FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

2020 Success Center Citation Guide Based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association — 7th Edition 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 2 Citation Guide – 7th Edition This document covers certain citation formats addressed in the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) but is not a complete guide. Should you have any questions, please contact the CSU Success Center by email at teamsucceed@columbiasouthern.edu or by phone at (877) 875 -0533. For all rules a nd require ments of APA , please refer to the 7 th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , which can be purchased through the American Psychological Association at https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication -manual – 7th -edition/ . 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 3 Contents What is APA format and why is it used? ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 4 Citing Sources ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 5 Citations in In-text ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 5 Examples of in-text citations ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 6 Example of block quote in-text citation ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 7 Reference List ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 7 Examples of reference list entries ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ….. 8 Selecting Appropriate Research Sources ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 12 Formatting ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 12 Document formatting in APA style ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 12 Steps for document formatting ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 13 Specific formatting steps for documents ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 16 Library Resources and Services for CSU Students ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 17 Sample Essay ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 18 Sample Research Paper ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………… 19 References ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 20 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 4 What is APA Format and W hy is it U sed? The American Psychological Association is a professional organization representing psychologists in the United States. APA format is a set of rules developed to assist with writing and the citing of sources . Following the rules laid out in the Publication Manual helps to prevent plagiarism and acknowledge s the original author of the information used . It is meant to provide a concise and standardized citation format for written assignments ( such as essays, research papers, and article critiques , among others ) and is used for all Columbia Southern University courses. In educational institutions, academic integrity is an area of great concern. Academic integrity refers to being intellectually honest by “avoiding… cheating, plagiarism, self – plagiarism, and/or poor scholarship” (Columbia Southern University, 2019 , p.28). Adhering to APA guidelines can prevent academic integrity violations (especially plagiarism) by clearly marking which words and i deas belong to outside sources. Committin g an academic integrity violation of any kind can have serious consequences. Plagiarism is the act of stealing someone else’s work and passing it off as one’s own. It can be deliberate or accidental; deliberate plagiarism includes directly copying, summarizing, or paraphras ing a source without giving credit to the author or putting it in quotation marks. This type of plagiarism also includes turning in a paper that has been bought, written by another student, or copied from a nother source. Accidental plagiarism is when a writer uses another author’s thoughts or ideas without realizing credit must be provided. This includes working in groups and submitting the same answers as other students , forgetting to place quotation marks around a d irect quotation , omitting a n in -text citation for a summary or a paraphrase, and omitting a n in-text citation for the ideas of another writer. Accidental plagiarism also includes submitting an assignment that has already been previously submitted in another course.

Unfor tunately, both types of plagiarism can result in a faili ng grade, suspension from the university , or even expulsion. There are a few ways APA can help students avoid plagiarism. The primary way to avoid it is to cite any ideas that a re not one’s own. Citations help readers to locate the sources used in a paper. Citations should not only be used for direct quotes, but they should also be provided when information is paraphrase d or summarize d from another author. Paraphrasing a source’s material is a good way to avoid copying directly from an outside source and possibly being reprimanded. If any questions or concerns about APA format, please feel free to contact the CSU Success Center by email at teamsucceed@columbiasouthern.edu or by phone at (877) 875 – 0533 . For additional information on plagiarism and academic integrity , please see the Writing Center’s Plagiarism Tutorial . 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 5 Citing Sources When writing a paper in APA 7 th edition style , there are two specific ways to cite the information that is used : within the text and in the reference list at the end of the paper. Citation s are utilized when a phrase, a piece of specific information, or a sequence of sentences is drawn from a n outside source. To meet APA requirements specified f or CSU written essay responses , in-text citations and a reference list must be included if any outside sources are used. For formal papers , follow all guidelines listed in this handout. For all rules and requirements of APA, please refer to the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , which can be purchased through the American Psychological Association at https://apastyle.apa.org/products/publication -manual -7th -edition/ . In -text Citations  An in-text citation should be used when a phrase, a piece of specific information, or an idea is drawn from an outside source.  In-text citations are also required when putting the author’s information in your own words (paraphrasing).  Citing helps to prevent plagiarism, and it acknowledges the original author of the information used.  In-text citations and reference citations must always correspond; each in-text citation must have a matching reference citation and vice -versa. APA uses t he author -year method of citation.  It is standard practice for the period at the end of the sentence to be placed after the last parentheses of the in-text citation. An exception is made if inserting a direct quote that contains more than 40 words; in thi s instance, the period is placed directly before the in-text citation. Paraphrased Information When paraphrasing or summarizing a source , provide the author’s last name and year of publication (separated by a comma) . Page and paragraph numbers are not required when you are paraphrasing information. However , be sure to consult with your faculty member to determine his or her preference on adding page numbers in citations. Direct Quotations If utilizing a direct quote , this must be indi cated by placing the passage in quotation marks. Further, the specific page or paragraph number is always required . If there is no page or paragraph number, as is the case for many electronic sources , provide a section heading or other label to indicate the passage the quote was borrowed from . For additional information , please see the Writing Center’s In-text Citations Tutorial . 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 6 Example s of in-text citations Reference Type Examples of in -text citations Paraphrased information from one author It has been found … can be concluded (Simpson, 2007). According to Simpson (2007), … can cause problems. Other people say… based on Simpson (2007). Paraphrased information from two authors There are … at this point (Stemmer & Tisdale, 2008). Stemme r and Tisdale (2008) mention … a set of styles. This plan will … according to Stemmer and Tisdale (2008). Paraphrased information from three or more authors When stating…. can be located (Padgett et al., 2004). Padgett et al. (2004) explain … is further noted. Direct quotation less than 40 words “It is amazing…with confidence” (OSHA, 2010, p. 121). According to Da vis and Dudley (2005), “ We are… to save” (para. 5). “What is lost…come at all” (Ingram et al., 2001, pp. 8 -9). Paraphrased information with no author listed When using data … can be seen (“Title of D ocument,” 2003). If information is … was conquered (“Driving and T alking,” 2004). According to “Leadership Versus M anagement” (2001), … is an art form. Information from a secondary source It can be found … in Stemmer’s work (as cited in Pratt, 2008). According to Stemmer’s work (as cited in Pratt, 2008), “ …” (p. 65). **Add the page number if you use a direct quote from Stemmer found in Pratt’s work. Information via personal communication J. M. Newsome (personal communication, May 30, 2008) expressed … …of time (V. P. DeLuca, personal communication, November 9, 2007). **Personal comm unication should only be listed in the in -text, not on the reference list. Information found in classical works …will have everlasting life ( King James Bible , 1769/2017, John 3:16). …as read in the Bible in John 3:16 ( King James Bible , 1769/2017 ). 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 7 Direct Quotation s of 40 or more words Block quotations (quotes that contain 40 words or more) are formatted differently, as they have no quotation marks . In formal writing, block quotations are acceptable, although thei r use should not be in excess. W hile block quotes are accepted in formal writing, the use of them in essay responses is not encouraged due to the length of the assignment. Block quotations are indented an additional .5” and double spaced. The period is placed before the citation. Block Quotation Example The solutions proposed by a number of advocacy groups underscore this interest in political and cultural change. A report outlined trends that may have contributed to the childhood obesity crisis. This includes food advertising for children as well as a reduction in physical education classes and after -school athletic programs, an increase in the availability of sodas and snacks in public schools, the growth in the number of fast -food outlets, and the increasing number of highly proc essed high -calorie and high -fat grocery products. (Kaiser, 2004, p p. 1 -2) Reference List The reference list is of the utmost importance, as it allows the reader to access the sources cited in the in-text and enables the student writer to give credit where credit is due. For this reason, the references should contain accurate information, as well as proper punctuation and spelling. References will follow the conclusion of any APA document. For each referen ce listed, there will be at least one corresponding in-text citation in the document. Examples of reference source formatting can be found on the following page s.  If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) available, include that in the reference. The D OI is precisely used to give the reader information about where the document can be found on the Internet. The DOI is typically located near the copyright notice on the first page of the electronic journal article. In the case that there is no DOI, provide the homepage URL of the web page where you found the article. (Please note the DOI , when available, is required in doctoral courses.)  Multiple citations containing the same author and year should first be listed chronologically by the specific date (with newer sources being listed first) and then alphabetically by the title . A lowercase a, b, c, etc. should be placed after the year to distinguish between the entries. This is also used in the in-text citations. For example: Smith, J. (2013a , March 8 ). How to groom cats . Garden Press. Smith, J. (2013b , January 20 ). How to groom dogs . Garden Press. For additional information , please see the Writing Center’s References Tutorial . 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 8 Examples of reference list entries Reference List What to Include Information and Examples General Referencing Information  When listing the author on the reference list, the last name should be first, followed by the author’s first and middle (if applicable) initials. For example : Smith, J. R.  References should be placed in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name, by associates (if the work is authorized by an organization), or by anonymous. Anonymous should only be listed as the author if it is signed as such.  If a particular person did not create the document being cited, use the organization that created the document.  The document tit le can be substituted as the author if no author is provided. In this case, the first word of the title will dictate the alphabetical placement ( “a,” “an, ” and “the ” notwithstanding).  The letters “n.d.” (no date) can be utilized if the so urce listed has no listed date. Substitute “n.d.” where the date would normally go. For example : Smith, R. T. (n.d.)…  Professional credentials , such as Ph. D., should no t be used on the reference page.  References beginning with numerals should be alphabetized based on the s pelling of the numeral  States should be identified with their two letter abbreviations, such as AL, MS, and NY .  Spell out cities and countries outside the United States. 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 9 Reference List What to Include Information and Examples Books  For titles on the reference list, only capitalize the first word of the title, proper nouns, and the first word after a colon or dash.  Journal articles and books only require the year, rather than the entire date.  Book titles should be italicized within the reference list. Book Author(s). (date of publication). Book title . Publisher. Book Examples: Erickson, C. K . (2007). The science of addiction: From neurobiology to treatment . W.W. Norton & Company. Morenberg, M. ( 2014). Doing grammar (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. Periodicals: Journals, magazines, and newspaper articles  For the name of the actual publication the article appears in (journal, magazine, or newspaper), use standard title capitalization. Capitalize all words with the exception of conjunctions, articles, and short propositions; however, capitalize all words tha t have four letters or more.  Magazine articles, newsletters, and newspaper articles require the listing of the entire date when available (month or month and day). For example: (2001, May) or (2001, May 2)  Journal articles and books only require the year.  For journal articles, there is no need to write out the words volume, issue, p., or pp. Th e order of the numbers indicate what they represent . 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 10 Reference List What to Include Information and Examples Periodicals: Journals, magazines, and newspaper articles continued Author(s). (date of publication). Article title. Journal Title , volume (issue), page numbers. Retrieval information. *Retrieval information for online sources can be either a URL or a DOI. If neither is available, treat the journal like a print source. Journal Examples: Clark, L. B. (2019, April). Education as property. Virginia Law Review, 105 (2), 397 -424. Rouw, R., & Erfanian, M. (2018, March). A large -scale study of misophonia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74 (3), 453 -479. doi:10.1002/jclp.22500. Smith, J. E. (2003). Addiction and environmental change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 (3), 47 -68. http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/psp/ Websites  Do not add a period after the retrieval information (URL or DOI ). Oth erwise, the period mi ght be mis taken as p art of the URL.  The URL can either be an active hyperlink (blue and underlined), or the hyperlink formatting can be removed.  To ensure accuracy, always test the URL prior to submission .  Italicize the titles of webpages. Author(s). (date of publication). Title of page . Retrieval information (including direct URL) Website Examples: Cain, A., & Burris, M. (1999). Investigation of the use of mobile phones while driving . http://w ww.cutr.eng.usf.edu/oldpubs /mobile_phone .pdf 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 11 Reference List What to Include Information and Examples Websites continued Starbucks Coffee Company. (n.d.). Starbucks social impact. https://starbucks.com/responsibility If there is not an author listed, you can use the company that created the website as an organizational author. PowerPoint slides  The PowerPoint format description in brackets is used because the format is something out of the ordinary.  The title of the PowerPoint should be italicized. Author(s). (date of publication). Title of slideshow [Format of document].

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Retriev al information PowerPoint Examples: Sprott, J. C. (2000). Is global warming for real? [PowerPoint slides].

http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/ lectures.htm#warming How to succeed in business [PowerPoint slides]. (n.d.). http://online.columbiasouthern.edu /webapps.jsp If there is no author, list the title of the document in the author’s position. Personal conversations, emails, interviews, and letters Do not include on the reference page. Due to retrieval inability, personal conversations, emails, interviews, and letters should not be listed on the reference page. Instead, cite these as a personal communication in the in -text. For an example, see the chart on page 6 (information via personal communication). 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 12 Selecting Appropriate Research Sources In academic writing, only certain types of resources are considered acceptable. All sources mentioned in this guide are sources that are considered to be academic. If you have any questions regarding acceptable and unacceptable sources or how different types of sources can be used, please contact the CSU Library. Additional information about the CSU Library can be found on page 17 of this guide. Formatting W hen writing any type of formal paper, the document should have in-text citations and a reference list , and should be formatted in accordance to APA format. The following are specific instructions on how to set up a document in APA format using Microsoft Word. Document formatting in APA style General Formatting Information Margins  All margins (top, bottom, and sides) should be set at one inch.  Microsoft Word allows the user to set the margin at a default of one inch on all sides. Page Numbers  Page numbers should be listed in the top right corner of the document, beginning on the title page. Alignment/ Line Spacing  All documents following APA guidelines are required to be flush -left style and double -spaced throughout the entire document.  Additional spacing should not be used between headings and paragraphs. Font Type and Size  APA font options include the following: o Times New Roman, size 12 o Calibri, size 11 o Arial, size 11 o Lucida Sans Unicode, size 10 o Georgia, size 11 o Computer Modern, size 10 Paragraph Indention  All papers typed in APA format require the first line of each paragraph to be indented .5”.  Pressing the Tab button on the keyboard automatically indents the text .5” . For additional information , please see the Writing Center’s Formatting Formal Assignments Tutorial . 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 13 Steps for document formatting Formatting Steps Title Page NOTE: The title page of the document can be thought of as the paper’s first impression. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the format required by APA. 1. The title of the paper (in bold) should be centered on the page and followed by a single space. Then, also centered, list the student’s name , the name of the university , the course , the name of the instructor , and the due date . Abstract NOTE: All papers at CSU do not require an abstract. Please consult the course syllabus or professor for specifications about this. 1. The abstr act tells the audien ce why th ey should ca re about the presented t opic. 2. It provid es the m ethods th at wi ll be uti lized in ord er to get the resul ts. 3. The word “Abstract” will be listed, ce nt ered and bold, one inch from the top of the page as the heading for the abstract. 4. The abstr ac t itself s hould be flush le ft and sh ould not be indent ed. 5. The abstr act should be an acc urate and con cise reflec tion of the do cumen t’s content. 6. Typica lly, the abstr ac t should on ly be one paragraph (15 0-250 wo rds) in le ngth , wi th no dir ec t quo tations , and be on a page of its own dir ec tly after the title page. 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 14 Formatting Steps Headings 1. Hea dings are titles of di fferent s ections of a formal writt en assignment. 2. They can be us ed to add stru ctur e, o rganize ide as, and tell the reader what content to expec t. 3. The following hea dings should be us ed wh en requir ed: For additional information , please see the Writing Center’s Level Headings Tutorial . 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 15 Formatting Steps Reference s Page NOTE: At the end of each APA document, there should be a reference s page containing the sources used within the paper.  Every reference cited in -text should be listed on the reference s page(s), and every reference listed on the reference s page(s) should be cited in the in -text.  The exceptions to this are personal communication s and secondary sources.  With secondary sources, only the original source should be cited on the reference page.  References are of the utmost importance, as they allow the reader to access the sources cited in -text, and they enable the author of the document to give credit where credit is due.  The reference s should contain accurate information, as well as proper punctuation and spelling.  References will accompany the conclusion of any APA document.  For each reference listed, there must be at least one corresponding in – text citation in the document.  All margins should be one inch.  The word “References ” should be used as the heading, and it should be centered and bold .  Double spacing should be used.  With the exception of the first line of each reference, all lines are indented .5”. This is called a hanging indention. 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 16 Specific formatting steps for document s Software Click the following icons to access formatting . MS Word 2016 MS Word Office 365 MS Word for Mac MS Word Online Pages for Mac 2019 Google Docs 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 17 Library Resources and Services for CSU Students The CSU Library supports the CSU community with access to information and research assistance. The online collection contains resources chosen to support the programs of study at Columbia Southern University. Library resources such as journal articles or e books can be accessed at any time through the library website. The library resources include: • Online databases that contain a wide variety of resources including journal, magazine, and newspaper articles. • A collection of over 180,000 online books in eBook Academic Collection . • Electronic journal subscriptions in specialized fields of study. • Video tutorials and research guides designed by CSU librarians. Contact a librarian when you need to do the following: • Brainstorm appropriate research strategies such as determining keywords for your topic. • Navigate library databases for journal articles and other library resources to support your assignments. • Locate and obtain specific articles or other resources assigned in your courses. • Limit your search by article type (such as peer -reviewed), date of publication, or article length. The CSU Library is staffed by professional librarians available to help when you need them. The three main avenues of library support are phone, email, and chat. To reach a CSU librarian during regular business hours, call (877) 268 -8046 or email library@columbiasouthern.edu . Chat reference assistance is available via the library homepage 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, including holidays. Students may also communicate with an individual member of the library staff through the contact information provided on the library webpage. 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 18 Sample Essay Click on the sample below to view an example of an APA style essay (this view is only the first page): 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 19 Sample Research Paper Click on the sample below to view an example of an APA style paper (this view is only the first page): 20 20 [COLUMBIA SOUTHERN UN IVERSITY ] 20 Reference s American Psychological Association. ( 2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/1 0.1037/0000165 -000 Columbia Southern University. (2019). Student handbook . https://www.columbiasouthern.edu/downloads/pdf/handbook/csustudenthandbook.aspx

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