Dengue Fever and Mosquito Repellent Lotion
Dengue is an infection caused by a virus. You can get it if an infected mosquito bites you. It does not spread from person to person. It is a tropical disease and is commonly spread during rainy seasons. In the Philippine, dengue is reported as one of the leading causes of childhood hospitalizations. And even Adults with weak immune system are not safe with this virus. Different researches were already conducted and are still on process to find new ways on how to completely solve this dreadful virus. Some researchers are working on making a vaccine that would immune the body against it.
Insect repellent on the other hand are one of the preventive measures that would decrease the risk of getting insect-bourne diseases such as malaria and dengue which are brought about by mosquitos. An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. They are commercially sold and used. Mosquito repellent may come in the form of Lotion, Oil, bar, soap, fabric conditioner, spray and the like.
Some are chemically made and the others are made out of organic materials that possesses insect repellent properties like Lemon grass, orange and rosemary to name a few. They are all garden plants and most likely available in every garden settings. This study is focused on the use of Calendula officinalis or commonly known as “Marigold” and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) in the form of insect repellent lotion, specifically, against the harmful bite of the known specie of mosquito within the genus Aedes, or principally known as Aedes aegypti which are the dengue virus carrier.
Why lotion? Lotion is medicated ointment which is spread on the skin(Pharmacology); cream, liquid preparation for beautifying or soothing the skin (Wikipedia English ). Lotion are widely used for cosmetics and even medicinal purposes. Someone can actually wear it throughout the day leaving the skin protected from different harmful factors. Skin is the only part of the body that is most vulnerable to mosquito exposure. If a mosquito repellent is applied on skin, it will discourage mosquitos and bugs from landing on it, making the person at low risk of getting the dengue virus.
Statement of the Problem The main objective of this investigatory project is to produce an Insect repellent lotion, specifically, Mosquito repellent lotion made from the combination of infused Marigold and rosemary oil mixed with base lotion with the same effectiveness compare to over the counter Mosquito repellent lotion. Specifically it sought to meet the following objectives:
To test the effectiveness of Marigold, Rosemary infused Mosquito repellent lotion in terms of:
Mosquito repellent effectiveness.
Odour •Moisturizing effect.
Lasting effect ( including the number of mosquito bite after application).
Texture on the skin Significance of the study
There is nothing we can do to stop mosquito from sucking onto their prey. This is their only way of survival. They carry insect Bourne diseases like malaria and dengue virus which are very dangerous once they have passed it to human body. Dengue Symptoms include a high fever, headaches, joint and muscle pain, vomiting, and a rash. In some cases, dengue turns into dengue haemorrhagic fever, which causes bleeding from your nose, gums, or under your skin.
It can also become dengue shock syndrome, which causes massive bleeding and shock. These forms of dengue are life-threatening. There is no specific treatment. Most people with dengue recover within 2 weeks. Until then, drinking lots of fluids, resting and taking non-aspirin fever-reducing medicines might help. People with the more severe forms of dengue usually need to go to the hospital and get fluids. In our country, everyone is familiar with this kind of disease. Most of its victims are children from schools or houses from rural to urban places being exposed to mosquito carrying dengue.
It has already taken many lives which might have been prevented if most people were properly oriented bout mosquitos’ behaviour and on how they could destroy and eliminate them for the safety of everyone. There are lots of preventive measures which are effective and safe like using mosquito repellen lotion that makes mosquitoes repel on your skin taking you out from the high risk of dengue infection. The feasibility of plant material specifically “marigold” and “rosemary” as an effective Mosquito repellent lotion is safe, easy to prepare, timely and economically.
Scope and Limitation
This study is particular with the use and effects of Marigold and Rosemary which are readily available in the community or any part of the country because they are widely use as farm plants or companion plants for growing crops. The investigatory project was done at Pampanga Agricultural College. Tests, experimentations and discussions were under the supervision of PROF. REGINA D. LORIA. Questionnaires were used and answered to get the survey of the effectiveness of the study. Review of Related Literature Extracts from In a Nutshell ‘Marigold’ by Jill Rosemary Davies
A popular garden plant, Marigold has been valued for many centuries for its’ exceptional healing powers and is particularly remarkable in the treatment of wounds. When used for medicinal purposes, it is commonly referred to as ‘Calendula’. In appearance, Marigold looks like a large yellow or orange coloured daisy, each floret being about ?” (1. 25cm) long. A hardy annual, the plant produces its’ bright flowers throughout the summer and the flower heads may grow up to 3″ (7cm) in diameter. Marigolds’ simple fruits are closely curled in the middle of the flower head, almost in the form of a ring.
Hence in Germany, its’ common name is ringelblume, meaning ringed flower. The plant grows to a height of approximately 20-28″ (50-70cm). The stem is erect and branched, bearing alternate, light green, lance-shaped leaves and both stem and leaves are covered with fine hair. Marigold is described by some as without a marked scent, but others find its’ odour rather heavy, while its’ taste is bitter. Calendula officinalis, the botanical name, originates from the Latin word calends (which comes from calare, to call). A History of Healing
Marigold has a long history of medicinal use, stretching back to the Roman’s and the ancient Greeks, who drank Marigold tea to relieve nervous tension and sleeplessness. It has also been used in cooking, dying cloth and skin care and was a well-known symbol of good luck. Ancient Uses and Folklore Originally a native plant of ancient Egypt, and first introduced into Britain by the Romans, Marigold is one of the earliest cultivated flowers. It was also known to the ancient Greeks, who used it’s petals for decoration, to colour foods and cosmetics and as a material dye, in addition to its medicinal uses.
An infusion of the herb was drunk to alleviate the symptoms of nervous tension and to prevent sleepless nights. Marigold has been cultivated in European gardens since about the 12th century. By the 14th century, the plant had become endowed with almost magical powers. A medieval author called Macer, who described Marigold in his Herbal, thought that merely to look at it would improve eyesight and draw out evil ‘humours’ from the head:
How Marigold can help:
Ideal of healing cuts, scrapes, lacerations, surgical wounds and scars, small infected wounds, animal bites and scratches.
Useful for skin conditions such as acne, shingles, chickenpox, dermatitis, eczema sores, impetigo spots and other systemic fungal, bacterial and viral conditions.
An effective aid to healing minor first degree burns, such as sunburn.
Helps to soothe bee, wasp and insect stings.
An aid to healing cold sores.
An antiseptic remedy for mouth and throat infections.
Has a wide number of uses in childbirth, including the healing of episiotomies. Relieves sore nipples in nursing mothers.
Ideal for complaints such as candida, leucorrhea and trichomoniasis.
A safe remedy for babies’ complaints, such as diaper rash or an inflamed navel or penis. •Antiseptic action helps speed children’s recovery from mumps and measles. •A useful remedy for bruises.
An excellent treatment for varicose veins and ulcers. (http://www. herbs-hands-healing. co. uk/books/online-books/in-a-nutshell-marigold-calendula-officinalis) Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. ) is a common dense, evergreen, aromatic shrub grown in many parts of the world. Historically, rosemary has been used as a medicinal agent to treat renal colic and dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation).
It has also been used to relieve symptoms caused by respiratory disorders and to stimulate the growth of hair. Traditionally, rosemary has been used for improving memory, and has been a symbol of remembrance and friendship for centuries. In Morocco, rosemary has been used to treat diabetes and hypertension (high blood pressure). The most researched constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivative rosmarinic acid. These compounds are thought to have antioxidant effects and are being studied as potential therapies for cancer, hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity), and inflammatory conditions.
Currently, available studies show some promise for rosemary in the treatment of anxiety/stress (aromatherapy) and alopecia (hair loss). Current cosmetic uses of rosemary include treating cellulite and wrinkles, and normalizing excessive oil secretion of the skin. Germany’s Commission E has approved rosemary leaf for treatment of dyspepsia and rosemary oil (used externally) for joint pain and poor circulation. Evidence These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven.
Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. Alopecia areata (hair loss): Rosemary oil is reported to increase circulation and possibly promote hair growth in patients with alopecia areata. Additional study is warranted to confirm these findings. Anxiety/stress: Rosemary extract is frequently used in aromatherapy for treatment of a variety of conditions, including anxiety, mood enhancement, alteration of pain perception, and to increase alertness.
Early study has shown benefit in reducing stress levels and increasing alertness. More study is needed to draw a firm recommendation. Tradition The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.
Abortifacient, air purifier, analgesic (pain reliever), anthelmintic (expels worms), antiaging, antibacterial, anticoagulant (blood-thinning), antifungal, antioxidant, antispasmodic, appetite stimulation, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), baldness, bronchial asthma, cancer prevention, cataracts, colic, dandruff, diaphoretic (promotes sweating), diuretic, drug withdrawal (morphine), dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), dyspepsia (upset stomach), gout, hepatoprotection (liver protection), HIV infection, hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), hyperglycemia, hypertension (high blood pressure), immunostimulation, inflammation, ischemic heart disease, joint pain, lice, liver cirrhosis, memory enhancement, muscle relaxant (smooth muscle), nerve regeneration, osteoporosis, paralysis, peptic ulcer disease, peripheral vascular disease, photoprotection, poor circulation, preservative, quality of life, renal colic, respiratory disorders, rheumatism, skin care (cosmetic), skin conditions (excessive oil secretion of the skin, cellulite), sperm motility, tonic, wound healing, wrinkle prevention
Catnip, marigolds, and rosemary are other popular and familiar mosquito repellent plants. These herbs are scented with oils that mosquitoes and other bugs find unattractive. The insects avoid the plants, which hopefully translates to a reduced mosquito population in the immediate area. Catnip is a perennial herb that will come back year after year, while marigolds are annual and must be planted fresh each spring. Rosemary is a tropical plant, and it must be brought indoors during the cooler weather. The mosquito plant was designed by a Dutch botanist, who combined the mosquito repellent properties of citronella with a geranium.
The result was a compact, easy to grow indoor/outdoor plant that smells of citronella, yet is ideal for the home garden. The mosquito plant requires full sun and well-drained soil. Like rosemary, it must be brought indoors during the winter, as it cannot tolerate frost and low temperatures. In addition to providing a barrier outdoors in the garden or patio, mosquito repellent plants can also be turned into a natural bug spray. An individual can pick the leaves, flowers, and stems of the plants and crush them to release the oils. The foliage can then be mixed with alcohol, body oil, or rice vinegar, and applied to the skin. (Piontek A. 2013 What Are the Different Types of Mosquito Repellent Plants?
Definition of Terms 1. Marigold-Any of about 30 species of annual herbaceous plants that make up the genus Tagetes in the composite family, native to southwestern North America. -The name also refers to the pot marigold (calendula) and unrelated plants of several families. Marigolds include popular garden ornamentals such as African marigold (T. erecta) and French marigold (T. patula), which have solitary or clustered red, orange, and yellow flowers and usually finely cut leaves. Because the strongly scented leaves discourage insect pests, marigolds are often planted among vegetable crops. 2.
Rosemary-Small perennial evergreen shrub (Rosmarinus officinalis) of the mint family whose leaves are used to flavour a wide variety of food. -The bush grows 3–7. 5 ft (1–2. 3 m) tall and has short linear leaves that resemble curved pine needles, dark green and shiny above, white beneath. Bluish flowers grow in small clusters. Bees are particularly fond of rosemary. In ancient times rosemary was believed to strengthen memory; in literature and folklore it is an emblem of remembrance and fidelity. Native to the Mediterranean, it has been naturalized throughout Europe and temperate America. © 2007 Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc. 3. Virus-Microscopic, simple infectious agent that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria.
Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and consist of a single-or double-stranded nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein shell called a capsid; some viruses also have an outer envelope composed of lipids and proteins. They vary in shape. The two main classes are RNA viruses (see retrovirus) and DNA viruses. Outside of a living cell, a virus is an inactive particle, but within an appropriate host cell it becomes active, capable of taking over the cell’s metabolic machinery for the production of new virus particles (virions). Some animal viruses produce latent infections, in which the virus persists in a quiet state, becoming periodically active in acute episodes, as in the case of the herpes simplex virus.
An animal can respond to a viral infection in various ways, including fever, secretion of interferon, and attack by the immune system. Many human diseases, including influenza, the common cold, and AIDS, as well as many economically important plant and animal diseases, are caused by viruses. Successful vaccines have been developed to combat such viral diseases as measles, mumps, poliomyelitis, smallpox, and rubella. Drug therapy is generally not useful in controlling established viral infections, since drugs that inhibit viral development also inhibit the functions of the host cell. See also adenovirus; arbovirus; bacteriophage; picornavirus; plant virus; poxvirus.
Dengue-or breakbone fever or dandy feverInfectious, disabling mosquito-borne fever. Other symptoms include extreme joint pain and stiffness, intense pain behind the eyes, a return of fever after brief pause, and a characteristic rash. Dengue is caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, usually A. aegypti, which also carries yellow fever. There are four strains of virus; infection with one type does not confer immunity to the remaining three. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms. Patients should be isolated during the first three days, when mosquitoes can pick up the disease from them. Prevention relies on mosquito control.
Malaria-A serious relapsing infection caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium (see plasmodium), transmitted by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito. Known since before the 5th century BC, it occurs in tropical and subtropical regions near swamps. The roles of the mosquito and the parasite were proved in the early 20th century. Annual cases worldwide are estimated at 250 million and deaths at 2 million. Malaria from different Plasmodium species differs in severity, mortality, and geographic distribution. The parasites have an extremely complex life cycle; in one stage they develop synchronously inside red blood cells. Their mass fissions at 48-or 72-hour intervals cause attacks lasting 4–10 hours.
Shaking and chills are followed by fever of up to 105 °F (40. 6 °C), with severe headache and then profuse sweating as temperature returns to normal. Patients often have anemia, spleen enlargement, and general weakness. Complications can be fatal. Malaria is diagnosed by detecting the parasites in blood. Quinine was long used to alleviate the fevers. Synthetic drugs, such as chloroquine, destroy the parasites in blood cells, but many strains are now resistant. Carriers of a gene for a hemoglobinopathy have natural resistance. Malaria prevention requires preventing mosquito bites: eliminating mosquito breeding places and using insecticides or natural predators, window screens, netting, and insect repellent. See also protozoal disease.
Mosquito-two-winged insect whose female has a long proboscis to pierce the skin and suck the blood of humans and animals(hypernym) dipterous insect, two-winged insects, dipteran, dipteron(hyponym) gnat(member-holonym) Culicidae, family Culicidae© 2007 Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc. 7. Lotion-medicated ointment which is spread on the skin (Pharmacology); cream, liquid preparation for beautifying or soothing the skin Wikipedia English – The Free Encyclopedia. Methodology Collection of Plant Materials Sample plant materials were gathered at Alternative Low Input agricultural System(ALIAS) at Pampanga Agricultural College, Magalang Pampanga.
Quality leaves of Marigold and Rosemary were cut from the area to be used for the making of Mosquito repellent. Plant samples were thoroughly washed with distilled water and air dried. Preparation of the Marigold-Rosemary Mosquito Repellent Lotion 20 grams of air dried Rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis) and 20 grams of air dried Marigold leaves (Calendula officinalis) were separately diffused using two beakers each containing 100 ml of Mineral oil (one of the processes of extracting Essential oils from plants, known as Oil Diffusion Method. ) with the use of heat source, so as to my experiment I used oil lamp and tripod. Oil solutions obtain from both processes were filtered using filter paper and left alone to cool.
To make the obtained oils from the extraction a material that can be used for the application for skin, I used base lotion that would carry out the active components of marigold and rosemary extracts with it, making it a mosquito repellent Lotion. Base lotions are sold on the market. Commercial fragrance free lotions are also possible to be used as base lotion. Extracted oils from the sample plants were gently and slowly added with continuous stirring to a 600 ml Base lotion. After the extracted essential oils and base lotion were completely mixed, they were put to clean containers and were labelled as “ Marigold-Rosemary Mosquito Repellent Lotion” Determination of its Effectiveness.
To determine the effectiveness of the Marigold-Rosemary Mosquito Repellent Lotion, volunteers were asked to test the product . Five to ten (5-10) respondents, each will be given Marigold-Rosemary Mosquito Repellent Lotion that they will use for its purpose and a table/questionnaire to be answered by the respondents concerning about the effectiveness of it. The questionnaire comprised the questions pertaining to its; odour; lasting power or time of reapplications; mosquito repellent effects and other relative observations which are not related to its main purpose; its texture as applied to skin; and personal comments. All results and answer will be treated fairly and will be accepted as part of the general result and experiment.
Analysis and observation of data will be the main priority. Results and Discussion 1-Very not satisfied/effective2- Not Satisfied/effective3- Satisfied/effective4- Very Satisfied/effective By average: 1-Very not satisfied/effective2- Not Satisfied/effective3- Satisfied/effective4- Very Satisfied/effective The data gathered shows that by average Rosemary-Marigold mosquito repellent Lotion obtained a satisfactory rate with regards to its overall effectiveness. Nine respondents tested the products and by analysing the data- its odor, lasting effect, mosquito repellent effect and Texture to the skin got mean average of ;2. 57, 3. 28, 3. 20 and 3. 11 respectively.
Conclusion and Recommendation
From the light of the findings, data proved that the infusion of Rosemary and Marigold oil to be used as lotion is effective as mosquito repellent. From the overall average it got a satisfactory rate as to its effectiveness. The statements above are the bases of recommending the following suggestions: 1. Other plants that display the same characteristics of Marigold and Rosemary might also be tested. 2. A comparative test shall be used to distinguish its effects from the commercial products, 3. Laboratory test shall be conducted to accurately determine its potentials. 4. Propagation of marigold and Rosemary shall be considered.