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According to the Langbein article in the reading, which of the following is true about the enlightenment:

  1. Deterrence thinkers such as Beccaria were part of the enlightenment.
  2. There was a strong movement to abolish the death penalty during the enlightenment.
  3. The enlightenment thinkers moved away from the concept of rational choice, and thus, prison was rarely used by the end of the enlightenment and beginning of the industrial revolution.
  4. Two of the above
  5. All of the above

Question 2

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According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, which of the following is true about judicial reprieve?

  1. It is a relatively modern strategy developed in the past 30 years.
  2. Offenders given a judicial reprieve were often given a full pardon at the end of their reprieve.
  3. It was given when the judge decided that the offender needed a sentence of retribution.
  4. Two of the above
  5. All of the Above

Question 3

According to the Langbein article in your reading, which of the following were true:

  1. The Death Penalty was used much more in Europe and specifically in England in the early 1800s than it had been in the 1500s and 1600s.
  2. The punishment of transportation developed out of the galley sentence in the late 1500s and early 1600s.
  3. When the British lost the revolutionary war, they shifted many of their offenders from Australian penal colonies to the use of transportation.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 4

According to the course lectures, which of the following is true about probation?

  1. John Augustus is given credit for establishing Probation.
  2. Probation was originally conceived to be more cost effective so that probation officers were overseeing a greater number of offenders on probation.
  3. There are more people in prison in the United States than on Probation.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 5

According to the course lectures, which of the following theories support using more alternative sanctions?

  1. Differential Association Theory
  2. Labeling Theory
  3. Social control Theory
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Flag question: Question 6

According to the class lectures, which of the following is true with regard to Day Reporting Centers

  1. They are a type of residential intermediate sanction
  2. They are less restrictive than basic probation
  3. A group of offenders that they oversee are those on probation that need enhanced treatment
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Flag question: Question 7

Question 71 pts

According to the article by Hollin, a primitive method used to determine guilt or innocence was called:

  1. Trial by Jury
  2. Trial by Ordeal
  3. Trial by Combat
  4. Trial by Fire
  5. None of the Above

Question 8

Which of the following are true with regard to halfway houses according to the Barton and Hanser text?

  1. Halfway houses are a type of Non-Community Based Residential Intermediate Sanction
  2. Most of those placed into halfway houses are offenders who have been serving probation and need transition from probation to full release.
  3. Halfway houses are another name for restitution centers
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 9

which of the following ideas would Cesare Beccaria been in agreement with?

  1. People think rationally
  2. People seek pleasure and avoid penalties / pain
  3. The penalties for crime should outweigh the pleasure gained from the crime
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 10

According to the class lectures, which of the following is true with regard to home detention?

  1. A rationale of this penalty is that it can allow offenders to still work or receive rehabilitation while serving their sentences.
  2. It is commonly used in conjunction with electronic monitoring.
  3. It can be used as a primary penalty or also as a way to transition offenders from prison to full release.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 11

According to the course lectures, which of the following were popular penalties during the dark and middle ages?

  1. Banishment
  2. Restorative Justice
  3. Halfway Houses
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 12

According to the Kaeble and Apler article in the reading, which of the following is true?

  1. Probation use in the United States decreased between 2008 – 2018
  2. Parole use decreased at a higher rate than did Probation Use in the U.S. between 2008-2018
  3. The amount of people under community supervision as a whole increased from 2008-2018.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 13

Which of the following are true about Reentry Courts according to the Barton and Hanser textbook?

  1. They divert offenders to alternative sanctions before they are ever incarcerated.
  2. They attempt to ensure public safety while helping to integrate inmates back into society.
  3. They help prepare offenders for release from incarceration.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 14

According to the Barton and Hanser text, which of the following is true about the sanction of ISP?

  1. Its stands for Intermediate Supervised Probation
  2. It is a type of intermediate sanction
  3. It is a type of community-based residential intermediate sanction
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 15

According to the course lectures, which of the following was true about the penalties in the dark and middle ages?

  1. They focused of efficiency.
  2. They were unethical by today’s standards
  3. They included the use of offenders as slaves and / or indentured servants
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 16

According to the course lectures, which of the following support the use of diversion programs?

  1. The Labeling Effect
  2. The Criminogenic Effect
  3. Net Widening
  4. All of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 17

which of the following is true about probation officers?

  1. A major criticism of probation is that probation officers do not oversee enough offenders on probation.
  2. Probation officers typically oversee offenders who have recently been released from prison.
  3. Probation officers usually have to create Pre-Sentence Investigation Reports
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 18

which of the following is a type of shock incarceration?

  1. Probation
  2. House Arrest
  3. Boot Camps
  4. Chain Gangs
  5. DARE Programs

Question 19

According to the Langbein article in your reading, which of the following were rationales behind using the galley sentence?

  1. The need use offenders as a labor resource to help power boats.
  2. The potential that the galley sentence would be feared and deter offenders.
  3. A belief that the galley sentence was more humane than probation.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Flag question: Question 20

Question 201 pts

According to the Langbein, which of the following can be used to describe punishment towards the end of middle-ages (in the 1500s)?

  1. The punishments of death and physical punishment were common during the late middle ages.
  2. Prisoners did not have that as many rights in the middle-ages as they do today in the United States.
  3. The church was a key factor in the use of prison as a penal sanction
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 21

According to the Langbein article, which of the following represented similarities between the European Galley and Prison Schemes and the English system of Transportation?

  1. They both were used for offenders who would have been subjected to blood sanctions.
  2. They were both used for serious crimes, but, not the most serious crimes.
  3. They both sought to take offenders out of general society and to reduce the use of blood sanctions.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 22

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, which of the following are examples of diversion programs?

  1. Drug Courts
  2. Clerk of Courts
  3. Appeals Courts
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 23

According to the course lectures, which of the following contributed to the expanded use of prison across the West?

  1. The abolition of slavery and development of ethics
  2. The popularity of deterrence
  3. The movement towards efficient and cost-effective penalties
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 24

According to the course lectures, which of the following is true about a revocation hearing brought against an offender accused of violating probation?

  1. The hearing can only be brought when the person on probation has committed a crime while on probation.
  2. To revoke one’s probation, it must be found beyond a reasonable doubt that the offender has violated the terms of his or her probation.
  3. The revocation hearing has four distinct phases.
  4. Two of the above
  5. None of the Above

Question 25

According to the course lectures, which of the following is true about parole?

  1. It began in the 1960s in the United States
  2. It is used more in Florida than the majority of states.
  3. It has been criticized as overlooking the victim of the crime
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 26

which of the following are people who might serve on a parole board?

  1. Judges
  2. Criminologists
  3. Psychiatrists
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 27

According to the Barton and Hanser text, which of the following is true about Home Detention?

  1. It is another name for House Arrest
  2. It is sometimes used in conjunction with electronic monitoring
  3. Critics have contended that it reduces the net-widening effect.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 28

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook and the course lectures, which of the following is true about fines and restitution.

  1. Both fines and restitution are often used in conjunction with probation.
  2. Fines are popular in European countries, particularly in England.
  3. Fines have been criticized for causing poor offenders to be more likely to violate the terms of their probations.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 29

According to the article by Hollin, which of the following best describes specific deterrence?

  1. The experience of the punishment deters the individual experiencing it from committing further crimes.
  2. Increases in the likelihood of being apprehended or the perception of being apprehended for crime will lead to decreases in the likelihood to commit crime.
  3. Seeing others being punished will deter those viewing it from committing crime.
  4. The quicker punishment occurs in a jurisdiction, the less crime that will eventually occur.
  5. None of the Above

Question 30

According to the Barton and Hanser text, which of the following are true about study release programs?

  1. They are not as common as work release programs.
  2. They are sometimes used in conjunction with work release programs.
  3. They have been used for various levels of education, from GEDs to college.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 31

Which of the following according to the Barton and Hanser text is the process whereby the oldest child in the family is legally given responsibility for caring for the younger child or children in the family.

  1. Foster care
  2. Child Indemnification
  3. Child Parentification
  4. Child Custody
  5. Parens Patraie

Flag question: Question 32

Question 321 pts

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, which of the following is an early process in England where a prisoner that was given sanctuary at a church could confess to his or her crimes and negotiate the ability to leave the country and live elsewhere without punishment.

  1. Penal Colony
  2. Transportation
  3. Abjuration
  4. Mercy Rule
  5. None of the Above

Question 33

According to the Barton and Hanser text, which of the following are true about boot camps

  1. They are a type of Community-Based Residential Intermediate Sanction
  2. They are a type of shock incarceration
  3. They have been used for adults as well as juveniles
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 34

According to the course lectures, which of the following were historical systems that had an impact on the development of prisons?

  1. The Auburn Prison System
  2. The Chattanooga Prison System
  3. The Pennsylvania Prison System
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 35

Which of the following is true about our criminal justice system according to the course lectures?

  1. About half of the cases today in the court system end in a plea-bargain
  2. There are over four million people under some sort of community supervision in the United States.
  3. Those placed on probation have the same constitutional protections of law-abiding citizens not under correctional supervision.
  4. All of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 36

which of the following is true about residential treatment centers?

  1. Offenders do not live at these centers, they simply visit these centers during the day.
  2. They are similar to diversion courts, although these centers typically deal with more serious offenders than diversion courts
  3. They are only used for adults, not juveniles.
  4. Two of the Above
  5. None of the Above

Question 37

which of the following is true about Differential Association Theory?

  1. It was developed in part as a critique of biological theories of crime such as that put forth by Lombroso.
  2. It contends that criminal behavior is learned in a way similar to how any legal behavior is learned.
  3. Crime differences across people of people living in the same environment can be explained by the different priorities, frequencies, and priorities placed on criminals and non-criminals that one is around.
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the Above

Question 38

which of the following had an impact on the development of parole?

  1. John Augustus
  2. Cesare Beccaria
  3. Zebulon Brockway
  4. Cesare Lombroso
  5. Jeremy Bentham

Question 39

According to the course lectures, which of the following ideas support using parole?

  1. Determinate Sentencing
  2. Indeterminate Sentencing
  3. Institutionalization Effect
  4. Two of the Above
  5. All of the Above

Question 40

Which of the following is a term used for penalties that do not involve the use of incarceration?

  1. Determinate Sentencing
  2. Deterrence
  3. Alternative Sanctions
  4. Parens Patriae
  5. Audible

Question 41

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, a positive punishment occurs when a negative stimuli or unpleasant stimuli (such as electronic monitoring) is removed when a desired behavior (such as perfect attendance at rehabilitation) occurs.

True

False

Question 42

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, a bachelor’s degree is typically required to become either a parole officer or a probation officer.

True

False

Question 43

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, restitution centers are typically reserved for the most violent offenders.

True

False

Question 44

According to the course lectures, prison was used in the early and Middle Ages more than it is used today.

True

False

Question 45

According to the course lectures, a problem caused by net-widening is that it could increase those impacted by the criminogenic effect.

True

False

Question 46

According to the course lectures, the state of Florida still allows for parole of some offenders who were convicted and sentenced in the past.

True

False

Question 47

According to the course lectures, an advantage of Day Reporting Centers is that they are less costly than probation sentences.

True

False

Question 48

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, about one-third (33%) of those on parole today are women.

True

False

Question 49

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, failure of a parent to assure that a child with special needs receives the correct services is an example of educational neglect.

True

False

Question 50

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, probation is considered to be less severe than other alternative sanctions such as intensive supervision, house arrest, and electronic monitoring.

True

False

Question 51

According to the course lectures, a criticism of our reliance on deterrence is that many offenders are either mentally ill and / or under the influence of substances when they commit crime.

True

False

Question 52

According to the course lectures, probation officers make the final decision about whether an offender has violated his or her probation during a revocation hearing.

True

False

Question 53

According to the course lectures, restitution is different than fines because restitution requires that the offender pay money to the victim or victim’s family.

True

False

Question 54

According to the course lectures there has been much research that supports policies that increase penalties with the assumption that those increases in penalties will result in increases in people perceptions that penalties for crime are increasing.

True

False

Question 55

According to the Barton and Hanser textbook, probation officers have to answer more to judges than do parole officers.

True

False

Question 56

The article by Andrew Von Hirsch in the Barton and Hanser textbook focuses on the ethical concerns with placing offenders into prison.

True

False

Question 57

According to the course lectures, the classical school and deterrence theorists support parole as a key part of their ideology.

True

False

Question 58

According to the course lectures, the public safety approach has the primary goal of retribution.

True

False

Question 59

According to the course lectures, incapacitation is one of the most simple criminal justice policies to empirically test.

True

False

Question 60

According to the course lectures, the majority of research focusing on coerced treatment has found that it does not significantly improve the recidivism of recidivism over other approaches.

True

False

Question 61

P

  • People Will see that others are being punished for a crime will be deterred from committing crime.
  • Punishments that occur soon after the crime will be a more effective deterrent than those that take place long after the crime
  • A greater likelihood of penalties for committing crime will result in deterrence
  • Elevating the punishment level for crime of involvement will result in deterrence
  • A criminal who experiences punishment for crime will be deterred from committing crime in the future

lease Match the type of Deterrence with the Correct Description.

Certainty of Punishment

Severity of Punishment

Swiftness of Punishment

General Deterrence

Specific Deterrence

Question 62

Please Match the term that is related to Parole with its Correct Description.

Discretionary Parole

M

  • Decides whether an inmate should be allowed out on parole
  • None of the above
  • Occurs when April he has to serve his Entire sentence or longer
  • Occurs when a Parolee’s good time is equal to the remaining days left on his sentence
  • Occurs when parolee will requests parole before his or her mandatory parole review date

andatory Parole

Expiratory Parole

Parole Board

Clemency Hearing

Question 63

P

  • Increasing ask that are considered crimes bring more people into the criminal justice
  • Inmates who have limited sources in prison have difficulty simulating back into society upon release
  • When punishment results and the offender committing more crime rather than having the desired deterrent effect
  • A strategy meant to reduce the negative affects of the criminal justice system on offenders
  • The reaction of society to offenders can impact the offenders self-concept

lease match the correct term that is related to an impact of Incarceration with its correct description.

Net Widening

Labeling

Criminogenic Effect

Institutionalization

Diversion

Question 64

Please match the influential name in the history of corrections to the specific policy / strategy that this person impacted.

J

  • Probation
  • None of the above
  • Deterrence
  • Indeterminate sentencing
  • Parole

ohn Augustus

Zebulon Brockway

Cesare Beccaria

Alexander Maconochie

Travis Hirschi

Question 65

P

  • Attempts to keep the founder from committing crime again by keeping he or she away from society
  • Attempts to keep the offender from committing a crime again by changing his or her character
  • The need for penalties to provide a feeling of justice to the victim and society
  • Attempts to balance the correct penalty for the victim, offender, and society
  • Attempts to keep the offender from committing a crime again through the threat of penalties

lease Match the Goal of Punishment with its Correct Description.

Retribution

Rehabilitation

Deterrence

Incapacitation

Restorative Justice

Q

  • Allowed for orphaned children to be adopted by middle and upper class families.
  • Reduced the responsibility of the child for being wayward
  • Locked up juveniles and with adults with homeless adults, those with mental illness, etc
  • Allows parents to take a break from their children while they get their lives together
  • A type of wildness camp

uestion 66

Please Match the Term Surrounding Juvenile Justice with its Correct Description

Almshouses

Florida Youth Ranch

Respite Care

Parens Patriae

Child-Savers

Question 67

P

  • People use rationalization to allow themselves to justify crime
  • The reaction to crime by society can lead to more crime
  • Bonding to conventional society is key to refraining from crime
  • None of the above
  • Crime is learned just has all other behavior is learned

lease Match the Theory with its correct description.

Labeling Theory

Social Control Theory

Differential Association Theory

Neutralization Theory

Differential Opportunity Theory

Question 68

Please Match the type of Intermediate Sanction with its correct description

H

  • Working in the community as a punishment for crime
  • Helps offenders transition from incarceration to society
  • Allows offenders to stay at the residence while serving
  • And example is boot camp
  • Is typically part of house arrest

ome Detention

Halfway house

Shock Incarceration

Community Service

Electronic Monitoring

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