As of June 30, 2020 and 2019, equity investments without readily determinable fair values measured at cost with adjustments for observable changes in price or impairments were $1.4 billion and $1.2 billion, respectively.

Unrealized Losses on Debt Investments

Debt investments with continuous unrealized losses for less than 12 months and 12 months or greater and their related fair values were as follows:

 Less than 12 Months12 Months or Greater Total
(In millions)Fair ValueUnrealized
Fair ValueUnrealized
Fair Value
June 30, 2020      
U.S. government and agency securities$ 2,323$ (1 )$ 0$ 0$ 2,323$ (1 )
Foreign government bonds500(3 )00500(3 )
Mortgage- and asset-backed securities1,014(6 )001,014(6 )
Corporate notes and bonds649(17 )00649(17 )
Municipal securities66(4 )0066(4 )
Total$ 4,552$ (31 )$ 0$ 0$ 4,552$ (31 )
 Less than 12 Months12 Months or Greater TotalUnrealizedLosses
(In millions)Fair ValueUnrealized
Fair ValueUnrealized
TotalFair Value
June 30, 2019      
U.S. government and agency securities$ 1,491$ (1 )$ 39,158$ (103 )$ 40,649$ (104 )
Foreign government bonds25077(8 )102(8 )
Mortgage- and asset-backed securities664(1 )378(2 )1,042(3 )
Corporate notes and bonds498(3 )376(4 )874(7 )
Total$ 2,678$ (5 )$ 39,989$ (117 )$   42,667$ (122 )

Unrealized losses from fixed-income securities are primarily attributable to changes in interest rates. Management does not believe any remaining unrealized losses represent other-than-temporary impairments based on our evaluation of available evidence.

Debt Investment Maturities

(In millions)Cost BasisEstimatedFair Value
June 30, 2020
Due in one year or less$ 36,169$ 36,276
Due after one year through five years51,46554,700
Due after five years through 10 years32,29935,674
Due after 10 years2,9673,148
Total$   122,900$   129,798


We use derivative instruments to manage risks related to foreign currencies, interest rates, equity prices, and credit; to enhance investment returns; and to facilitate portfolio diversification. Our objectives for holding derivatives include reducing, eliminating, and efficiently managing the economic impact of these exposures as effectively as possible. Our derivative programs include strategies that both qualify and do not qualify for hedge accounting treatment.

Foreign Currencies

Certain forecasted transactions, assets, and liabilities are exposed to foreign currency risk. We monitor our foreign currency exposures daily to maximize the economic effectiveness of our foreign currency hedge positions.

Foreign currency risks related to certain non-U.S. dollar-denominated investments are hedged using foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as fair value hedging instruments. Foreign currency risks related to certain Euro-denominated debt are hedged using foreign exchange forward contracts that are designated as cash flow hedging instruments.

In the past, option and forward contracts were used to hedge a portion of forecasted international revenue and were designated as cash flow hedging instruments. Principal currencies hedged included the Euro, Japanese yen, British pound, Canadian dollar, and Australian dollar.

Certain options and forwards not designated as hedging instruments are also used to manage the variability in foreign exchange rates on certain balance sheet amounts and to manage other foreign currency exposures.

Interest Rate

Interest rate risks related to certain fixed-rate debt are hedged using interest rate swaps that are designated as fair value hedging instruments to effectively convert the fixed interest rates to floating interest rates.

Securities held in our fixed-income portfolio are subject to different interest rate risks based on their maturities. We manage the average maturity of our fixed-income portfolio to achieve economic returns that correlate to certain broad-based fixed-income indices using exchange-traded option and futures contracts and over-the-counter swap and option contracts. These contracts are not designated as hedging instruments and are included in “Other contracts” in the tables below.


Securities held in our equity investments portfolio are subject to market price risk. At times, we may hold options, futures, and swap contracts. These contracts are not designated as hedging instruments and are included in “Other contracts” in the tables below.


Our fixed-income portfolio is diversified and consists primarily of investment-grade securities. We use credit default swap contracts to manage credit exposures relative to broad-based indices and to facilitate portfolio diversification. These contracts are not designated as hedging instruments and are included in “Other contracts” in the tables below.

Credit-Risk-Related Contingent Features

Certain of our counterparty agreements for derivative instruments contain provisions that require our issued and outstanding long-term unsecured debt to maintain an investment grade credit rating and require us to maintain minimum liquidity of $1.0 billion. To the extent we fail to meet these requirements, we will be required to post collateral, similar to the standard convention related to over-the-counter derivatives. As of June 30, 2020, our long-term unsecured debt rating was AAA, and cash investments were in excess of $1.0 billion. As a result, no collateral was required to be posted.

The following table presents the notional amounts of our outstanding derivative instruments measured in U.S. dollar equivalents:

(In millions)June 30,2020June 30,2019
Designated as Hedging Instruments  
Foreign exchange contracts purchased$ 635$ 0
Foreign exchange contracts sold6,7546,034
Interest rate contracts purchased1,2950
Not Designated as Hedging Instruments
Foreign exchange contracts purchased11,89614,889
Foreign exchange contracts sold15,59515,614
Other contracts purchased1,8442,007
Other contracts sold757456

Fair Values of Derivative Instruments

The following table presents our derivative instruments:

(In millions)Derivative
 June 30,2020June 30,2019
Designated as Hedging Instruments    
Foreign exchange contracts$ 44$ (54 )$ 0$ (93 )
Interest rate contracts   93   0   0   0
Not Designated as Hedging Instruments    
Foreign exchange contracts   245(334 )   204(172 )
Other contracts   18(11 )   46(7 )
Gross amounts of derivatives   400(399 )   250(272 )
Gross amounts of derivatives offset in the balance sheet(154 )   158(113 )   114
Cash collateral received   0(154 )   0(78 )
Net amounts of derivatives$ 246$ (395 )$ 137$ (236 )
Reported as    
Short-term investments$ 35$ 0$ (13 )$ 0
Other current assets   199   0   146   0
Other long-term assets   12   0   4   0
Other current liabilities   0(334 )   0(221 )
Other long-term liabilities   0(61 )   0(15 )
Total$   246$   (395 )$   137$   (236 )

Gross derivative assets and liabilities subject to legally enforceable master netting agreements for which we have elected to offset were $399 million and $399 million, respectively, as of June 30, 2020, and $247 million and $272 million, respectively, as of June 30, 2019.

 The following table presents the fair value of our derivatives instruments on a gross basis:

(In millions)Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
June 30, 2020    
Derivative assets$ 1$ 398$ 1$   400
Derivative liabilities0(399 )0(399 )
June 30, 2019    
Derivative assets02473250
Derivative liabilities0  (272 )0(272 )

Gains (losses) on derivative instruments recognized in our consolidated income statements were as follows:

(In millions)      
Year Ended June 30,Revenue2020
Designated as Fair Value Hedging Instruments      
Foreign exchange contracts      
Derivatives$        0$ 1$ 0$   (130 )$ 0$ (78 )
Hedged items030130078
Excluded from effectiveness assessment0  13901680103
Interest rate contracts      
Hedged items0(93 )0000
Equity contracts      
Derivatives00000(324 )
Hedged items00000324
Excluded from effectiveness assessment0000080
Designated as Cash Flow Hedging Instruments      
Foreign exchange contracts      
Amount reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income00  34101850
Excluded from effectiveness assessment00(64 )0  (255 )0
Not Designated as Hedging Instruments      
Foreign exchange contracts0(123 )0(97 )0(33 )
Other contracts0500380  (104 )

Gains (losses), net of tax, on derivative instruments recognized in our consolidated comprehensive income statements were as follows:

(In millions)   
Year Ended June 30,202020192018
Designated as Cash Flow Hedging Instruments   
Foreign exchange contracts   
Included in effectiveness assessment$   (38 )$   159$   219


The components of inventories were as follows:

(In millions)
June 30,20202019
Raw materials$ 700$ 399
Work in process8353
Finished goods1,1121,611
Total$   1,895$  2,063


The components of property and equipment were as follows:

(In millions)
June 30,20202019
Land$ 1,823$ 1,540
Buildings and improvements  33,995  26,288
Leasehold improvements5,4875,316
Computer equipment and software41,26133,823
Furniture and equipment4,7824,840
Total, at cost87,34871,807
Accumulated depreciation(43,197 )(35,330 )
Total, net$  44,151$  36,477


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