Does the Stanford prison study help explain the effects of imprisonment?

Argument Analysis Assignment Please follow the instructions outlined here to complete the article analysis and discussion board posts. *Introductory note about debate articles . Please be aware that journal articles come in two forms. There are primary source articles and secondary source articles. Primary source articles are original, empirical articles written by researchers for the purpose of describing specific research that they conducted. These articles include methods and results sections (e.g., actual data). Secondary source articles or chapters come in two general forms —the meta – analysis or the literature review article. Here, a researcher will describe a specific area of research conducted by him or herself in the past and/or by other researche rs. Literature review articles do not contain data. Instead they contain descriptions of data. A meta -analysis may also be described as a secondary source article because a meta -analysis is a mathematical and descriptive summary of a broad range of finding s. The important point is that debate articles take both forms. Sometime s an author will make claims in a primary source article (by discussing his or her own data collection and r esults), and sometimes an author will make a claim and support it via the use of previous research conducted on the topic. One source type is not inherently better or worse than the other. An author who describes his or her own data collection may be just a flawed in his or her reasoning (or as brilliant) as an author who descri bes other’s previous research. Please keep this in mind as we progress through the semester. Step 1: Summarize both articles Before you are able to analyze an argument you must be able to summarize it. Good summaries include a description of the author ’s ideas including any claims made by the author. Good summaries also review evidence used to advance the argument. To prepare to s ummarize the text, read it to get a general idea about the points. Then, reread the text and mark it up by circling key terms and underlining claims. Finally, chart individual paragraphs or sections and examine the overall structure of the text. As you read, take note of:  What is this section about? What is the author saying in this section ?  What is the author doing in this para graph or section (use verbs like introducing, reviewing, interpreting, challenging, asserting, illustrating)?  Does the author make a claim? What does he or she argue? Make note of central claims.  What evidence is provided to advance the argument? Be awar e of your own biases and avoid inaccurate interpretations. Keep this portion for yourself. Do not turn it in . Step 2: Analyze both article s Choose one or two centr al claims made by the author (s) and describe and analyze the evidence that is used to support it (i.e., for the assignment discuss at three pieces of evidence ). Finally, evaluate the evidence used by the authors . The questions below should serve as a guide to help you evaluate evidence. Some questions will not be relevant to the article that you are reading. A. Use the questions below to evaluate the evidence. First decide what type of evidence the author using. Then, d escribe the evidence and then analyze it. The questions below will help you analyze and evaluate the argument.  Is the evidence based on generalization ?  Is the evidence b ase d on analogy, specific cases , personal experience or anecdote?  Is the evidence based on authority ? o The author uses an authority figure (another author, a doctor, an academic) or an institutional authori ty to support claims  Does the author provide empirical e vidence ? Is the evidence based on experimental data? Observational data? Survey data? To evaluate empirical evidence consider the questions below. o Is a causal claims made (recall that only true experi ments allow for causal inferences) ?  If yes, is a causal claim possible? Was random assignment used ? Was an experiment used? o Is a correlational claim made (recall these are claims about the strength and/or direction of a relationship between two or more va riables)?  If yes, a re there other potential explanations for the data (e.g., potential third variables)? o Decide if the evidence /data is generalizable (e.g., is the data external ly valid )  Is the data robust? Can it replicate in a number of settings with dif ferent samples (e.g., is there overreliance a specific sample) ?  Is it ecologically valid? Would it happen in real life, outside of the lab?  Is it relevant? Does it matter? Are the findings useful for solving problems or improving the quality of life? B. Why is the author using t his evidence? Is it convincing? C. To write an argument analysis, describe the main claims and explain how the author supports each claim.  What are the main claims ?  (describe the main claims)  How does the author support and/or advance the argument ?  (describe the evidence)  What kind of evidence is used to support the claim ?  (evaluate the evidence)  Based on your evaluation of the evidence, h ow convincing is the evidence used to support the author’s claims ?  (what are your con clusions) You may use the structure below to develop y our writing. Please note that your argument analysis will likely be much longer than that below. The paragraph below is simply an outline. Remember, you will need to turn in two of these papers (one for each side of the debate). Write it up and t urn in both analyses in the same word document. Argument Analysis Template _____________ _____________________ ___ that _________________________________ (citation: last name(s) and yea r) (verb, e.g., cla ims, asserts, argues) (paraphrase the main claim(s) ) He/she _______________________ this claim by first ____________________________________. (supports, develops) (explain/describe the evidence) Then, _________________________________________________ __________________________ . (explain/describe the evidence) _______________________ purpose is to ____________________________________________ (citation: last name(s) and yea r) _____________in order to __________________________________________________ _______ (what does the author want the audience to do, think, or feel as a result of this paper) The evidence in support of this claim is _______________ for the following reasons. (strong/weak) First, __________________________________________. Further,______________________________ (evaluate the type of evidence used, and why it is strong or flawed) (evaluate another piece of evidence and _________________________________________. Finally, _________________________________ it’s strengths or flaws) (evaluate the type of evidence used, and why it is strong or flawed) Instructions for Discussion Board Posts 1 Occasionally during the semester, you will need to pick a side. First, you should post your answer to the board. Then , you should eval uate another student’s side and provide feedback. To complete this task, you will need to analyze the paper in the same way as you would for an argument analysis. You will read, summarize, and evaluate each paper. However, here you will chose to analyze t he overall claim (the broad claims such as “violent media causes aggression” or “media violence doesn’t cause aggression”). Then, you will need to decide, based on your evaluation of all the evidence in the paper, which pieces of evidence provide the stron gest and weakest support for the claim and why When you post your answer please use the format below: 1. Issue Name_________________________________ 2. Your Name_________________________ 3. My position is pro or anti____________________________ Position 1: _____ _____________ (describe the main claim) At best __________________________________________________________ (describe the strongest evidence in support of this side , and describe why the evidence is strong ) At worst_________________________________________________________ (describe the weakest evidence in support of this side , and describe why the evidence is weak ) Position 2: __________________ (describe the main claim ) At best ______________________________ ____________________________ (describe the strongest evidence in support of this side , and describe why the evidence is strong ) At worst_________________________________________________________ (describe the weakest evidence support of this side , and describe why the evidence is weak ) Here is an example: 1. Violence causes aggression. 2. Jamie Hughes 3. My position is that violent media causes aggression. Position 1: Violent media causes aggression. The best evidence in favor of Bushman and Anderson’s (2001) claim was the study that was conducted…….blah…blah…blah. This provides strong support because the study was…..blah, blah At worst, Bushman and Anderson (2001) presented evidence that ……blah…blah…blah. This evidence was particularly weak because…… Po sition 2: Violent media does not cause aggression At best, Freedman (2002) argued convincingly that the research conducted on this subject lacked…….blah blah blah.

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