1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study

Islam in History part 2 O C T O B E R 4 , 2 0 2 1 The Spread of the Islamic Empire • The Ummayyads were effective rulers and greatly extended their hold over the world: • 1-Their especial goal was the subjugation of the Byzantine and the Damascus caliphs. • 2-Islam firmly was firmly established. • Therefore, by mid -eighth century, the Islamic empire constituted the dominant power system across the arid zone from the Atlantic to the frontiers of India. Mu’awiya the Leader • He was one of the greatest leaders of Islamic history. • He was able to reconcile conflicts and resolve grievances between parties. • He strengthened the central government in Damascus. The Tragedy at Karbala • Battle of Karbala, ( October 10, 680 10th of Moharram ) brief military engagement in which a small party led by al -Ḥ usayn ibn ʿAli, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad and son of Ali, the fourth caliph, was defeated and massacred by an army sent by the Umayyad caliph Yazid. The Shiite Movement • Drew strength from the tragedy of Karbala and attracted new followers who desired to see the Prophet ’s descendants reach their deserved place in the system. • Both Shiite and Kharijite opposition were against Umayyads. The Abbasids The core of the revolutionary movement the swept away the Umayyads was in distant Khurasan, in the northeast. Calling themselves the Abbasids.

Al -’Abbas: a paternal uncle of the Prophet. Mawla: one of the house of the Prophet.

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Important Name in this period of time: Abu Muslim: his forces battling their way to Iraq The Abbasids’ Cultural Contributions • The Abbasid age was the Glorious period of Islamic civilization. • The peak of Abbasid power and creativity under Harun al -Rashid roughly coincided with the period of Charlemagne in the West (800 CE). • Their capital was established in the new city of Baghdad shourtly after revolution. The Abbasid Leadership • The Caliph was the shadow of God on Earth and the Caliph of God.

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