Epidemiology Class

Proposal Skeleton

My professor comments on draft1 :

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  1. Excellent!
  2. Very nice sentence to set up your study’s aim and purpose.
  3. What is the aim of your study? What are your independent and outcome variables? How will they be measured? What study design will you employ and why?
  4. Your proposal should be for an actual research project that you can implement, using a cohort study design. A literature search is not acceptable: you must propose to collect primary/secondary data and analyze it.

-Outline of intended research proposal topic 

  • A very brief description of what you plan to study. Raw outlines of plans to do in research Tobacco and its role on Oral Health 
  • Population of interest and topic of study. Adult Americans “ever-smokers” 
  • Your group should provide a summary of the work that has already been done on this topic, purpose in each sentence. 
  • Gaps in the literature that you have identified, 
  • Hypothesis and outcome to measure (1)> I expect to find that smoking has a vastly negative effect on oral health and even with the decrease in smokers using traditional tobacco cigarettes the rise of e-cigarettes has caused the total number of smokers to remain at a high level.

In the 1970s a series of small events started an initiative to bring awareness and cessation to an invalidated epidemic that still affects 34 Million American adults today. Cigarettes and their various forms of use remain a leading cause of preventable life-debilitating disease. According to the 2019 CDC Smoking & Tobacco Use online database, fourteen of every 100 adults are considered Ever-smokers. An Ever-smoker is a person who smokes almost every day and has had > 100 cigarettes in their lifetime. This large intake of nicotine products orally over a long-term period is associated with a strong influence in developing an oral disease. (R. Holliday et al 2021) Continued smoking becomes a breeding point for more bacteria and other severe illnesses such as gum disease, mouth cancer, and throat cancer.

The study “Electronic Cigarettes and Oral Health” by R.Holliday et al. (2021); looked into E-cigarettes, also referred to as vaping, and their recent gain in popularity in the United States around 2007. Through this recently trendy method of smoking, there have been many changes and unregulated modifications to products. (2)> Currently, there is not enough literature exploring e-cigarettes and their effects on health. This is partly because of “hot stuff bias,” a term that refers to when something is a new fad it is not viewed as critically, then is often avoided being published. There is also a deficit in long-term exposure studies, which currently cannot be artificially analyzed because of difficulty recreating the cellular structure and environment of the human mouth. 

(3)> This research proposal hypothesizes that smoking has a vastly negative effect on oral health and even with the decrease in smokers using traditional tobacco cigarettes the rise of e-cigarettes has caused the total number of smokers to remain at a high level. There has not been an in-depth study to estimate the future impact of e-cigarette use and its adverse effects on oral health. (4)> This study’s intention is to explore literature data and solidify this outcome. 

Retrospective Cohort 

Hypothesis: When an adult is an avid daily smoker there is a vastly negative effect on oral health. Compared to traditional tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes have a greater effect on the diagnosis of oral or throat cancer over the period of a smoker’s lifetime, even when converting from traditional cigarettes to modern vaping. 

Rewrite the hypothesis.

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