Annoted bibliography

You work as a paralegal in a public defender’s office. In an upcoming presentation to a local legislative committee, the public defender plans to address criminal justice issues, constitutional principles, cultural sensitivity, and diversity awareness to promote social justice goals in local communities. You have been asked to assist the public defender in preparing the presentation. To this end, you will explore processes and issues in three criminal cases, applications for criminology, and relevant critical perspectives toward the goal of building a more just society.Your TaskThe public defender hopes to gain funding to support programs that respond to criminal justice issues and that promote a more just society. Earlier in this course, you had an opportunity to criminology through the works of Messer et al. (2016), Salvatore (2017) and Zoutewelle-Terovan & Skardhamar (2016). These authors consider how criminology may help to explain factors that associate with crime. Recall for example the consideration of life course theory in Messer et al. (2016). To help the public defender with preparation, you have been asked to create a paper between six and eight pages in length. Your description of processes, explanation of issues, and analysis of critical perspectives will provide the foundation for the public defender’s address to the local legislative committee, and thereby promote support for programs and laws that address large societal problems and that promote the social justice principles of equality, solidarity, and human rights to build a more just society.The public defender has come across three distinct cases that highlight the criminal justice issues that the legislature needs to address. Each case is preceded by a video summary that will comprise a portion of the public defender’s presentation to the legislative committee. To provide context for the public defender’s presentation to the legislative committee, the initial part of your paper should explain issues and describe processes about the following case scenarios: Case No. 1: Juvenile Justice and Law EnforcementCase Description (also included in the multimedia content)Through the process of waiver, the defendant was transferred from the juvenile justice system to the criminal justice system on drug related charges. If convicted, the defendant could receive a prison sentence. The defendant resides in an impoverished community. The public defender seeks funding for community treatment centers that respond to drug issues.When in custody, the defendant claims that law enforcement asked incriminating questions about the investigation. While the defendant’s parents were present during the custodial interrogation, law enforcement did not communicate the right to remain silent in the primary language of the parents of the defendant. It is uncontested that the parents have no understanding of the English language. Think about how cultural sensitivity could inform decisions on which officers are assigned to communities with diverse languages.Issue and Process SummaryFor this case, the processes include (1) waiver from the juvenile justice system to the criminal justice system and (2) law enforcement communication with persons in custody. Issues in this case include (1) drug related challenges for criminal justice and (2) law enforcement communication in multilingual communities.Please structure your paper as follows:Title of your PaperSummary of Issues and Processes Section. Please address each of the elements below:•Explain criminal justice issues in law enforcement (Case No. 1).•Describe processes for juvenile justice (Case No. 1) and law enforcement (Case No. 1). Case Assessment Section. Address each of the following prompts:Case No. 1: Criminology •Describe an application for criminology (consider life course theory, strain theory, or another criminological theory) that addresses a drug-related criminal justice issue relevant to Case No. 1. ◦To assist you with this part, consider how a criminological theory could support a criminal justice program or approach that addresses drug related challenges.Cases No. 1 and No. 2: Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity Awareness •Apply knowledge of cultural sensitivity and diversity awareness to a criminal justice issue relevant to Case No. 1. ◦To assist you with this part, consider how knowledge of cultural sensitivity and diversity awareness could be applied to approaches relevant to law enforcement communication in multilingual communities (Case No. 1).Critical Perspectives•Analyze two critical perspectives on a criminal justice issue of your choosing relevant to one of the three cases. ◦To assist you with your analysis, consider potential merits and limitations for each critical perspective, and how the critical perspectives may provide insights on how to address the criminal justice issue. Case No. 2: The JudiciaryCase Description (also included in the multimedia content)In this case, the defendant claims that a juror was excluded based on race. The juror was in the same, recognized protected racial group as the defendant and was struck by the prosecutor with a peremptory strike (no reason stated for removing the juror from the panel). When asked for reasons to strike the juror based upon objective information from what she stated during voir dire, the prosecutor did not provide any reason at all and just asserted that this was the choice for the preemptory strik The defendant asserts that the exclusion in this case is in violation of constitutional rights and undermines the legitimacy of the trial process. In this case, the record does not contain any information that would suggest an alternative basis for the exclusion of this juror.Please review the case summary of Foster v. Chatman (2016) available through the webpage link under the “Required Resources” section and consider how the United States Supreme Court addresses an issue of racial discrimination within the context juror exclusion.Issue and Process SummaryFor this case, the processes include (1) juror selection and (2) juror responsibilities in a criminal case. Issues in this case include juror exclusion by race.Please structure your paper as follows:Title of your PaperSummary of Issues and Processes Section. Please address each of the elements below:•Explain criminal justice issues in the judiciary.•Describe processes for the judiciary (Case No. 2). Case Assessment Section. Address each of the following prompts:Cases No. 1 and No. 2: Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity Awareness •Apply knowledge of cultural sensitivity and diversity awareness to a criminal justice issue relevant to Case No. 2. ◦To assist you with this part, consider how knowledge of cultural sensitivity and diversity awareness could be applied to approaches relevant to juror exclusion by race (Case No. 2).Critical Perspectives•Analyze two critical perspectives on a criminal justice issue of your choosing relevant to one of the three cases. ◦To assist you with your analysis, consider potential merits and limitations for each critical perspective, and how the critical perspectives may provide insights on how to address the criminal justice issue. Case No. 3: CorrectionsCase Description (also included in the multimedia content)For this case, the defendant claims that the correctional facility conditions violate Eighth Amendment rights, due to cruel and unusual punishment in the form of overcrowded cell conditions. The defendant argues that cell conditions were highly unsanitary and unacceptably crowded for a sustained period, in violation of constitutional rights.Issue and Process SummaryFor this case, the processes include monitoring of cell conditions. Issues in this case include cell conditions within the context of the Eighth Amendment.Please structure your paper as follows:Title of your PaperSummary of Issues and Processes Section. Please address each of the elements below:•Explain criminal justice issues in and corrections (Case No. 3).•Describe processes for corrections (Case No. 3). Case Assessment Section. Address each of the following prompts:Case No. 3: Constitutional Principles •Interpret constitutional principles relevant to social and criminal justice for an issue that relates to Case No. 3. ◦To assist you with your interpretation, consider how constitutional principles in this context relate to goals for social justice and to goals for criminal justice.Critical Perspectives•Analyze two critical perspectives on a criminal justice issue of your choosing relevant to one of the three cases. ◦To assist you with your analysis, consider potential merits and limitations for each critical perspective, and how the critical perspectives may provide insights on how to address the criminal justice issue. Above is the final paper this bibliography is based on what follows is the instructions for this assignment.The Annotated Bibliography. For the annotated bibliography, you need to research sources that correspond to the three hypothetical cases included in the Final Project. Please visit the Academic Research section on your course home page (accessible through the Student Responsibilities and Policies tab on the left navigation toolbar) to review what types of materials are not acceptable for academic, university-level research. Because the Final Project includes three hypothetical cases, please find and organize your resources accordingly first by creating the Annotated Bibliography above, and then using the same APA citations in your APA references page that you will place at the end of your Final Paper in Week 5. To assist you with creating the Annotated Bibliography that will be relevant to the Final Paper, please follow these research parameters:Two Sources for Case No. 1•Case No. 1 includes the criminal justice issue of law enforcement communication in multilingual settings. In addition, this case considers applications for criminology. Note that Week 1 includes resources that address life course theory and other criminological theories that consider how criminology could address issues in criminal justice. Accordingly, please include the following: ◦Summarize one source relevant to the criminal justice issue of law enforcement communication in multilingual communities.◦Summarize one source that provides insight on how criminology may apply to a program, practice, approach or policy relevant to a criminal justice issue in Case No. 1.One Source for Case No. 2•Case No. 2 addresses juror exclusion by race. Note that the recommended resources for this week include two sources that address this issue. Please include the following: ◦Summarize one source relevant to the criminal justice issue of juror exclusion by race in a criminal case.One Source for Case No. 3•Case No. 3 considers Eighth Amendment issues in correctional environments with respect to cell conditions. Please include the following: ◦Summarize one source relevant to the criminal justice issue of cell conditions within the context of Eighth Amendment considerations.The purpose of creating an Annotated Bibliography (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. is to provide a list of sources to assist you in your approach to the Final Project. The Ashford University Writing Center has created this Annotated Bibliography TemplatePreview the document for use in this assignment. The listed sources should be scholarly and/or credible, and at least three of them need to meet scholarly source criteria and come from the JSTOR, Project MUSE, ProQuest, or EBSCOhost databases, which are all available through the Ashford University Library. The list should include the following information for each source:•Name of the source including the complete bibliographic citation in proper APA format•Summary of the source (at least one paragraph) including how this source will contribute to your paperAn Additional Source•Please summarize one additional source that addresses a criminal justice issue relevant to an issue in one of the three cases. This will help you complete a part of the Final Paper that relates to critical perspectives.The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment. Cite your sources within the text of your outline and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar, in your online course.

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