Explain instances of Racial inequality in oligarchy systems.

Background

Racism is the belief that humans may be divided into separate entities known as races. The separation is based on traits such as personality, morality, and other cultural or behavioral aspects. The vice discriminates that other races are superior to others. Oligarchy is the rule of the few. Racial inequality may occur in the unequal distribution of resources such as wealth, income, health care, social rights, civil rights, and other areas. Historically those who openly practiced racism held the members to low-status jobs and restricted rights or low distribution of natural resources. The members who were discriminated against were subjected to violence, daily insults frequent acts of verbal expressions, and contempt of disrespect. Racism was the core of North American slavery and colonization more especially in the 18th century. The idea of the race came about to magnify the differences between the people of European origin and those of Africans. By the mid-19th century, racism had developed all over the world and in many countries, leaders began to think of ethnicity whereby those who were poor had no say and were discriminated against. In the United States, racism received numerous attacks during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s which led to the abolition of laws that segregated the races.

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There existed two policies that existed during the racial discrimination era; first were the policies governing the spatial distribution of the black population and second the policies that had a direct impact on blacks because of their location. The black-white disparity in income rates, wealth, and education was all about the relationship between regional inequality, race, and policies at the local state. These past policies explicitly inhibited black’s economic mobility.

Dealing with the policy of spatial population, areas with a large black population experienced low economic mobility because of their low incomes and the lather continued to even to their children. The regions with a small black population exhibited levels of economic mobility for black individuals as compared to those areas whereby blacks were higher in number as compared to the whites. The difference in locations between the whites and the blacks made it almost inevitable for those policies that differentially affect rural and urban areas which had different distribution s of race.in the process, the black population found itself in far much less economic mobility areas as compared to those of the whites. Based on location, the whites lived away from the city centers and the blacks near. This contributed to racial segregation in that jobs moved away from the city centers and this created a condition for spatial mismatch where black households were concentrated in the city centers and employment opportunities moved far away hence blacks were highly isolated from employment opportunities.

Welfare programs and policies by the then nation administration also impacted racial discrimination. Taking the American fiscal feudalism as an example, it devolves authority and decision –making concerning policy decisions and implementation {Johnston, 2008}. such policies were preferred at the state level in that they ensured the lowering of poverty and food security or promoting health systems using the state resources. Thought the 20th century, welfare in the American system was viewed as a way to provide direct aid for the disabled, elderly, and families who experienced death by their beloved ones. However, these aids excluded blacks when it came to the part of helping. The state excludes blacks and non-white families from participating in such welfare programs. According to Johnston,2010 local governments in many states including those in the southeast considered race as a factor when determining aid eligibility.

Education programs and policies also depicted racial inequality in an oligarchy.{Duncan and Ludwig,2007} troubling racial disparities in primary and secondary education outcomes, driven in part by inequality in the allocation of financial resources and a higher teacher-quality teachers across K-12 education. Also, Heckman,2011 Many antipoverty strategies lean heavily on early education interventions. There were disparities in the way blacks and white students were treated before they could enter into the labor world. Duncan, 1997 Family income may explain much of the observed test gap since it points to the broad role of family resources. The backs and non-white students were kept in segregated schools whereby the government spent very little to finance the students. School services were very poor because the majority of these students were from low income earning families. There was a big gap in the student-teacher ratio between segregated schools and white schools.

Incarceration programs and policies were those policies that discriminated against blacks in terms of criminal justice. America incarcerated the population since the 1970s and this made them be poor and considered as a minority. This population hardly achieved more than a high school diploma and they were characterized by low economic mobility. The American government mostly incarcerated black males with a high school diploma or less. According to {Western and Pettit, 2010} the costs of incarceration are borne not only with these men but also their children and families as well. On the other hand, blacks and non-whites were harshly discriminated against by the police .the exposure rate of the lethal police force to African black men relative to white men was enormous. This in return led to a more hostile police-civilian interaction and diminished the confidence of blacks in the then existing governmental institutions.

There is no doubt that the historical policy approaches cannot work best in the recent world due to the advancements the blacks have made in ensuring that they can access resources and be empowered equally as to the whites. Nevertheless, the existence of humanitarian organizations protects the rights of every human and considers every race equal. However, some of the policies such as places of residence between the blacks and the whites do exist although it is not most significant as the blacks also do improve their places of residence. Also, there occurs segregation in terms of schools between the white population and the blacks.

To conclude on the policies, a series of historical and contemporary government policies imposed harsh and harm methods in handling the blacks and other non-whites. Such acts promote racial inequality.

Understanding the social problem/need

Racial inequality is the act in which certain races are discriminated against in achieving some of the human rights. More often, racial classifications do not necessarily imply racial oppression{social injustice backed by power}. Racial inequality is documented in two ways. Firstly, racism has repeatedly divided popular social and political movements discriminating their capability to challenge the existing forms of power and inequality. Ruling elites i.e. oligarchy have most of the time used race as a means of obtaining power by divide and rule strategy. The second way in which racism impacts the less disadvantaged is by undermining universal aspects of the welfare state whereby universal programs do not apply equally to all people but are distributed based on race as a factor of merit.

Theories have been established to explain how racial discrimination found its way to existence. To be able to measure the extent to which racial discrimination exists in a particular society or its existence at all, it was necessary to develop these theories to explain the rather. Also, the theories explain the effects of racial discrimination in a given social or economic domain. Using the theories, data is specified needed to ascertain the theory, the methods to be used, and the necessary assumptions derived for the conclusion of the theory. They include; intentional discrimination, subtle discrimination, and statistical profiling.

Intentional, explicit discrimination according to Gordon Allport, 1954 the sequential steps to which an individual behaves negatively toward members of another racial group: verbal antagonism, segregation, physical attack, and extermination. The steps are dependent on each other in that the occurrence of one leads to the other occurring. Verbal antagonism entails casual racial slurs and disparaging racial comments either in or out of the pre-determined individual. Such comments may not be considered serious but are unlawful. Considering the comments express some form of hostility accompanied by non-verbal expressions, they create a hostile environment. Avoidance includes choosing the comfort of one’s racial group over interaction with another racial group. Members of disadvantaged racial groups may be isolated as it is in the case of social institutions whereby people may be self-segregated along racial lines. In the case of the work industry, low-status occupations may be excluded from high-status jobs people. According to Troop, 2000 in legal settings, avoidance of casual contact can appear as evidence indicating hostile intent. However, as long as avoidance may seem to be harmless in some situations, it can lead to long term exclusion and segregation. Segregation occurs in situations whereby individuals exclude members of a disadvantaged racial group from the normal allocation of resources and barring them from accessing institutions and social amenities such as equal education, housing, healthcare, and employment-based on race. Physical attacks on racial groups are also considered discrimination. Extermination based on racial grounds are often the worst form of discrimination.

Subtle, unconscious, automatic discrimination is the second form of discrimination. Indirect discrimination makes in-group members to blame those outside the group with regards to their disadvantage. Differences between the in-group and those outside members such as linguistic, cultural, religious, or sexual are often exaggerated to make those outside the group to be seen as unworthy .subtle prejudice may be automatic or unconscious whereby people in a group categorize those outside the group based on gender, sex and age {Fiske, 1998}. The main effect associated with subtle prejudice is that it acts in favor of the in-group members and at a direct disadvantage to the out-group members. According to theories of ambivalent prejudice {Katz and Hatz, 1998} the ambivalence of subtle prejudice means that the out-groups are not necessarily subjected to uniform antipathy. However, reactions do not necessarily need to be negative to explicit discrimination but the manifestation of it constitutes barriers to full equity and treatment.

Statistical discrimination and profiling result in members of a disadvantaged ratio group being discriminated against. Individuals use overall beliefs of ascertaining the group to make prejudgments of an individual from that group. The perceived characteristics are assumed to be possessed by all members of that group. Such beliefs based on ratio stereotypes of prejudice bring about discrimination. Statistical discrimination is economically rational and it’s illegal in hiring institutions.

The effects of racial discrimination range from mental health, loss of economic opportunities, and race, and wealth inequality to physiological effects. Almost every member of society feels the wrath of this social-economic vice.

Policy analysis

Power is assumed to be multiple functions of resources and to the extent to which the resources are utilized. Any serious political move to address political discrimination must deal directly with the challenges faced by economic deprivation and the continuing discrimination. A series of proposals to counter economic inequality and do away with poverty will have a large impact on the economic aspects of racial inequality. Such policies can also reduce the effect of racial discrimination although they do not directly address racial discrimination.

One of the remedy policies is the courts whereby discrimination is illegal. Housing, employment, and lending discrimination exhibit behaviors that violate the provisions of indiscrimination hence a solution to them is to sue the discriminator. However affirmative action occurs whereby some kind of preference is given to people of a certain class i.e. disadvantaged category of people.

Affirmative action is strongly opposed by a majority of the people on the ground that is reversed discrimination. Considerable progress has been made since the civil rights of the 1960s on matters related to racial inequality and this has led to the sprouting of a solid black middle class of educated workers, business people, and professionals of African-Americans within the corporate political and cultural elites.

However, discrimination continues to exist in major institutional and social platforms whereby lives and opportunities are initiated. These discriminatory practices violate the values of fairness and prevent any further advancement in seeking racial equality. High poverty levels and economic marginalization continue to be present in the present lives of African-Americans and other minority groups. The mass incarceration of the poor young black men and the disadvantaged groups further increases marginalization from the labor force and any other stable source of income.

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