Empowering Students Through Critical Reading Strategies Education Essay
1.1.BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Traditional impression of the literacy has been focused on the equal degree of proficiency of the reading and composing ability. Rubin ( 1993:3 ) states “ A literate individual is one who can read and compose ” . Since the beginning of the 20th Century literacy construct has taken on several significances. Mckenna and Robinson ( 2002 ) Literacy are a construct that has changed well over the old ages. Entering the modern society with complicated and competitory engineering and the ability to acquire and give information demand to utilize the new signifier of literacy that Multicultural, Technological, Media, Computer, Visual and Critical literary are merely a few illustrations. As an instructional attack, critical literacy has emerged in recent old ages, peculiarly in the late eightiess and early 1990s. Stevens and Bean ( 2007 ) critical literacy is an active inquiring of the stance found within, behind, and among text. Wink ( 2005:3 ) agrees to this “ critical literacy is reading and composing, but it is much, much more. Critical literacy involves cognizing, tonss of cognizing. It besides involves seeing, tonss of seeing. It enables the reader to read the societal patterns of the universe all excessively clearly. ” Critical literacy really encourages readers to actively analyse texts and challenges to detect the significance of the Word and the World. Analytic reading and reading between and beyond the lines are some of its highlighted functions. Richardson, Morgan, and Fleener ( 2009:142 ) are of the sentiment that “ Critical literacy is non to promote incredulity but to give pupil tools for investigation and going informed, instead than fleeceable, readers. ” Cooper, Kiger and Au ( 2009:8 ) claim that from a critical literacy position, it is of import to pay attending non merely to how reading is taught, but besides to what is being read. On that history instructors should concentrate on critical literacy and promote the pupils to hold a deeper expression at texts ; specifically analyzing the relationships among texts, linguistic communication, power, societal groups and societal patterns. One facet of critical literacy is critical reading that is more than entree to superficially intending of the text. Critical reading occurs at a higher degree of reading to authorise pupils, through negotiating and reading critically the diverse signifiers of the text.
The first serious researches and treatments of critical reading emerged during the 1967s by Willavence from Ohio State University Research Foundation under the U.S Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The survey was mostly based upon empirical surveies that investigate “ Critical Reading Ability of Elementary School Children. ” Critical Reading was identified as a portion of reading comprehension and was defined as an analytical appraising type of reading in which the reader analyzes and Judgess both the content of what was stated and the effectivity of the manner it was written.
In the past two decennaries, a figure of research workers have sought to find assorted dimensions of critical reading activities, accomplishments, and schemes. Developing critical reading accomplishments through whole linguistic communication schemes an empirical survey was done by Robin Combs in 1992 at Southern Nazarene University. In1998, Parviz Birjandi the celebrated Persian policy shaper and the writer of English text editions for high school and pre-university degrees, in his survey tried to look into the consequence of critical reading on the betterment of the reading comprehension ability of Persian high school pupils. The determination of the survey showed that critical reading as a station reading activity, activated the pupils ‘ background cognition which, in return, affected the comprehension of the transition.
Around two decennaries working as an English linguistic communication teacher in Persian high schools and pre university centre ; touching and experiencing straight the reading jobs among the Persian pupils peculiarly in the late 1992s and early 2008s ; on the other side, the participating and cooperating of the research worker with The English Skills Department of Santa Barbara City College in a undertaking that called “ CAHSEE “ which takes pupils through the capable affair of the Exit Exam in a manner that challenges them to believe actively about reading, authorship, and word significance, prompted the research worker of this survey to see the inquiry of How does one read critically and actively? It was non a simple inquiry and the reply needed more than a superficially probe in reading country. Reading critically describes the attitudes or behaviours expected of a critical reader and offers schemes for bring outing implicit in messages. Kern ( 2000:29 ) “ reading requires more than perceptual and sensory-motor accomplishments ; it besides demands the reader ‘s active engagement at a cognitive degree. ”
Over the five last decennaries assortment of definitions of critical reading has highlighted that the most of the research workers, have been acknowledged that reading requires the reader ‘s active engagement at a cognitive degree ( Smith1963 ; Russell1963 ; Robinson1964 ; Wolf et al.1967 ; Hess et al.1975 ; Heilman & A ; Holmes1978 ; Kayser1979 ; Rubin1982 ; James1984 ; Flynn1989 ; Paul1993 ; ; Mather & A ; McCarthy2005 ; Wall2005 ; Wallace & A ; Wray2006 ; Gillet et Al 2008 ) . Several cognitive procedures those are similar in kernel to the Cognitive Domain of the Bloom ‘s Taxonomy of Educational Aims are suggested by these writers. Rubin ( 1993 ) believes most of the bing taxonomies are versions in one manner or another of Bloom ‘s taxonomy of educational aims in the cognitive sphere, which is concerned with the thought that pupils should accomplish in any subject. Eisner ( 2000 ) is of the sentiment Benjamin Bloom tries to uncover what pupils are believing about when instructors are learning.
Tankersley ( 2003: 116 ) provinces, “ When comprehension is deep and thorough, a reader is able to treat text at higher degrees of the thought procedure. The reader is able to use the degrees of Benjamin Bloom ‘s taxonomy ( 1956 ) and do significance at more sophisticated degrees. This yarn is reading at the rating, synthesis, analysis, and reading degrees. Good readers can supervise their ain comprehension, interpret charts and graphs while reading, sum up as they read, make connexions while reading, and procedure text after reading at sophisticated degrees of thought. ”
Learning to synthesise, measure, and procedure information in new ways is the key to fixing pupils for the universe outside of school. It appears that some attending should be given to direction in the accomplishments of critical reading in today ‘s schools if pupils are to be adequately prepared to function as to the full working citizens.
Goals of school course of study in Iran frequently include a statement of the desirableness of critical reading accomplishments ; nevertheless, there is rarely a consecutive program for the development of these accomplishments below Pre- university degree. Reading and interlingual rendition have cardinal place in Persian current EFL text books ( Eslami-Rasekh & A ; Fatahi 2008 ) . Therefore, the highlighted methods in most schools are combination of grammar-translation and audio-lingual methods ( Eslami-Rasekh 2004 ) .
What motivated this research were the ascertained jobs in EFL reading categories in Persian high school and pre-university centres. Furthermore, critical reading has non normally been a major focal point of learning and research in Iran and empirical research in critical reading has been limited chiefly to university degree. The research worker has considered the value of critical reading schemes and seek to show, through sample reading lesson, alternate possibilities for reading activities which, besides being more interesting for pupils, can assist them go more active, and more critical readers. The major benefit of the lesson on critical reading is the high degree of enthusiastic pupil engagement. This is attributable to some extent to the freshness of the undertaking they will execute: coming up with inquiries, they thought would be answered in the text, instead than seeking to reply superficial comprehension inquiries or true-false statements prepared by the text edition author.
1.2. Statement OF THE PROBLEM
The twenty-first century will necessitate scholars to utilize the four highest degrees of thinking-application, analysis, synthesis, and rating higher degrees of comprehension would evidently include higher degrees of believing Tankersley ( 2005 ) .
In EFL reading categories, pupils normally do non hold the chance to execute higher order believing undertakings ( e.g. , using, speculating, analysing, synthesising, comparing, and measuring what they read ) . Consequently, they do non larn to read critically, nor do they make appraising apprehension of the text and develop their thought ability. Oftentimes, pupils get frustrated and lose motive for independent reading because they are used to listening to instructors ‘ accounts ( Wallace 2005 cited in Jun Zhang2009 )
The similar state of affairs can be found among Persian EFL pupils. In Iran, English is taught as a foreign linguistic communication and is practiced within a context-restricted environment, in which the text edition and schoolroom instructor plays the chief function. Although the reading accomplishment sounds to be of first precedence in the design of the Persian high school books, many Persian EFL scholars still seem to hold serious jobs with geting the ability to read critically. Harmonizing to Koosha and Jafarpour ( 2006 ) this inefficiency seems to be, to some extent, due to the deficiency of definite reading schemes among Persian EFL pupils.
Birjandi & A ; Noroozi ( 2008 ) states that in Iran ; reading is comparatively viewed as the purpose of linguistic communication instruction and linguistic communication acquisition plans in secondary and third degrees of instruction. Thus, English instructors are expected to acquire familiar with efficient techniques that can hike the degree of scholars ‘ reading comprehension. Higher-level thought arises when pupils read between the lines, look beyond the surface of the text and they are reading to calculate out an reply or to accomplish comprehension. While there is non a recognized demand to hold higher-order thought pattern in the Persian EFL schoolroom, there is non besides a recognized instructional battle with conveying higher-order thought to life in the schoolroom. This indicates a demand to understand the assorted position of critical thought that assists Persian EFL pupils.
Tankersley ( 2003 ) states although most English linguistic communication instructors learned about Bloom ‘s Taxonomy ( Bloom, 1956 ) during their readying classs, many rarely challenge pupils beyond the first two degrees of knowledge: cognition and comprehension. While Critical reading is at higher degree of comprehension accomplishments and it involves rating, the devising of a personal judgement on Lie truth, value, and truthfulness of what is read Rubin ( 1993 ) .In malice of Educators acknowledge that the cognitive benefits to all pupils of foreign linguistic communication survey, such as furthering higher-order thought accomplishments, Harmonizing to Dadvand & A ; Foruzande ( 2007 ) the structural position of the nature of linguistic communication and the behaviouristic premise among Persian instructors about linguistic communication acquisition which have led to an overemphasis of structural points as the skeleton of linguistic communication and repetition/ memorisation as the bosom of a successful linguistic communication larning experience.Thus, the reading transitions in Persian high school books are non accompanied by appropriate exercisings. Most of the comprehension inquiries following the reading subdivision inquire show inquiries, which merely require turn uping some pieces of information within the text, i.e. the first two lower degrees of thought and knowledge: cognition and comprehension.
Although extended research has been carried out on reading country in Persian EFL schoolroom, no individual survey exists, which have investigated the reading from cognitive dimension and position. The consequences of those surveies besides show the deficiency of definite cognitive reading schemes within Persian high school schoolrooms. Consequently, Students do non hold equal background accomplishments, they understand the text at some superficial degree, and the act of reading is hard and troublesome for them. ( Tankersley2003:2 & A ; 91 ) “ Poor readers do non understand that they should take any action when comprehension is lost. Many merely give up since they have no schemes to utilize to cover with hard text. ”
1.3. Purpose of the survey
The aims of this research are as follow:
1. To place the critical reading schemes employed by Persian EFL pupils.
2. To look into the Persian EFL pupils ‘ reactions and responses to the procedure of
learning critical reading.
3. To fix a theoretical account to learn critical reading schemes to Persian EFL pupils.
1.4. The research inquiries of the survey formulated as:
1. What are the critical reading schemes employed by Persian EFL pupils?
2. How do the Iranian EFL pupils react and respond to the procedure of learning
3. How to fix a theoretical account to learn critical reading schemes to Persian EFL pupils?
1.5. Significance of the survey
The important of this survey is to bridge the spread between the construct of critical reading and existent reading pattern available to instructors and pupils. In peculiar, the survey focused on the highlighted critical reading schemes as a medium to fix Persian EFL pupils for critical reading-the ability to read with analysis and judgement and to promote them to take part actively in reading procedure.The critical reading development will actuate the pupils to happen purpose in reading and measure the intent of the writers and even a touch of exhilaration or challenge to reading. Reading without intent can be frustrating and may cut down motive, comprehension, and efficiency
This survey maintains that pupils are holding trouble in reading because they are non having the right reading experiences in school. Most of the clip pupils are asked to reply end-of chapter comprehension inquiries or make full in eternal worksheet infinites. In add-on, most reading that is done in category is unwritten reading with one pupil reading the text aloud and all other pupils listening.. Motivation does non go on for pupils as they are reading or making dull exercisings. The pupil has to be motivated prior to reading. Students have to be taught to believe about a subject in assorted ways before they start to before they start to read.
Teaching reading based on critical reading schemes provides many chances for EFL pupils to prosecute in the upper degrees of Bloom ‘s taxonomy. Therefore, the major classs: callback, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and rating of the cognitive sphere of Bloom ‘s Taxonomy encourage EFL pupils to play active functions in larning critical reading in EFL categories.
1.6. OPERATIONAL Definition
The followers are the definition of footings used in current survey:
1.6.1. CRITICAL LITERACY
Alagozlu ( 2007 ) Critical literacy is a new position in learning English as a foreign linguistic communication, which trains pupils to believe critically and so transforms their thought into some practical action to do a better society. Critical literacy purposes at researching a new position, doing teaching method synchronize with the changed society. Therefore, critical literacy in EFL instruction is extremely important
1.6.2. CRITICAL Reading
Wall and Wall ( 2005 ) Critical reading is a manner of reading that will let you to take a deeper expression at text. You will develop an acquired accomplishment with some cognition and experience. To read critically means to read analytically, this means to inquiry and to believe about the written stuff in forepart of you. When you question something, it normally leads to happening replies. There are no right replies when you read-there are merely the writer ‘s purposes and your readings. Critical reading is a manner of looking at a book and analysing what the writer is stating and the methods the writer is utilizing to pass on a message or thought. Your analysis is complete when you have formed your ain readings of the writer ‘s purposes. Learning to read in deepness, with comprehension, and being unfastened to new ways of believing an apprehension can merely get down with an scabies to desire to cognize more, whether it ‘s for your ain personal cognition or for a category.
1.6.3CRITICAL Reading Scheme
A assortment of schemes that help pupils read with better apprehension of the stuff. Mastering these schemes will assist pupils manage hard stuff with confidence.A
1.6.4. BLOOM ‘S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES
Krathwohl ( 2002 ) The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is a model for sorting statements of what instructors expect or intend pupils to larn due to direction. Bloom ( 1956: 26 ) educational aims mean expressed preparations of the ways in which pupils are expected to be changed by the educative procedure. That is, the ways in which they will alter in their thought, their feelings, and their actions. Bloom ‘s Taxonomy is the most common theoretical account for depicting thought. A list of six believing accomplishments arranged from the most basic to the most advanced degree. These descriptions are used to assist instructors and pupils focus on higher-order thought. Bloom lists a hierarchy of accomplishments: cognition, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and rating.
1.7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
Having now introduced and motivated the subject, defined the research inquiries, and looked at some of the research germane to the proposed survey, this subdivision is devoted to set uping the theoretical model within which the survey will take topographic point. Eisenhart ( 1991: 205 ) described a theoretical model as “ a construction that guides research by trusting on a formal theoryaˆ¦constructed by utilizing an established, consistent account of certain phenomena and relationships ” .
1.7.1. COGNITIVE DOMAIN OF THE BLOOM ‘S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVE
Krathwohl, Bloom and Masia ( 1964:7 ) Cognitive aims emphasize retrieving or reproducing something, which has presumptively been learned, every bit good as aims, which involve the resolution of some intellective undertaking for which the person has to find the indispensable job and so reorder given stuff or unite it with thoughts, methods, or procedures antecedently learned. Cognitive aims vary from simple callback of stuff learned to extremely original and originative ways of combine and synthesising new thoughts and stuffs.
Bloom ( 1956: 20 ) in the cognitive sphere, particularly, it appears that as the behaviours become more complex, the person is more cognizant of their being. Students are able to give more complete studies of their onslaught on a job as the job becomes more complex, that is, as the job is classified in the more complex categories of rational abilities and accomplishments.
1.7.2. Cognitive LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES
Grenfell and Harris ( 1999:44 ) Cognitive schemes are mental battle with linguistic communication in stuffs or undertakings in order to develop understanding and therefore acquisition. Cognitive schemes act on linguistic communication in the acquisition procedure and may be specifically involved in production of linguistic communication. Cognitive schemes besides include many academic and survey or larning accomplishments, for illustration, interlingual rendition, tax write-off, working on keywords, utilizing available resources, mnemonics, taking notes.
1.7.3 HIGHER-ORDER Thinking STRATEGIES
Duke and Pearson ( 2002:118 ) six schemes that higher-level readers should utilize to do significance of text as they read. ( 1 ) prediction/activation of anterior cognition, ( 2 ) utilizing think-aloud schemes to supervise comprehension, ( 3 ) utilizing text constructions, ( 4 ) utilizing and building ocular theoretical accounts such as in writing organisers and imagination, ( 5 ) summarizing, and ( 6 ) inquiring and replying inquiries while reading.
1.7.4. Critical Reading STRATEGIES
Singh, Chirgwin and Elliott ‘s ( 1997 ) critical reading schemes encourage scholars to utilize each of the cognitive procedures described in the three upper degrees of Bloom ‘s Taxonomy, those normally associated with critical thought accomplishments. Singh et Al. ( 1997 ) modified Bloom ‘s order somewhat, included some procedures more than one time, omitted one type of procedure and included a pretest of bing cognition. This alone scheme engaged pupils in a metacogitive consideration of their ain thought procedures by inquiring them to compare their initial and concluding constructs, warrant why their initial and concluding constructs changed, and eventually to pull decisions about the truth of their thought.
Table 1: Comparison of Singh, Chirgwin and Elliott ‘s critical reading scheme with Bloom ‘s Taxonomy
Singh, Chirgwin & A ; Elliott ‘s Procedures
Bloom ‘s Lev EL ‘s of Cognitive Learning
Identify and enter their initial constructs
Pretest of bing cognition
Obtain information through reading
Obtaining new cognition
Compare initial and concluding constructs
Comprehension – looking for similarities and differences
State how and why constructs changed
Analysis – comparison and contrasting, pulling decisions and back uping the statement
Produce a study on differences between initial and concluding constructs
Give their sentiments on how and why
Let scholars pull decisions on the truth of their constructs about text.
Cognitive Language Learning Schemes
Higher-Order Thinking Schemes
Critical Reading Schemes
of theBloom’sTaxonomy of Educational Objective
Review of Related Literature
2-1.Background of the survey
Habsah Hussin ( 1998 ) who investigated the effects of selected critical reading schemes on critical reading public presentation of selected Malayan ESL Secondary School pupils. In 2006, Ainon Jariah Muhamad at Institute of Education International Islamic University Malaysia studied Critical reading schemes in English as a 2nd linguistic communication it was a instance survey of Malayan jurisprudence undergraduates. The consequences of the survey revealed that pupils ‘ attitudes to reading and to reading critically, did hold some influence on the figure and the types of schemes used. The activation of background cognition and related experience were besides helpful in bring forthing the critical responses to academic texts. Veeravagu, Jeyamahla ( 2010 ) at Univesiti Teknologi MARA ( UiTM ) enquired “ Using Bloom ‘s Taxonomy to Gauge Students ‘ Reading Comprehension Performance ” The findings indicated that the degree of believing procedures advocated by Bloom taxonomy had influenced the public presentation of the pupils in the reading comprehension paper.
Wallace 2005 cited in zhang: Again, as Wallace has stated, pupils have developed merely one strong “ reading scheme ” over the old ages: that of listening to the instructor explicating the text word by word, sentence by sentence. Because reading schoolrooms lack category interaction, pupils are non actively engaged in the meaning-making procedure or, at best, the procedure involves readers ‘ decryption of text. Therefore, the bing cognition of pupils is non efficaciously drawn out for the benefit of the whole category. There is a deficiency of profusion and diverseness in schoolroom activity. ”