Discussion Topics minimum 150 words each topic.

Topic 1

Internal and External Validity Threats

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A lot of fire and emergency services studies, especially those centered on community risk reduction efforts, use an experimental design. The pretest/posttest method is a very popular choice for gathering data because the instrument can remain the same. Describe and differentiate between internal and external threats to validity in an experimental design. Recommend at least one action that you or any researcher can take in response to both internal and external validity threats.

Topic 2

Response Bias

How can response bias influence the outcomes of a study involving fire and emergency services?

Topic 3


What do you think are the major advantages and disadvantages that technology can offer the fire service or emergency management?

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