Enlightenment Values Belong to the Declining West.

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The enlightenment values are not wrong, but the way the West expresses them as political and social theory and at times implements them needs to be re-examined and a challenge issued. For instance, enlightenment principles of social thinking have repeatedly contributed to buttressing the West’s dominance over the East, men over women, a society of experts over the ordinary people, the employers over workers, and White culture over non-White cultures (Angel 1994, p. 90). This paper is neither against enlightenment values such as freedom and the rule of law, nor is it against the West’s modern bureaucracy, urbanism, and industrialism. Enlightenment values belong to the declining west. other costs, such as postmodern perspectives, are more relevant for emerging and up-and-coming states because the culture of enlightenment fails its social and historical vision in the very West they originated.

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&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp. Enlightenment is the emergence and emancipation of humans from his self-incurred naivety, ingeniousness, and immaturity.&nbsp. Enlightenment values can be defined as ideals that develop because of significant historical transitions towards modernity –the renaissance and reformation, and the European revolution. They include abstract universalism, individualism, strict rationalism, certainty, predictability, absolute truths, and order (Angel 1994, p. 56). The West is a particular set of countries that exemplify the enlightenment age’s shared values –holy faith in science, progress, and rationality. They are considered the pinnacle of human advancement. Various individuals equate it with freedom and democracy, most others with Christianity, and others with secular rationalism. In this context, other values mean non-western values practiced in other countries, especially those of the East, and included orientalism and postmodern values (Deutsch 1991, p. 95). Examples include inter-determinacy, hierarchy and structure, relationships, uncertainty, fluidity, change, and deconstruction.

The values and social hopes of Enlightenment culture have failed in their principal historical and historical vision. For instance, the West’s science acclaims so much seem to have lost a great deal of its aura of truth and progress (Gray 2007, p. 39).

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