Developing the Methodology

Annotated Bibliography

Christopher B. Valiante

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FIR 4308 Unit IV

Columbia Southern University

30 March 2018

Poole, B., Notarianni, K. A., Harris, R., Hicks, W. D., Hanks, C., & Gorbett, G. (2012, April 27). Ordinary People and Effective Operation of Fire Extinguishers. Retrieved March 20, 2018, from

In this study conducted by Eastern Kentucky University and Worchester Polytechnic Institute the effectiveness of fire extinguished in the hands of untrained individuals was researched. This article covers the details of the studies used in these test and the statistical data found as a result of the study. The outcome of the study supports that in the hands of an untrained individual over 50% the fire will be extinguished.

What this study lacks to determine is whether or not an individual will actually fight the fire or just run. The flight or fight response of an individual is very hard to test in reproducible studies. The realness is not available to say how we would respond as an individual. I think this is something that we will have to look into from other sources through this research project.

Cherry, K., & Gans, S. (2018, March 29). How the Fight-or-Flight Response Prepares Your Body to Take Action. Retrieved March 30, 2018, from

To better understand how a person may respond when finding themselves in a fire situation we must first understand what the fight or flight response is. This article explains how the body responds to different stimuli and the reactions we may have. It goes into detail one exactly what happens with the different responses and how one’s body process that response.

The reason this article is important to our study is simple. We could place a fire extinguisher every 5 feet in a building, but if no one is willing to use it then it is never going to be effective. The things we must look at when understanding and testing the fight or flight response is does training change this response. I think understanding what the body goes through is very important to understanding the outcome.

McSheffrey, B. (2011, October 17). Fire Extinguishers Extinguish an Estimated 5.32 Million Fires in US in 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2018, from

In this article Mr. McScheffrey studies the statistics behind fire extinguisher use in commercial buildings. The author looks at the total number of fires and breaks that down into the total number of fires in commercial structures across America. In his research Mr. McScheffrey looked at a study that has been completed in the UK in 2002 by the Fire Extinguisher Trades Association and the Independent Fire Engineering and Distributors Association. This research lead to that in the fires they looked at 80% of those were extinguished with a portable fire extinguisher.

Further on in this article it goes on to uncover the reason many of these statistics do not show up in information released by the National Fire Protection Association in America. It is reported that 60% of fires extinguished by the occupant with a fire extinguisher is never reported to the Fire Department. This report covers many statistics in to the use and effectiveness of fire extinguishers in commercial structures.

NFPA 10: Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 2018 Edition. (2017, October 1). Retrieved March 26, 2018, from

This resource is one of the most important to understand the solution of cost effectiveness of fire extinguishers. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) is a nationally recognized organization that develops standards for the fire industry. NFPA 10 is specifically the nationally accepted consensus standard for portable fire extinguishers. This standard is what lays out the service life, mandatory maintenance schedule and inspections need for fire extinguishers.

This standard is ultimately responsible for mandating the inspections that are needed after the initial purchase of a fire extinguisher. These inspections are responsible for the bulk of the cost maintaining your fire extinguisher program. This standard also lays out the qualifications of the individuals completing the inspections.

Campbell, R. (2013, August). U.S. Structure Fires in Office Properties. Retrieved March 27, 2018, from

The purpose of this source is to dive into fire statistics in commercial structures each year. This study completed by the NFPA details statistics related to the causes and damages cause by structure fires in office properties. To understand if the money we spend on extinguishing a fire if it starts is worth it we must understand how much fire cost us. Although the trends in America have lowered the amount of fires we have each year mainly through code enforcement we have not eliminated them. A fire can be costly to repair, result in days of the business being closed and have a serious economic impact.

To understand how many of these fires impact business we must look in to the statistical findings of organizations such as NFPA. The NFPA in partnership often with U.S. Fire Administration provides us with much needed data to truly understand Americas fire problems. This article will be used to either help justify the need or rationalize the elimination of fire extinguishers.

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